Ankhkhaf (fl. 26th century b.c.e.) To Arsinoe (3) (fl. third century b.c.e.)

Princely vizier of the Fourth Dynasty

He was a son of snefru (r. 2575-2551 b.c.e.), serving the royal family as a vizier. This royal line maintained control by using only family members in high positions of trust and authority. Ankhkhaf’s statue, actually a bust of exquisite artistry, is in the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston. He married hetepheres (2) and predeceased her. His tomb was the largest mastaba in the eastern cemetery in giza.

Ankh-ma-hor (Sheshi) (fl. 23rd century b.c.e.)

Medical official of the Sixth Dynasty, noted for his tomb in Saqqara

Ankh-ma-hor was a vizier and physician in the court of pepi ii (r. 2246-2152 b.c.e.). He was buried in saqqara in a site called “the street of tombs,” and his gravesite is called “the Doctor’s Tomb” because of the medical scenes painted on its walls. The tomb has six chambers, including a serdab, a room designed to allow a statue of the deceased to watch the daily rituals being offered on his or her behalf. portraits of Ankh-ma-hor and scenes, including animals and daily activities, are also present. in some records he is listed as sheshi.

Ankhnesmery-Re (1) (fl. 23rd century b.c.e.)

Royal woman of the Sixth Dynasty

She was a consort of pepi i (r. 2289-2255 b.c.e.). The daughter of an official named Khui, and the sister of Djau and ankhnesmery-re (2), she became the mother of merenre. Ankhnesmery-Re is reported as having died giving birth to this son or dying soon afterward. she was also the mother of Princess neith (2) who married pepi ii.

Ankhnesmery-Re (2) (fl. 23rd century b.c.e.)

Royal woman of the Sixth Dynasty

She was a consort of pepi i (r. 2289-2255 b.c.e.). The daughter of an official named Khui, and the sister of Djau and ankhnesmery-re (1), she became the mother of pepi ii. When the young Pepi II succeeded his brother merenre (i), Ankhnesmery-Re served as regent for her child. She was aided by Djau, her brother, who served as vizier during the regency. They raised the young heir and kept Egypt stable until he reached his majority. The story of the two sisters Ankhnesmery-Re was discovered on a tablet in abydos.

Ankhnes-Pepi (fl. 22nd century b.c.e.)

Royal woman of the Sixth Dynasty

She was a lesser consort of pepi ii (r. 2246-2152 b.c.e.). Ankhnes-Pepi lived to see her son or grandson, nefer-kure, become the founder of the Eighth Dynasty in 2150 b.c.e. She was buried in a storage chamber and entombed in a sarcophagus borrowed for the occasion from a family friend who had prepared it for his own funeral. Her remains were placed in saqqara, in the tomb pyramid of Queen iput (2). The tomb of Ankhnes-Pepi was formed by adding a false door to the original burial chamber area of iput.

Ankhsheshongy (fl. first century b.c.e.)

Egyptian sage who wrote his Instructions c. 100 b.c.e. preserved on papyrus, this literary work is written in the demotic style and discusses the moral precepts of the age. Traditionally it is believed that Ankhsheshongy wrote his Instructions while in prison for some crime, c. 100 b.c.e. This didactic text was popular, as it echoed the centuries’ old spirit of the traditional aspirations of the Egyptians in a period of Greek dominance and Hellenic literary forms.


The ancient name for the city of Memphis or part of its environs, meaning “Life of the Two Lands.” The city’s name was changed to Men-nefer-Mare in the Sixth Dynasty in the reign of pepi i (r. 2289-2255 b.c.e.).
He built his pyramid nearby, called by that name. The Greeks translated Men-nefer-Mare as Memphis.

Ankhtify (fl. c. 2100 b.c.e.)

Powerful aristocratic rebel He was the ranking noble of hierakonpolis, who resided in el-MOALLA, south of thebes in the Ninth Dynasty (2134-? b.c.e.). Ankhtify led an army against thebes and was defeated in his efforts to establish an independent southern kingdom. His tomb in el-Moalla has six chambers and is decorated with paintings depicting various activities and portraits of him and his wife.

Ankhu (fl. 18th century b.c.e.)

Court official and a family of public servants

Ankhu and his clan served during the Thirteenth Dynasty (1784-c. 1640 b.c.e.) at el-LiSHT and at thebes. Two of his memorial statues are in the Louvre in Paris. He recorded extensive restorations in abydos. Several generations of the Ankhu family conducted official business for the crown. One Ankhu was in the service of khendjer (c. 1740 b.c.e.) and sobekhotep III (c. 1745 b.c.e.).

Ankhwennofre (fl. second century b.c.e.)

