Neural Cell Behavior and Fuzzy Logic

Brain is the most complex, puzzling and attractive object in the universe. Everybody knows that brain is responsible for control of our learning, memory, motivations, consciousness, etc. Moreover, a brain by a certain mysterious way produces the Subject (or Self, Person, Ego, Observer – whatever you like), which tries to look into brain and understand […]

Brain straightforward sight (The operation of memory (a single neuron can learn))

Till the present, an enormous number of facts concerning brain have been collected, while advancement of our understanding of the mechanisms of its activity remains insignificant. The set of known experimental data and the quantity of the scientific reports reaches a disturbing threshold, with old facts being "rediscovered" using new methods. For example, during conditional […]

Prediction of future events after learning Part 1 (The operation of memory (a single neuron can learn))

When an organism is faced with a new environment, it is compelled to adjust its behavior and adopt itself to altering characteristics. It memorizes an outer event, its impressions from the event, its own behavior and impression from the events that were a consequence of this behavior. When afterward similar circumstances will come, the memory […]

Prediction of future events after learning Part 2 (The operation of memory (a single neuron can learn))

How does a neuron reveal, which type of learning tasks it has encountered? At the very beginning of training, neurons demonstrated similar dynamics of cellular responses for both forms of conditioning, classical and instrumental: an absence of learning-related changes in the responses to the CS+. Further, the neural system discloses the particularities of the experimental […]

Location of functions in the brain (The operation of memory (a single neuron can learn))

Brain has architecture that is specific to a given species and gradually develops during evolution and during individual existence, though correspondence within the species is not ideal. Subtle structural peculiarities of the brain can depend on heredity, but they are not decisive for brain function. On the contrary, brain functions tend to remain steady after […]

Location of memory in the brain (The operation of memory (a single neuron can learn))

We guess the brain is connected with behavior. When we are studying brain functions, we analyze behaviors that are connected to memory, whether recent, past or innate. This involves all cases, even if we examine brain activity at rest. We cannot avoid consideration of the memory problem, even if we take an interest in any […]

Memory location in the pre- and postsynaptic structures (The operation of memory (a single neuron can learn))

The most effortless supposition concerning the mechanism of memory is the formation of new pathways in brain during learning. When I.P. Pavlov suggested development of a new neuronal connection between cortical representations of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli, he used an analogy of a telephone exchange. In the early twentieth century, when one user wanted to […]

Plasticity of excitable membrane Part 1 (The operation of memory (a single neuron can learn))

Excitability of neurons depends on the short-term history of the membrane potential (e.g. refractoriness and accommodation). However, properties of neural cells in normal, no-learning conditions (the rare presentation of indifferent stimuli) can be described by the all-or-none principle [815], which means that the threshold for AP generation does not depend on the magnitude and variety […]

Plasticity of excitable membrane Part 2 (The operation of memory (a single neuron can learn))

Although it is clearly that AP amplitude is suitable for measurement, after learning it changes only for a few percentage points [1267, 670, 586, 1004, 1367] and sometimes alterations are not found at all [865, 1428]. A change in excitability after learning and LTP has been described in many reports, but the results were mostly […]

The chemical nature of memory Part 1 (The operation of memory (a single neuron can learn))

Chemical traces of memory and chemical sensitivity of memory Many indirect observations illustrate the chemical nature of memory. For example, stability of memory after severe brain damage with catastrophic impairment of neural network structure demonstrates that a chemical hypothesis may be correct. When partial amnesic effects are ameliorated spontaneously or after remembering, this indicates to […]