Automobile Engines (Automobile)

Power Unit This chapter discusses internal combustion (IC) engines, the most commonly used engines in automobiles today. The principle of operation, various types, and clas- sification of IC engines are presented. 2.1. Automobile Engines Among all the automobile engines the gasoline (petrol)-fueled engine has dominated the automobile field. In 1900 this power plant was in […]

Operation of Reciprocating Piston IC Engines (Automobile)

2.3 Operation of Reciprocating Piston IC Engines An assembly of a large number of parts used to do work and make transfer of energy is called a power plant. The engine is the power plant of an automobile. The heat energy produced by burning of the fuel is converted by the engine into mechanical power […]

Multi-cylinder Engines (Automobile)

2.4. Multi-cylinder Engines The power developed by an engine can be increased by enlarging the size of a single cylinder or having more cylinders of same size. A single large cylinder may be a more convenient choice due to fewer parts to manufacture and maintain, but the advantages are over-weighed by the disadvantages. The ratio […]

Arrangement of Cylinders (Automobile)

2-5. Arrangement of Cylinders Three, four, five, six, eight and twelve cylinders are used in car engines. Buses and trucks use twelve and sixteen cylinder engines. The engine cylinders can be arranged in the following ways (Fig. 2.12). (a) In a row (in-line) (6) In two rows or banks set at an angle (V-type) (c) […]

Firing Order of Cylinders (Automobile)

2.6. Firing Order of Cylinders Cylinder firing order improves the distribution of the fresh charge in the manifold to the cylinders and helps the release of the exhaust gases, while at the same time suppresses torsional vibrations. These conditions are as follows. (i) Successive cylinders firing allows a recovery of charge in the manifold and […]

Arrangement of Valves (Automobile)

2.7. Arrangement of Valves Engine may be classified according to the location and type of the valve system employed (Fig. 2.31). With both inlet and exhaust valves located on one side of the cylinder, a cross-section view would be an L-shape. This type of valve arrangement is, therefore, called a L-head or flat-head engine. The […]

Engine Balance (Automobile)

2.8. Engine Balance Due to the presence of the number of reciprocating parts, like piston, connecting rod, etc. which move once in one direction and then in other direction, vibration develops during operation of the engine. Excessive vibration occurs if the engine is unbalanced. It is, therefore, necessary to balance the engine for its smooth […]

Cylinder Block (Automobile)

Engine Construction The major components of an automobile reciprocating piston engine are the cylinder block, oil pan, cylinder head, intake manifold, exhaust manifold, crankshaft, flywheel, camshaft, oil seals, bearings, connecting rod, piston, piston rings, valve train etc. This chapter deals with all these components with respect to their function, construction, design considerations, materials, trends, etc. […]

Sump or Oil Pan (Automobile)

3.2. Sump or Oil Pan The sump (Fig. 3.18) is attached to the bottom of the cylinder block underneath the crankcase. The functions of the sump are (a) to store the engine’s lubrication oil for circulation within the lubrication system; (b) to collect the oil draining from the sides of the crankcase walls and if […]

Cylinder Head (Automobile)

3.3. Cylinder Head The cylinder head is a casting bolted to the top of the cylinder block. It houses the inlet and exhaust poppet-valves, houses the spark-plug or injector loca- tion holes, forms the upper face of the combustion chamber, and takes the combustion-pressure reac- tion. The coolant passages, cavities, intake and ex- haust ports, […]