Rebel of Egypt in the reign of Ptolemy V Epiphanes He ruled many areas of the Nile Valley, prompted by the death of ptolemy iv philopator and the intervention of the Seleucid king antiochus iii the great. The Ptolemaic army was defeated by Antiochus III at Panion, resulting in the loss of Egypt’s Asiatic possessions. ptolemy v focused on Ankhwennofre and defeated him, putting an end to the rebellion and to the threatened succession of upper Egypt.

Antefoker (fl. 20th century b.c.e.)

Official of the Twelfth Dynasty

He served senwosret i (r. 1971-1926 b.c.e.) as vizier. Antefoker’s tomb at sheik abd’ el-qurna contains long corridors that lead to the burial chamber. These corridors are decorated with vibrant scenes of hunts, agricultural practices, musicians, and a pilgrimage to abydos. The tomb contained a statue and shrine for Antefoker’s wife. A false door was included in the design.
Anti An ancient Egyptian war god, worshiped in Upper Egypt, having a cult center at deir el-gebrawi, near old assiut. The deity was a patron of merenre i of the Sixth Dynasty (r. 2255-2246 b.c.e.). Honoring Anti was probably part of Merenre’s efforts to influence supporters in the southern region. His symbol was the falcon.

Antigonus I Monophthalmus (Antigonus I Cyclops) (d. 301 b.c.e.)

Founder of the Antigonids and an enemy of Egypt

He was a general under Alexander iii the great (332-323 b.c.e.) and a Macedonian by birth, also called Antigonus I Cyclops (One-Eyed). Antigonus I founded the Macedonian dynasty of Antigonids (306-168 b.c.e.) after Alexander’s death. A brilliant military leader, Antigonus served as satrap, or provincial governor, in Phrygia (now part of Turkey), establishing control over Asia Minor and defeating other rivals of the region.
ptolemy soter i (r. 304-284 b.c.e.) of Egypt was a competitor for power, and Antigonus clashed with him, defeating the Egyptian forces at salamis in a naval battle that took place in 306. Antigonus was aided in this battle by his son, demetrius i poliocretes. The two soon attacked Egypt but were unable to overcome ptolemy’s defenses in battle. ptolemy i then went to the aid of the island of Rhodes, held by Antigonus, and was given the title of soter, or “savior,” by the grateful populace when he freed them. Antigonus faced a coalition of his rivals at the Battle of ipsus, in phrygia, and he was slain there in 301 B.C.E.

Antigonus II Gonatas (d. 239 b.c.e.)

Ruler of Macedonia and an enemy of Egypt

He was the son of demetrius i poliocretes and the grandson of antigonus i, ruling from 276 to 239 b.c.e. He forced a rival of antiochus i, a Seleucid, to renounce claims on Macedonia and slowly gained control of Greece. In 261 b.c.e., during the Chremonidean War, he also managed to keep Egyptian forces out of the Aegean Sea. ptolemy ii philadelphus (285-246 b.c.e.) had started the feud and saw his influences weakened as a result. In the Second Syrian War (c. 260-253 b.c.e.), Antigonus and Antiochus I allied against Ptolemy II. The Egyptian ruler talked Antigonus into a peace treaty and then into marrying his daughter, Berenice (2), the Egyptian princess.

Antiochus I (d. 29 b.c.e.)

Ruler of Commagene involved with Marc Antony

Antiochus I came from the Seleucid line and ruled Commagene, a city-state on the Euphrates River. His rule was sanctioned by pompey in 63 b.c.e., making Antiochus a figurehead. During Marc Antony’s Parthian campaign (36 b.c.e.), retreating Parthians sought refuge at Samosata. Antony’s lieutenant, Bassus Ventidius, followed them there but was bribed by Antiochus to delay prosecutions. Antony arrived and deposed Antiochus, replacing him with Mithridates II. When Augustus (formerly Octavian) came to the throne and sent an envoy to Mithridates, Antiochus slew him. Antiochus was captured, taken to Rome, and executed in 29 b.c.e.

Antiochus I Soter (d. 262 b.c.e.)

King of the Seleucid kingdom of ancient Syria

He was born in 324 b.c.e. Anointed king of the Seleucid Kingdom in 292 b.c.e., he had to battle against nomads who destroyed his eastern possessions between the caspian sea and Aral sea and the indian ocean. in 299 b.c.e., due to ptolemy ii philadelphus of Egypt (r.285-246 b.c.e.), he lost Miletus in southwest Asia Minor, and the Egyptians invaded northern syria in 276. Anti-ochus defeated the Egyptians, however, and secured alliances. He died in 262 b.c.e.

Antiochus II (Theos) (d. 246 b.c.e.)

