An introduction to the Automobile This chapter discusses the development of the automobile in a chronological order, the main components and sub-assemblies, various design considerations, and the major objectives of the automobile industry. The chapter describes an automobile in brief. 1.1. Development of the Automobile The progress of means for transportation has been intimately associated […]

General Classification of Automobiles

1.2. General Classification of Automobiles The different types of automobiles found on roads are presented in Chart 1.1 in a comprehen- sive manner. There are in general three main classifications of the various types of vehicle. They are: (i) The single-unit vehicles or load carriers. (ii) The articulated vehicles. {Hi) The heavy tractor vehicles. Chart […]

The Motor Car (Automobile)

1.3. The Motor Car The motorcar carries passengers in the sitting position and also accomodates their luggage. Space is also provided for the engine, the transmission system, the steering, the suspension layout, and the braking system. Finally, consideration is given to the styling of the body to meet various aesthetics and application requirements. The light […]

Double-decker Bus (Automobile)

1.6. Double-decker Bus These buses are used to transport large numbers of people having little luggage for short distances, usually in high-density traf- fic. The double-decker bus (Fig. 1.11) occupies the minimum amount of road space. These vehicles require a stair space for people to climb up to the upper deck (first floor). The ground […]

Main Parts of the Automobile

1.8. Main Parts of the Automobile The modern automobile can be categorised into two distinct sub-assemblies, the body and the chassis. Fig. 1.15. Rigid 4×2 tractor and single-axle 2 articulated trailers. Fig. 1.16. Rigid 6×4 tractor and tandem-axle 4 articulated trailers. Fig. 1.17. Rigid 6×2 tractor and tri-axle 6 articulated trailers. The body. The main […]

Vehicle Assemblies (Automobile)

1.9. Vehicle Assemblies The main components of an automobile can be sub-grouped in the following assemblies (Chart 1.2) (i) Engine or power plant (ยป) Running gear or basic structure (Hi) Driving system (iv) Basic Control system (v) Electrical system (ui) Accessories Engine. The prime movers used in almost all vehicles are either gasoline (petrol) or […]

Specifying an Automobile

1.11. Specifying an Automobile For describing an automobile, the various factors taken into consideration are : (a) Type. Whether scooter, motor cycle, car, lorry, truck etc. (b) Carriage capacity. Whether 1/4 tonne, 1 tonne, 3 tonnes, etc. or 2 seater, 4 seater, 6 seater, 30 seater, 40 seater etc. (c) Make. The name allotted by […]

Vehicle Design Considerations (Automobile)

1.10. Vehicle Design Considerations Design Objective. The first thing a manufacturer must consider is the specific job the automobile should perform. Based on the requirements, different types of automobiles have been designed-such as, trucks, buses, cars, trailers, racing cars etc. Design Parameters. The designer of an automobile must consider the maximum required acceleration, speed, economy, […]

Automobile Industry (Automobile)

1.12. Automobile Industry The automobile industry is a fast developing industry. From the later part of 18th century, when the automobile was put on road, this industry has developed tremendously. Now there are thousands of factories all over the world manufacturing numerous types of automobiles. This industry employs millions of men and women directly and […]

Automobile Engines Classification (Automobile)

2.2. Automobile Engines Classification Automobile engines are classified in many several different ways as follows : (i) Types of Cycles : Two-stroke and four-stroke cycles. For details section 2.3 may be referred. (ii) Types of Fuel Used: Gasoline (petrol) and diesel. For details chapter 8 may be referred. (Hi) Number of Cylinders : Passenger-car engines […]