GIS and Spatial Analysis for the Social Sciences

Introduction to Geocoding and Mapping This is a reference topic for how to do Geographic Information Systems or GIS. So right away you have learned something you might not have known before reading this topic—what the letters G, I, and S stand for in the acronym GIS. Of course, as with a lot of literal […]

The Basics of Geocoding (GIS and Spatial Analysis)

How did we know where to put the pins in Figure 1.3? The process of identifying locations to be placed on a map is called geocoding, in other words, coding the location of an object, a place, an event, a building, or an address where something of interest took place. At its most basic, something […]

Geocoding Addresses (GIS and Spatial Analysis)

What kind of addresses can be geocoded? Software like ArcGIS can deal with addresses in a number of formats. A standard address would be something like 1922 Jones St, and an address in this format is potentially geocodable. An address in the form of 22nd St and Bowman Ave, indicating an intersection, can also be […]

Data Mining and GIS Part 1

One of the challenges of GIS is finding the data you need to make the kinds of maps you would like to make for your project. In this case, data were obtained from the city police department as part of a project designed to evaluate a gang prevention effort (Spergel, 1996). Once the data were […]

Data Mining and GIS Part 2

Example: Exporting a Geocoded Map Now you are ready to export the map to be used in other software applications. Step 1 Click on File, and move the cursor down to Export Map. Step 2 The current name of the map file is given in the File name window, as well as the location on […]

Thematic Maps (GIS and Spatial Analysis) Part 1

A thematic map is a visual representation of characteristics of a given geographic location. The characteristics illustrated within the map may consist of a wide variety of properties of interest to the researcher. These include, but are not limited to, quantitative properties of the geographic region, such as population and demographic information, as well as […]

Thematic Maps (GIS and Spatial Analysis) Part 2

Example: Racial Profiling Thematic Map Let’s discuss an example of the use of GIS with more complex data and analyses. The topic of racial profiling is one that is widely studied by sociologists and criminologists in the United States. The concept of racial profiling represents the notion that law enforcement officers use visual signs of […]

Thematic Maps (GIS and Spatial Analysis) Part 3

Example: Juvenile Crime Thematic Map First, browse to the location on your computer where you have stored the geoco-ded map of juvenile crime that you created in the previous section and doubleclick on the filename to open this map in ArcGIS. Your .mxd file should look similar to Figure 1.88. FIGURE 1.88 Pin map of […]

Basic Multivariate Displays (GIS and Spatial Analysis)

Mapping for Analysis, Policy, and Decision Making The maps we have discussed in this topic so far have been basic, displaying one set of data, one variable, at one time period, in a straightforward way. However, the conceptual framework of GIS is a very powerful one, in which data can be manipulated, classified, and displayed […]

Mapping Rates (GIS and Spatial Analysis) Part 1

If you have data that allow you to know the number of some event that happened and the population at risk for having such an event, then you can map the rate of that event happening across geographic space in a very straightforward manner. This method of calculation is useful for many different purposes. For […]