Seleucid king of Syrian territories

Antiochus II was born c. 287 b.c.e. He avenged his father, antiochus i soter, by making war on Egypt. He then found an ally in antigonus i monophthalmus and waged war against ptolemy ii philadelphus (r. 285-246 b.c.e.). successful at first, Antiochus ii regained Miletus and Ephesus. in 253, he deposed his queen to marry Ptolemy’s daughter, Berenice (2).

Antiochus III the Great (d. 187 b.c.e.)

Seleucid king of ancient Syria

He was born in 242 b.c.e., becoming the ruler in 223 b.c.e. Antiochus III fought ptolemy iv philopator (r. 221-205 b.c.e.) in the Fourth Syrian War and was defeated at raphia. Advancing into India through Parthia, he set up new vassal states. In 192 b.c.e., he invaded Greece but was defeated by the Romans at the Battle of Magnesia. in the peace settlement, the seleucid kingdom was divided into three parts. He gave his daughter, cleopatra (1), to ptolemy v epiphanes (205-180 b.c.e.).

Antiochus IV (d. 164 b.c.e.)

Seleucid king who invaded Egypt

He attacked the Nile in 170 b.c.e., in the reign of ptolemy vi philometer (180-164, 163-145 b.c.e.) and established a “protectorate” over the young king. in 169 b.c.e. Antiochus’s renewed invasion again put the government in Memphis in danger. A Roman contingent under papillius Laenas arrived and set up a display of power at Antiochus’s camp. Antiochus was told to withdraw but he asked to be allowed to consider the move. Laenas drew a line in the sand around Antiochus and told him to give his answer before he stepped outside of the circle. Antiochus withdrew from Egypt. Having been a hostage of Rome as a lad, Antiochus iv was called Epiphane. other records list him as “the Mad.” Forced out of Egypt, he unsuccessfully attacked Jerusalem and died.

Antiochus Hierax (d. 226 b.c.e.)

Prince of the Seleucid empire of ancient Syria

He was the brother of Seleucus II, and the son of antiochus ii and Queen Laodice. When Seleucus II was involved in the Third Syrian War (246-241 b.c.e.) with ptolemy ii philadelphus (r. 285-246 b.c.e.), Antiochus was sent to Asia Minor to become the ruler there. He sent an army into syria perhaps to overthrow seleucus. The appearance of Antiochus’s troops, however, brought peace between Egypt and seleucus, who invaded Asia Minor instead. “The War of the Brothers” resulted, lasting from 239 to 236. Antiochus allied himself with the Galatians (Celts) and others to defeat Seleucus at Ancyra in 236.
He found himself thrown out of Asia Minor, however, by an army from pergamum (aroused by the presence of the Galatians in their area). Antiochus tried other rebellions and was exiled to Thrace (modern Balkans, Greece) in 227 b.c.e. He escaped, fled into the mountains, and tried to raise an army but was killed by a band of the Galatian allies.

Antipater of Idumea (d. 43 b.c.e.)

Ruler of Idumea and ally of Egypt

As an adviser to Queen Alexandra salome, ruler of palestine and Judea, Antipater was responsible for bringing Romans into the region by involving King Aretas iii in the succession dispute of the queen’s sons upon her death in 67 b.c.e. Antipater became minister of the state of Hyr-canus, who was placed on the throne by pompey.

In 57 b.c.e.,

Antipater was given control of the kingdom of Idumea by Aulus gabinus, the local Roman authority. He joined Gabinus in a campaign to restore ptolemy xii neos dionysius (r. 80-58, 55-51 b.c.e.) in Egypt. When caesar fought at Pharsalus in 48 b.c.e., Antipater marched to his aid in Alexandria. Named chief minister in Judea, he was given Roman citizenship. His son phaesael became governor of Jerusalem, and his other son, Herod the Great, was governor of Galilee. Antipater was poisoned in 43 b.c.e.

Antony, Marc (Marcus Antonius) (c. 83-30 b.c.e.)

