GPS & Galileo – Dual RF Front-end Receiver and Design, Fabrication, and Test

3G Third generation of mobile phone standards A/D Analog to digital AC Alternating current ADC Analog-to-digital converter ADS Advanced design system AGC Automatic gain control AltBOC Alternative binary offset carrier Low-frequency current gain BER Bit error rate BJT Bipolar junction transistor BOC Binary offset carrier BPSK Bi-phase shift key BW Bandwidth C Capacitance C/A-code Coarse […]

List of Abbreviations and Acronyms (GPS) Part 2

OMEGA Global radio navigation system OS Open service (Galileo) OSD Office of the Secretary of Defense P-code Precision code PAD Flat surface in the integrated circuit used to make electrical contact soldering the bonding wire PC Personal computer PCB Printed circuit board Signal detection probability PDF Probability density function False alarm probability PFD Phase frequency […]

Satellite Navigation (GPS)

Introduction Of the various applications that satellites have been used for, one of the most promising is that of global positioning. Made possible by Global Navigation Satellite Systems, global positioning enables any user to know his or her exact position on Earth. Nowadays, the only fully functioning system is the American Global Positioning System (GPS). […]

Positioning through Satellites (GPS)

A GNSS calculates the location of fixed and moving objects anywhere in the world by means of precise timing and geometric triangulation (see Figure 1-1). GNSS is composed of a constellation of satellites that send radio signals. A combination of personalised radio signals, which are encoded with the precise time they left the satellite, allows […]

State-of-the-Art GNSS RF Front-End Receivers (GPS)

A review of current state-of-the-art GNSS radio frequency (RF) front-end receivers is required to establish the starting point in the creation of any electronic device. Not only have scientific papers been published on GNSS front-end receivers but a number of these devices are also on the market. Thus, both scientific papers and commercial receivers will […]

Design Methodology (GPS)

For any research project to succeed, clear objectives have to be defined. The more specific the objectives, the more likely they can be achieved. Specific objectives will be used to develop a GPS/Galileo front-end, the benefits of which will be described in this topic. To ease reader comprehension, the contents and structure of this topic […]

Receiver Specifications (GPS) Part 1

This topic deals with the specifications of the dual GPS/Galileo RF front-end. As the starting point for the design of the RF front-end, a study of the technical issues related to the signals of the GPS and Galileo standards is shown. This is employed to obtain the specifications of an interoperable dual GPS/Galileo RF front-end, […]

Receiver Specifications (GPS) Part 2

In 1998, the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Commission jointly decided to study the feasibility of a truly independent European GNSS. Named Galileo, the program was first approved in 1999. Besides being independent, Galileo is expected to offer greater accuracy, integrity, availability, and continuity of services compared to present systems. In spite of […]

Receiver Specifications (GPS) Part 3

Receiver Specifications Once the requirements of the receiver have been obtained, a number of important steps have to be carried out prior to starting with the receiver design. First of all, the gain, the C/N0, and the linearity of the front-end have to be set to ensure proper performance of the receiver. Moreover, the receiver […]

Circuit Design (GPS) Part 1

Considering the technical requirements defined in the previous topic as the starting point, this topic will explain in detail the design of every block of the radio frequency (RF) front-end. To accomplish a design that fulfils specifications, the design is verified by means of the electrical schematic simulations, layout of the different components of the […]