Ancient Egypt

Beloved vizier of the Fifth Dynasty Westptah served in the reigns of sahure (2458-2446 b.c.e.) and kakai (Neferirkare; 2446-2426 b.c.e.). He began his career during the reign of Sahure and later became vizier of Egypt under Kakai. A noted architect and the chief justice of the nation, Westptah fell ill while attending the ruler. The […]

Tombos To Tutu (fl. 14th century b.c.e.)

An island at the third cataract of the Nile in nubia (modern Sudan). Tuthmosis i (r. 1504-1492 b.c.e.) made Tombos the center of his Nubian military campaigns in the second year of his reign. He garrisoned the island, erecting a fortress called “None-Face-Him-Among-The-Nine-Bows-Together.” A stela was also erected to commemorate Tuthmosis I’s victories over the […]

THE SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD To Takhat (1) (fl. 13th century b.c.e.)

The Middle Kingdom came to an end because of the growing presence of eastern Asiatics in the land. A sage of the period lamented the signs of the “desert,” the bedouins from the east, in the Nile Valley. Actually, the Second Intermediate Period (1640-1550 b.c.e.) was a time of political rather than social upheavals. The […]

Teos (Irma'atenre, Tachos, Zedhor) (fl. c. 365 b.c.e.) To Tomb of the Warriors

Second ruler of the Thirtieth Dynasty He reigned from 365 to 360 b.c.e. He was the coregent of nectanebo i and was the son of Queen udjashu. Teos started his rule by invading palestine with the aid of King agesilaus of Sparta, but they quarreled and failed in their efforts. Teos taxed the Egyptian temples […]

Takhat (2) (fl. 12th century b.c.e.) To Teo (fl. 15th century b.c.e.)

Royal woman of the Twentieth Dynasty she was the wife of prince Montuhirkhopshef, a son of ramesses iii (1194-1163 b.c.e.). Takhat was the mother of ramesses ix. Takhat (3) (fl. sixth century b.c.e.) Royal woman of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty She was a consort of psammetichus ii (r. 595-589 b.c.e.). Takhat may have been the mother […]

Shepseskhaf (d. 2467 b.c.e.) To THE MIDDLE KINGDOM PERIOD

Last ruler of the Fourth Dynasty He reigned from 2472 b.c.e. until his death, the son of menkaure. Shepseskhaf completed his father’s monuments and reportedly feuded with the priests of various temples over doctrines. He also married bunefer and had a son, Djedefptah, who is sometimes listed as Thamptis. His sister was Khentakawes. Khama’at was […]

Seshat (Sefkhet-Abut) To Shepseskare (Ini) (d. 2419 b.c.e.)

She was a goddess of Egypt serving as the patroness of learning, called “the Lady of topics.” The patroness of writing also, Seshat was a consort of the god thoth and she was associated with the persea tree. This unique symbol, and “the Tree of Heaven,” were the receptacles of historical records. seshat wrote the […]

Sekhem-kha (fl. 28th century b.c.e.) To Servants of the Place of Truth

Nobleman whose Saqqara tomb became famous sekhem-kha’s tomb was designated at one time as the resting place of djet of the First Dynasty (2920-2770 b.c.e.). The tomb contains a burial chamber in which 300 bulls’ heads, fashioned out of clay and equipped with actual horns, are on display. A symbol of royalty, such a tomb […]

Sabu, Ibebi (fl. 24th century b.c.e.) To sekhem (4)

Official of the Fifth and Sixth Dynasties He served unis (r. 2356-2323 b.c.e.) and teti (r. 2323-2291 b.c.e.) in several capacities. Sabu was a counselor and master of ceremonies for unis, receiving the title of “companion,” and then became the high priest of ptah in Teti’s reign. Ibebi Sabu conducted Teti’s coronation rites. His mastaba […]

Queen's titles To Ramose (3) (fl. 15th century b.c.e.)

The queens of Egypt of primary rank were called “the Great Wife.” If they were able to bear the pharaoh’s heirs, they received the additional title of “Mother of the King” and wore the vulture headdress of nekhebet, the goddess protector of Upper Egypt. Other titles bestowed upon them were “Mistress of the Two Lands,” […]