Famed Roman general, consul, and lover of cleopatra vii Antony was the son of Antonius creticus, an unsuccessful admiral, and Julia. His father died early in Antony’s childhood, and p. cornelius Lentulus raised him after marrying Julia. In 63 b.c.e., his adoptive father was strangled on cicero’s order for involvement in the famed catiline Affair, an act that Antony did not forget and that sparked one of the most bitter feuds in the late years of the Roman Republic. As he grew to manhood and beyond, Antony earned the reputation for being an insatiable womanizer.
In 58 or 57 b.c.e., he traveled to Syria, joining the army of Gabinius, where as a cavalry commander he served in Egypt and Palestine with distinction. He was in Gaul in 54 b.c.e. as a staff member for Julius caesar. This connection proved useful, for in 52 b.c.e., Marc Antony became a quaestor and the most ardent and determined member of the inner circle of Caesar. In 49 b.c.e., while serving as caesar’s tribune in Rome, Antony vetoed the senate decree stripping caesar of his command and then joined him in Gaul. The Senate’s actions launched the Roman civil war. Returning to Rome, Antony watched over Caesar’s interests during the general’s Spanish campaign and then commanded the left wing of caesar’s forces at the famous battle of Pharsalus in 48 b.c.e. There Caesar’s great enemy, pompey the Great, was defeated and forced to flee to what he believed to be sanctuary in Egypt. For his courage and loyalty Antony was made Caesar’s coconsul in 44 b.c.e.
Whatever plans Caesar had for Antony died with his assassination at the hands of conspirators on March 15, 44 b.c.e. Antony seized the dead general’s papers, read his will, gave the funeral oration, and occupied caesar’s property, representing himself to the people as caesar’s heir.
In the confused and highly charged days that followed, Antony gained control of Cisalpine Gaul and faced the forces of Brutus and caesar’s other assassins, who were joined by Cicero and the Roman Senate and Octavian (the future emperor Augustus), Caesar’s heir. Antony was defeated in April 43 b.c.e., suffering setbacks at Forum Gallorum and especially at Mutina. He retreated into Gallia Narbonensis and there gathered assorted allies and supporters.
The Second Triumvirate, a coalition of political leaders, was established in November of 43 b.c.e., comprising Antony, octavian, and Lepidus. These men and their forces faced the Republicans (Caesar’s assassins) at Philippi in 42 b.c.e., where the last of them fell in battle. Antony took control of the East, with plans to carry out Caesar’s planned campaign against Parthia. He was delayed by a meeting with cleopatra vii of Egypt, in Tarsus in 41 b.c.e. The growing rift between Antony and octavian was furthered in the perusine War when Fulvia, Antony’s wife, and Lucius, his brother, also opposed octavian in the conflict.
Fulvia’s death ended the dispute, and peace was made between Octavian and Antony in 40 b.c.e., at Brun-disium. As part of the political settlement, octavian gave his sister octavia to Antony in marriage, receiving in return Cisalpine Gaul.
The long-awaited Parthian Campaign of 36 b.c.e. was intended to cement Antony’s position in the Roman world, but it proved less than successful. Antony repulsed King Phraates IV of Parthia around Phraaspa but was forced to retreat because of the heat and the clever use of cavalry by the enemy. Antony thus failed to make himself the military equal of the murdered Caesar. He subsequently proved inadequate in replacing caesar in the realm of politics as well.
Around the same time as his ill-fated campaigns, the weakest member of the triumvirate, Marcus Lepidus, fell from power, leaving mastery of the Roman world to only two combatants. octavian in effect ruled the western half of the empire and Antony the East. The East tempted Antony with dreams of unlimited power, and he succumbed completely.
Key to Antony’s attraction to the East was his legendary affair with Cleopatra VII. She and the vast wealth of Egypt became his principal allies, but as a result, Antony drifted further from Rome and the base of his political power. A final split with octavian came in 33 b.c.e., followed by a divorce from Octavia. Sensing that universal support would be crucial, octavian swayed public opinion in Rome by publishing Antony’s will, which left large gifts to his illegitimate children by cleopatra. Antony was stripped of his authority by the Senate, and war was declared upon Cleopatra.
The war climaxed at the battle of actium, off the west coast of Greece, on September 2, 31 b.c.e. It proved a disaster for Antony, whose personal courage and determination were not enough to overcome the precision of octavian’s fleet or the halfhearted support of the Romans who served Antony’s cause. Following the battle, Antony joined Cleopatra in Alexandria. After a brief effort to stem the Roman advance into Egypt, Antony and Cleopatra killed themselves in August of 30 b.c.e.


A shrine in saqqara erected to honor anu-bis, a deity of Egypt. Anubis, normally depicted as a jackal, was honored as well by a necropolis for canines in the galleries of the shrine.

