Neural Cell Behavior and Fuzzy Logic

The chemical nature of memory Part 2 (The operation of memory (a single neuron can learn))

The direction to chemical specificity of memory If remembering of specific information is somehow reflected in origination of chemical specificity in the brain, these chemical traces must be extremely tiny and subtle in order to contain the quantity of information that we acquire during life. Such traces are difficult to find by direct experimental measurement. […]

Preparing of ‘a whole’ out of mutual interactions (The operation of memory (a single neuron can learn))

We had also another reason to assume an affect of ribonucleosides to the process of learning. Chemical specificity after learning may arise without acceptance of the complex mechanism of non-template protein synthesis. As components of proteins, peptides and many amino acids are neurotransmit-ters and realize intracellular communications, while some components of RNA chains, bases, participate […]

Forward propagation of prediction (The operation of memory (a single neuron can learn))

We have demonstrated experimental and theoretical data indicating that a single neuron may be not only a minimal structural unit, but also a minimal functional unit of a neural network. The ability of a neuron to learn is based on the property of selective plasticity of its excitable membrane. In brains, the neurons are integrated […]

Neurons and glia operate together (The verve of injured neurons (a single neuron tries to survive))

The neural system somehow gives rise to a sense of being and Self. Does this immense phenomenon result from the particular activity of specific cells interconnected in certain circuitry in the innermost place of a brain? If this is factual, our task is to discover the shape of this activity, the structure of a neuronal […]

Death through necrosis (murder of cells) and apoptosis (suicide of a cell) (The verve of injured neurons (a single neuron tries to survive))

Cells can die via two manners, necrosis (death from injury incompatible with life) or apoptosis (programmed cell death or cellular suicide). Necrosis and apoptosis occur by a mechanism that has been at least partially conserved through animal evolution [1176]. The superficial difference between these two forms of death, swelling during necrosis and shrinking during apoptosis, […]

Neural and glial cells assist in survival (The verve of injured neurons (a single neuron tries to survive))

Neuronal life and death is controlled by glial cells [885, 332]. Nevertheless, when we speak about a brain, we imply neurons. Really, that’s the truth, but not the whole truth. Brain consists of neurons and glial cells: astrocytes, oligo-dendrocytes and microglia. It had been thought that glial cells only physically support neural networks, ensure a […]

Spread of damage within a tissue (The verve of injured neurons (a single neuron tries to survive))

Interconnection between cells, evidently, has arisen in evolution together with the origin of cells themselves. It seems likely that an early step in the evolution, a multicellular organism represented the association of unicellular organisms that formed colonies. The single-cellular animals when food supplies are exhausted form colonies and show social behavior in a primitive form. […]

Cell coupling through gap junctions (The verve of injured neurons (a single neuron tries to survive))

Gap junctions unite cells into a tightly interacting group. Neurons in such a group exchange simple substances and ions. The neurons in the group are electrically coupled and, may be informationally integrated. At least, flows of spike activities that are usually observed in such a group are highly correlated and this indicates that the members […]

Multiple pathways for cell survival Part 1 (The verve of injured neurons (a single neuron tries to survive))

Damage through excitation and the paradoxical properties of an injured neuron Usually, although not in every case, damage, evoked by various factors, injures cells through excessive excitation [797, 642, 742]. Necrotic neuronal damage often is a fee paid for excitation. Mild or strong excitations are at the core of injury evoked by various insults. Neuroexcitatory […]

Multiple pathways for cell survival Part 2 (The verve of injured neurons (a single neuron tries to survive))

Second messengers and cell survival Second messengers, in any cell, evidently, execute general basic functions, but particular functions may appear and disappear in specific cells. Cellular damage and damage-related processes are closely connected with the systems of second messengers, Ca2+ and cyclic AMP, which participate in signal trans-duction within a cell and control a variety […]