# Statistics

## Aalen-Johansen estimator To Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) (Statistics)

Aalen-Johansen estimator: An estimator of the survival function for a set of survival times, when there are competing causes of death. Related to the Nelson-Aalen estimator. Aalen’s linear regression model: A model for the hazard function of a set of survival times given by where a(t) is the hazard function at time t for an […]

## Analysis of dispersion To Average sample number (ASN) (Statistics)

Analysis of dispersion: Synonym for multivariate analysis of variance. Analysis of variance (ANOVA): The separation of variance attributable to one cause from the variance attributable to others. By partitioning the total variance of a set of observations into parts due to particular factors, for example, sex, treatment group etc., and comparing variances (mean squares) by […]

## b632 method To Binomial distribution (Statistics)

b632 method: A procedure of error rate estimation in discriminant analysis based on the bootstrap, which consists of the following steps: (1) Randomly sample (with replacement) a bootstrap sample from the original data. (2) Classify the observations omitted from the bootstrap sample using the classification rule calculated from the bootstrap sample. (3) Repeat (1) and […]

## Binomial failure rate model To Byte (Statistics)

Binomial failure rate model: A model used to describe the underlying failure process in a system whose components can be subjected to external events (‘shocks’) that can cause the failure of two or more system components. For a system of m indentical components, the model is based on m +1 independent Poisson processes, {NS (t), […]

## C: To Clinical epidemiology (Statistics)

C: A low level programming language developed at Bell Laboratories. Widely used for software development. C++: A general purpose programming language which is a superset of C. CACE: Abbreviation for compiler average causal effect. Calendar plot: A method of describing compliance for individual patients in a clinical trial, where the number of tablets taken per […]

## Clinical trial To Czekanowski coefficient (Statistics)

Clinical trial: A prospective study involving human subjects designed to determine the effectiveness of a treatment, a surgical procedure, or a therapeutic regimen administered to patients with a specific disease. See also phase I trials, phase II trials and phase III trials. Clinical vs statistical significance: The distinction between results in terms of their possible […]

## D'Agostino's test To Digit preference (Statistics)

D’Agostino’s test: A test based on ordered sample values x^) < x(2) < ••• < x(n) with mean x, used to assess whether the observations arise from a normal distribution. The test statistic is Appropriate for testing departures from normality due to skewness. Tables of critical values are available. Daniels, Henry (1912-2000): Daniels studied at […]

## Digraph To Dynamic graphics (Statistics)

Digraph: Synonym for directed graph. DIP test: A test for multimodality in a sample, based on the maximum difference, over all sample points, between the empirical distribution function and the unimodal distribution function that minimizes that maximum difference. Directed acyclic graph: Synonym for conditional independence graph. Directed deviance: Synonymous with signed root transformation. Directional neighbourhoods […]

## E To Eyeball test (Statistics)

E: Abbreviation for expected value. Early detection program: Synonymous with screening studies. EAST: A computer package for the design and analysis of group sequential clinical trials. See also PEST. Eberhardt’s statistic: A statistic, A, for assessing whether a large number of small items within a region are distributed completely randomly within the region. The statistic […]

## Factor To Fuzzy set theory (Statistics)

Factor: A term used in a variety of ways in statistics, but most commonly to refer to a categorical variable, with a small number of levels, under investigation in an experiment as a possible source of variation. Essentially simply a categorical explanatory variable. Factor analysis: A procedure that postulates that the correlations or covariances between […]