Anubis (Anpu, Anup)

The Greek rendering of the Egyptian Anpu or Anup, called the “opener of the Way” for the dead, Anubis was the guide of the afterlife. From the earliest time Anubis presided over the embalming rituals of the deceased and received many pleas in the mortuary prayers recited on behalf of souls making their way to tuat, or the Underworld.
Anubis was normally depicted as a black jackal with a bushy tail or as a man with the head of a jackal or a dog. In the pyramid texts Anubis was described as the son of Re and given a daughter, a goddess of freshness. in time he lost both of those attributes and became part of the Osirian cultic tradition, the son of nepthys, abandoned by his mother, who had borne him to osiris. isis raised him and when he was grown he accompanied Osiris. He aided Isis when set slew Osiris and dismembered his corpse. Anubis invented the mortuary rites at this time, taking on the title of “Lord of the Mummy Wrappings.” He was also called Khenty-seh-netjer, “the Foremost of the Divine Place” (the burial chamber). He was called as well Neb-ta-djeser, “the Lord of the sacred Land,” the necropolis.
Anubis henceforth ushered in the deceased to the judgment halls of osiris. The deity remained popular in all periods of Egyptian history and even in the time of foreign domination. Anubis took over the cult of khenti-amentiu, an early canine deity in abydos. There he was addressed as Tepiy-dju-ef, “He Who Is On His Mountain.” Anubis guarded the scales upon which the souls of the dead were weighed at judgment. He was a member of the ennead of Heliopolis, in that city.

Anukis (Anuket, Anqet)

A female deity of Egypt, she was the goddess of the first cataract of the Nile, probably Nubian (modern Sudanese) in origin. She formed a triad with the gods of khnum and satet and was depicted as a woman with a plumed crown carrying a papyrus or a scepter. A daughter of the god Re, Anukis was revered as early as the Old Kingdom (2575-2134 b.c.e.). Her entrance into the divine triad on elephantine Island with Khnum and satet dates to the New Kingdom (1550-1070 b.c.e.). sehel island was one of her cult centers, and she had a temple there. Anukis was considered a female personification of the nile, as the inundator of the land. She also had a temple at philae.

Aoh (Yah) (fl. 21st century b.c.e.)

Royal woman of the Eleventh Dynasty

She was the consort of inyotef iii (r. 2069-2061 b.c.e.). The mother of montuhotep ii (r. 2061-2010 b.c.e.), she is sometimes listed as Yah. Aoh was depicted in the company of her royal son on a stela from his reign.


A Nubian (modern Sudanese) deity worshiped at meroe and in some Upper Egypt sites, Apede-mak was depicted as a lion. The inscriptions at the deity’s shrine on the sixth cataract of the Nile are in Egyptian hieroglyphs.


The sacred bull of the Ptah-Sokar-Osiris cult in Memphis. The Palermo stone and other records give an account of the festivals held to honor this animal. The ceremonies date to the First Dynasty (c. 2900 b.c.e.) and were normally called “The Running of Apis.” The animal was also garbed in the robes of the Nile god, hapi (1). The name Apis is Greek for the Egyptian term Hep or Hapi. The sacred bull of Apis was required to have a white crescent on one side of its body or a white triangle on its forehead, signifying its unique character and its acceptance by the gods. A flying vulture patch on the back of the animal was also considered a sign that it was eligible for ceremonies. A black lump under its tongue was enough to qualify if all other signs were absent. Each bull was believed to have been conceived in a blaze of fire, according to herodotus.
When a bull of Apis died, an immediate search was begun for another animal with at least one of the markings required. such animals were dressed in elaborate golden robes and paraded in the ceremonies of ptah. It is believed that the bull was born of a virgin cow, impregnated by ptah for a life of service in the temple. The bulls were also used as oracles on festival days. In a special chamber in Memphis the animal was turned loose to decide which gate it would enter to seek its food. The gates held symbols as to the positive or negative response to the questions put to the animal by believers.
Each bull was cared for by the priests for a period of 15 to 20 years and then was drowned. various parts of the animal were then eaten in a sacramental meal in the temple, and the remains were embalmed and placed in the serapeum (1) or in another bull necropolis structure. An alabaster table was used there for embalming procedures, and other tables were found at mit rahinah and Memphis. In the Eighteenth Dynasty (1550-1070 b.c.e.), the bulls were buried in saqqara in chapels, then in a catacomb. This developed into the serapeum. Prince kha’emweset (1), a son of ramesses ii (r. 1290-1224 b.c.e.), was involved in the Apis liturgies. In time serapis became the human form of Apis, called osarapis.

Apollonius (fl. third century b.c.e.)

Treasury official of the Ptolemaic Period

He served ptolemy ii philadelphus (r. 285-246 b.c.e.) as the finance minister for the throne. He also maintained a vast estate at a site in the faiyum region. A document concerning a complex irrigation system in use in this area has survived. Dikes and canals provided water to the fields.
Apollonius of Rhodes (fl. third century b.c.e.) Director of the Library of Alexandria and a noted poet He was born c. 295 b.c.e. and served as director of the library of Alexandria, in the reign of ptolemy ii philadelphus (r. 285-246 b.c.e.). Apollonius was famous for his Argonautica, “the voyage of Argo,” a four-volume epic on the adventures of Jason. The character of Medea, Jason’s love, is clearly defined in the work, serving as the first epic in the classical period to employ a woman’s viewpoint for dramatic purposes. Apollonius succeeded zenodotus as director of the Library of Alexandria from 260 b.c.e.

