Information Science and Technology

Web Search via Learning from Relevance Feedback

INTRODUCTION Recently, three general approaches have been taken to increase Web search accuracy and performance. One is the development of meta-search engines (e.g., MetaCrawler, that forward user queries to multiple search engines at the same time in order to increase the coverage and hope to include what the user wants in a short list […]

Web Initiatives and E-Commerce Strategy

INTRODUCTION Business use of modern computers started in the 1950s. Since then, IT has progressed through a series of hardware, software and applications improvements, delivering more value to individuals, firms, and organizations for lower cost. Productivity improvement (efficiency), at both the individual and organizational levels, has been a major focus. As well, firms have learned […]

Web Accessibility and the Law

INTRODUCTION In the past three decades, the method of receiving and conveying information has shifted from paper-based, typewriter-generated, hand-edited, and printing-press-produced publications to more technology-mediated, intelligent, WYSIWYG software-generated forms. Consequently, the concept of access to information has changed to reflect this phenomenon. The new forms of access to information that have made it easier for […]

VRML-Based System for a 3D Virtual Museum

INTRODUCTION In the last few years, because of the increasing growth of the Internet, general-purpose clients have achieved a high level of popularity for static consultation of text and pictures. This is the case of the World Wide Web (i.e., the Web browsers). Using a hypertext system, Web users can select and read in their […]

Virtualization and Its Role in Business

INTRODUCTION A new management trend of the global information technology (IT) application—virtualization—has appeared in contemporary management. Virtualization is a process of enterprise transformation (using IT) that allows breaking through various limitations of organizational constrains. Virtualization changes dramatically the image of business, especially of small and medium enterprises (SMEs); by adopting the concept of virtualization, they […]

Virtual Work, Trust and Rationality

INTRODUCTION Since the development of the Internet—and the emergence of computer networking as a mass medium in the mid-1990s—many organizations and institutions have experimented with Internet protocol (IP)-based communications to coordinate work and activities across geographical distance. This has been in response to growing needs to coordinate business and projects between different offices, firms, regions, […]

Virtual Teams as Sociotechnical Systems

INTRODUCTION A virtual team can be described as an organizational unit unconstrained by geographical, temporal, organizational, and/or national boundaries (Townsend, DeMarie & Hendrickson, 1998). Despite their rising popularity, numerous issues exist surrounding how virtual teams can productively coordinate their resources, activities, and information, often in dynamic and uncertain task environments (Fiore, Salas, Cuevas & Bowers, […]

Virtual Organization in the Human Mind

INTRODUCTION Virtual organization has been well documented as both a tool for organizations to seek further profitability through the removal of traditional barriers as well as a method to extend the provision of services to clientele in a manner previously achievable by only large, multinational corporations (Markus, 2000). The widespread implementation of information technology and […]

Virtual Schools

INTRODUCTION: THE EMERGENCE OF THE VIRTUAL SCHOOL Until recent times, schools have been characterised by the physical presence of teachers and students together. Usually, a building is used for instruction, and teaching materials such as topics or blackboards are often in evidence. In the 20th century, alternatives to what may be called “bricks-and-mortar” schools emerged. […]

Video Content-Based Retrieval Techniques

INTRODUCTION Recently, multimedia applications are undergoing explosive growth due to the monotonic increase in the available processing power and bandwidth. This incurs the generation of large amounts of media data that need to be effectively and efficiently organized and stored. While these applications generate and use vast amounts of multimedia data, the technologies for organizing […]