GIS and Spatial Analysis for the Social Sciences

Mapping Rates (GIS and Spatial Analysis) Part 2

Example: Subsets of Youth Violence In Section 1 you learned to geocode by using an example from law enforcement: youth violent incidents in Riverside, CA (see Figure 1.31). Criminologists might be interested in the number of contacts youths in this area have with police as a method of finding effective policy implications. In this example, […]

Mapping Rates (GIS and Spatial Analysis) Part 3

Planning and Projections: "What If" Multiple Variable Maps for Decision Making We have displayed combinations of variables as rates, and subsets of data as additional maps, but for all intents and purposes the maps thus far have been focused on one set of information. Sometimes one set of information, even a rate, is not sufficient […]

What is the Proper Unit of Analysis in GIS?—Using Tessellations and Related Database Issues Part 1

In the maps we have discussed so far, the units within which data are displayed are defined by city boundaries, U.S. Census Bureau definitions of geography, such as tracts or block groups. There are many good reasons for using such geographic boundaries for geocoding and mapping. First, any address-based system of locating places in geography […]

What is the Proper Unit of Analysis in GIS?—Using Tessellations and Related Database Issues Part 2

Example: Tessellations and Youth Violence ArcGIS has implemented Anselin’s Local Moran I to analyze the clustering of events within and across unit boundaries (see Anselin, 1995). Although a topic to be discussed in detail in Section 3 of this topic, Moran’s I is the standard measure for the degree of spatial patterns or geographic similarity […]

Dynamic Maps: Showing Change over Time (GIS and Spatial Analysis)

One of the most powerful ways to use GIS techniques to show and understand how our world changes is to factor in the passage of time in our maps. As you probably recall, Hurricane Katrina had a devastating effect on the physical landscape of New Orleans, coastal Mississippi, and parts of Alabama in September 2005, […]

Multiple Variable Maps (GIS and Spatial Analysis) Part 1

In a previous example (Figure 2.2), we displayed two variables as a combined rate on the map, so in a sense we were only, in the end, displaying one "variable." GIS allows for the display of multiple variables in different formats in order to convey more complex information. For example, Figure 2.47 shows a version […]

Multiple Variable Maps (GIS and Spatial Analysis) Part 2

Another Way to Show Multiple Variables on the Map Example: Patterns of Residency by Ethnicity Pie charts are not the only graphic form which can display a lot of information in a compact form on the map. Figure 2.57 shows an example of the often complex pattern observed in American cities in the relationship between […]

Multiple Variable Maps (GIS and Spatial Analysis) Part 3

Understanding Dynamic Data In the New Orleans examples described previously, we were able to use information over time to gain insight into how the changes that occur over time can help us to better understand our current problems and needs. In this example, we examine a more formal mathematical approach to change over time, in […]

Multiple Variable Maps (GIS and Spatial Analysis) Part 4

Using Three Dimensions to Show Socioeconomic Conditions Although the economic system of the United States, based on capitalism and free enterprise, has been very successful at creating prosperity and economic status that is the envy of many of the world’s nations and individuals, the system is also very good at creating inequality and poverty, especially […]

Using Complex Maps to Simplify and Support Better Decision Making (GIS and Spatial Analysis)

In this final section, we will take you through a number of examples of specific policy relevant data and circumstances using a variety of data, from law enforcement and criminal justice, to public health and disaster relief, to education and substance abuse. All of these are areas which local communities, regional authorities, national governments, and […]