Apophis (1) (Apep, Apepi)

A giant serpent with mystical powers who was the enemy of the god re. Apophis lived in the waters of nun, the cosmological area of chaos, or in the celestial waters of the Nile, the spiritual entity envisioned in Egyptian religious texts. He attempted each day to stop Re from his appointed passage through the sky. In some traditions, Apophis was a previous form of Re that had been discarded, a myth that accounted for the strength of the creature. Apophis was deemed to be a legitimate threat to Re by the Egyptians. on sunless days, especially on stormy days, the people took the lack of sunshine as a sign that Apophis had swallowed Re and his solar boat. Apophis never gained a lasting victory, however, because of the prayers of the priests and the faithful. The ritual document, “the topic of overthrowing apophis,” and “the topic of Knowing How Re Came into Being and How to Overthrow Apophis” were discovered in karnak, and in the Papyrus Bremner-Rhind, and contained a list of the serpent’s secret names that would wound him if recited aloud and a selection of hymns to be sung to celebrate Re’s victories. A series of terrible assaults were committed upon Apophis each time the serpent was defeated, but he rose in strength that following morning, an image of evil always prepared to attack the righteous. Apophis was the personification of darkness and evil.

Apophis (2) (‘Awoserre) (d. 1542 b.c.e.)

Ruler of the Fifteenth Dynasty (Hyksos), called “the Great” He reigned from c. 1585 b.c.e. until his death. Apophis ruled over the delta region from avaris while the Seventeenth Dynasty (c. 1585-1542 b.c.e.) ruled Upper Egypt from thebes. He was mentioned in the sallier papyri and the rhind papyrus and on the karnak Stelae. His contemporaries were Sekenenre ta’oii and Wadj-Kheperre kamose (r. 1555-1550 b.c.e.) in Thebes. These Theban rulers began to reclaim land during his reign, forcing the hyksos to retreat northward.
Apophis sent word to Sekenenre Ta’o II that the snoring hippopotami in the sacred pool at Thebes kept him awake at night with their unseemly noises. This was perhaps a sheer literary device used by the Thebans to justify their cause, but Sekenenre Ta’o II, receiving the message, decreed that it was insult, because Apophis’s bedchamber was more than 400 miles away. He promptly declared official war on Avaris and began the campaign to drive them out of Egypt. He was slain in battle or in an ambush, and kamose, his eldest son, took up the crusade with renewed vengeance.
The Hyksos gave way up and down the Nile, and Apophis died in Avaris, possibly from old age or from the stress of seeing the Thebans’ victorious advance into his kingdom. He had ruled northern Egypt down to cusae. Apophis usurped the colossal sphinxes of amenemhet iii (r. 1844-1797 b.c.e.). His daughter was herit. Her name was found in the tomb of amenhotep i (r. 1525-1504 b.c.e.).


An ancient Egyptian term for the dawning of a god or the coronation or emergence of a ruler, as a manifestation of a deity. The term was considered appropriate for use in the titles of barks and buildings. See also horizon; window of appearance.

Apries (Wa’a ibre) (d. 570 b.c.e.)

Fifth ruler of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty

He reigned from 589 b.c.e. until his death, the son of psammetichus ii and probably Queen takhat (3). An active builder, he added sphinxes to the shrine at heliopolis and aided the revival of the cult of osiris in abydos. He also supported the Palestinian states in their revolt against Babylon, although records indicate that at one point he withdrew his aid. nebuchadnezzer was on the throne of Babylon during Apries’s reign.
Apries then involved Egypt in a dispute between the Libyans and the Greeks. sending an Egyptian army to aid the Libyans, he saw his units destroyed and faced a mutiny among his native troops. Apries sent his general amasis to put down the revolt. Amasis sided with the Egyptian troops and was declared the ruler. Apries, exiled as a result, went to Babylon and returned to Egypt in 567 b.c.e. to face Amasis at the battle of momemphis, aided by Babylonian troops, a battle recorded on a massive red stela.
Having only mercenaries in his command, Apries lost the battle. some records indicate that he was taken as a prisoner to his former palace. After a time he was turned over to the irate Egyptian troops that he had formerly commanded and was slain by them. Apries was given a solemn state funeral by Amasis (r. 570-526 b.c.e.) and buried in sais. The tomb of Apries was vandalized by cambyses (r. 525-522 b.c.e.), who dug up his body and had it dismembered. A magnificent black granite heart-shaped vase, dedicated to the god thoth by Apries, is now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. Apries was honored by an invitation to conduct the olympic games in Greece. He also had a personal bodyguard of Greeks and Carians. His sister, ankhesneferibre, became a god’s wife of amun at thebes.

Apuleius, Lucius (fl. second century b.c.e.)

Platonic philosopher and a visitor to Egypt

He was also called Apuleis of Madaura, as he was born there, c. 125 b.c.e. Apuleius visited Egypt and was a devout worshiper at the isis festivals.

Arabian Desert

The eastern desert of Egypt, mountainous and rutted with deep wadis or dry riverbeds, this hostile region protected Egypt from invaders crossing the Red Sea or the sinai. The sandy terrain is marked by a chain of hills, from north to south, which rises in some places to a height of 7,000 feet above sea level. The hills provided Egypt with vast quarries and mining areas that yielded granite, diorite, and other stones. See also Egyptian natural resources.


A people from the syrian desert region who built enclaves in the area and in the modern Levant, by 1069 b.c.e., the Aramaeans were a power, blocking Assyrian advances to the Mediterranean and trading with Egypt and other nations. The language of the Aramaeans was Aramaic, which remained in use until 700 C.E., when Arabic was adopted. In 1069 b.c.e., Adad-apla-iddina was on the throne of Babylon. The last of the true pharaohs, ramesses XI (r. 1100-1070 b.c.e.), had just ended his reign on the Nile.

Archelaus Sisines (fl. first century b.c.e.)

Last king of Cappadocia (modern Turkey)

Archelaus was given his realm by octavian, the future Emperor Augustus of Rome, in 36 b.c.e. He had been an ally of Marc antony and had made peace with Octavian after recognizing that Rome would prove successful in the confrontation of military might. Ruling until 17 C.E., Archelaus was removed from power by the emperor Tiberius.

Archimedes (d. 212 b.c.e.)

Famous Greek scientist who studied in Egypt

He was born c. 287 b.c.e. in Syracuse, Greece. Archimedes studied in Alexandria and then returned to the service of King Hiero ii. He was a pioneer in geometry and mechanics, inventing the Archimedean screw and developing the principle concerning displacement of water. He also devised war machines and discovered the relation between the volume of a sphere and its circumscribing cylinder. Archimedes, enthused by his discovery about water displacement, is recorded as stating: “Eureka,” which is translated as “I have found it.” He also boasted that he, “given a place to stand, could move the earth.”
Archimedes was killed in 212 b.c.e. when the Romans conquered syracuse. He designed his own tomb, forming a sphere inside a cylinder, to demonstrate his theories.

Aristarchus of Samothrace (fl. second century b.c.e.)

Director of the Library of Alexandria Aristarchus was appointed to that office in 153 the reign of ptolemy vi philometor (180-164, 163-145 b.c.e.). He was a Greek critic and grammarian who had studied with Aristophanes of byzantium. After serving as director of the famed Alexandrian institution, he retired to cyprus. Aristarchus was known for his critical studies of Homer, pindar, sophocles, Aeschylus, and Herodotus. See also library of Alexandria.

Aristophanes of Byzantium (fl. third century b.c.e.)

Director of the Library of Alexandria and the founder of the Alexandrian canon Aristophanes was born c. 257 b.c.e. and became famous for his critical editions of the works of Homer and Hes-iod. He also annotated the odes of pindar and the comedies of the Athenian playwright Aristophanes. His system of accents is still used in modern Greek.
In c. 195 b.c.e., he was named director of the library of Alexandria in the reign of ptolemy v epiphanes (205-180 b.c.e.). He established the Alexandrian Canon, a selection in each genre of literature that set standards for excellence. He also founded a grammarian school and gained worldwide fame for arranging the Dialogues of plato.

Arius Didymus (fl. 1st century b.c.e.)

Savior of Alexandria after the fall of Marc Antony and cleopatra VII (d. 30 b.c.e.)
Arius was a student of Antiochus of Askalon and during that scholastic period became a friend of octavian (the future emperor Augustus of Rome). Arius went to Alexandria with Octavian after the battle of actium.A stoic philosopher who was enraptured by the intellectual status of Alexandria, Arius convinced octavian to keep his troops from harming the city.

Arkamani (d. c. 200 b.c.e.)

Ruler of Meroe, the Nubian cultural capital

He ruled in his capital south of ASWAN on the Nile (in modern Sudan) from c. 218 b.c.e. until his death. Arkamani had good relations with ptolemy iv philopator (r. 221-205 b.c.e.) and conducted trade and building projects with Egypt. He is recorded as having sponsored construction at dakka in the period. He is also mentioned on the temple of arsenuphis at Philae.

Arsamis (fl. fifth century b.c.e.)

Persian satrap of Egypt in the reign of Darius II (424-404 b.c.e.) He was away from Egypt at the time when the priests of the god khnum at the elephantine Island, at modern ASWAN, decided to harass the Jewish community there. The priests bribed the local military commander, vida-ranag, and destroyed the Jewish temple on the Elephantine. Arsamis punished vidaranag, but no effort was made to rebuild the temple. A petition was sent to Bago-as, the governor of Judah, asking that the temple be restored. That request was ultimately granted.

Arsenuphis (Harsenuphis)

A Nubian deity associated with the goddess isis, Arsenuphis wore a plumed crown. He received tributes from pharaohs of the New Kingdom (1550-1070 b.c.e.) and had a cult center at meroe. He was addressed as “the Good Companion,” Iry-hemes-nefer, and was worshiped at dendereh. In the reign of ptolemy iv philopator (221-205 b.c.e.), a shrine to Arsenuphis was built at the philae temple of isis. The Meroe ruler, Arkamani, aided Ptolemy IV in this project.

Arses (d. 336 b.c.e.)

Ruler of Persia and Egypt, who was murdered

He reigned only from 338 b.c.e. until his untimely death. The youngest son of artaxerxes iii ochus and Queen Atossa, Arses came to the throne when a eunuch court official, bagoas, murdered the king and his eldest sons. Arses witnessed an invasion of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) by Philip of Macedonia. Alert to the treacheries of Bagoas, Arses tried to poison the eunuch but was slain with his children. His successor was darius iii.

Arsinoe (1) (fl. third century b.c.e.)

Royal woman of the Ptolemaic Period

She was the consort of ptolemy ii philadelphus (r. 285-246 b.c.e.). The daughter of lysimachus, the king of Thrace, she became the ranking queen of “Great Wife” of the ruler. Arsinoe bore him three children, including ptolemy iii euergetes, his heir. The marriage, which took place c. 282 b.c.e., was part of an alliance between Thrace and Egypt against syria.
Despite producing an heir, Arsinoe was repudiated when Ptolemy Philadelphus’s sister, another arsinoe (2), came to the court. She was accused of trying to assassinate ptolemy philadelphus and was banished to the city of koptos in Upper Egypt. Ptolemy’s sister married the king and adopted Arsinoe (1)’s children.

Arsinoe (2) (fl. third century b.c.e.)

Royal woman of the Ptolemaic Period

She was the daughter of ptolemy i soter (r. 304-284 b.c.e.) and Queen Berenice (1). A sister of ptolemy ii philadelphus (r. 285-246 b.c.e.), Arsinoe was married to lysimachus, the king of Thrace. She received three cities on the Black Sea and another one in northern Greece upon her marriage. To gain access to the Thracian throne for her own children, Arsinoe charged the heir to the throne, agathocles (1), of attempting to murder Lysimachus. The result of Lysimachus’s decision to execute his son was a war between Thrace and the seleucid kingdom.
Lysimachus died in 281, and Arsinoe fled to her half brother, Ptolemy Ceraunus. When she entered Cassan-dria, a city in northern Greece, Ptolemy Ceraunus executed her two younger sons. She fled to Alexandria and arrived c. 279 b.c.e. charges were made against ptolemy ii philadelphus’s wife, arsinoe (1) of Thrace, and she was sent to koptos in Upper Egypt, in exile. Arsinoe married her brother, and he received the title “Brother Loving,” philadelphus, as a result. Arsinoe aided Ptolemy II in his war against the Syrians (274-271 b.c.e.). She was given many titles and honors, including the Arsinoeion, a great shrine in Alexandria. A part of the faiyum region was also dedicated to her name. At her death she became the goddess philadelphus.

Arsinoe (3) (fl. third century b.c.e.)

Royal woman of the Ptolemaic Period

She was the consort of ptolemy iv philopator (221-205 b.c.e.). They were brother and sister, as she was the daughter of ptolemy iii euergetes and Queen Berenice (3). In 217, Arsinoe accompanied her husband to the Egyptian army camp in palestine, where she encouraged the troops to win against the seleucids in a battle there. She gave birth to the heir, ptolemy v epiphanus, in 210 b.c.e.
The court under Ptolemy IV Philopator was quite depraved. Arsinoe tried to stem the debauchery and made many enemies among the courtiers. When Ptolemy IV philopator died in 205, these courtiers plotted to murder Arsinoe, accomplishing that deed in 204 b.c.e. The heir was protected by the courtiers who did not announce the death of Ptolemy IV or Arsinoe until Ptolemy V Epiphanus was crowned. Rioting resulted from word of her murder.

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