Vedas, anonymous prose and verse, c. 3000-c. 500 BC Epic of Gilgamesh, anonymous poem cycle, early 2nd millennium BC The Bible, anonymous verse and prose, c. 900 BC onwards Upanishads, anonymous prose and verse, c. 800-c. 500 BC The Iliad, poem by Homer, c. 750 BC The Odyssey, poem by Homer, c. 720 BC Fragment […]


War and Peace, novel by Lev Tolstoi, 1869 "Le Bateau ivre," poem by Arthur Rimbaud, 1871 The Birth of Tragedy, prose by Friedrich Nietzsche, 1872 The Devils, novel by Fedor Dostoevskii, 1872 Family Strife in Hapsburg, play by Franz Grillparzer, 1872 "Alchemy of the Word," poem by Arthur Rimbaud, 1873 Around the World in Eighty […]


Born: Abe Kimifusa in Tokyo, Japan, 7 March 1924. Education: Chiyoda Elementary School, Mukden, Manchuria (now Shen-yang, Liaoning Province, China), 1930-36; interrupted by a spell at a local elementary school in his father’s home town of Takasu, Hokkaido, Japan, 1931-32; Second Middle School, Mukden, 1936-40; Seij5 High School, Tokyo, 1940-43; interrupted for several months at […]


Born: Beirut, Lebanon, 10 October 1943; daughter of a Lebanese father and Swiss mother; naturalized U.S. citizen, 1972. Education: Primary and secondary education in Beirut, Beirut College for Women (then Beirut University College, now Lebanese American University), A.A., 1965; Anderson College, Anderson, Indiana, B.A. in English Literature, 1967; Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana, M.A. in […]


Born: Baku, Azerbaijan, 23 August 1908; lived abroad after 1912. Education: Educated at Rosset School, Geneva; lycee, Mainz, Germany, 1922-24; Lycee Lakanal, Paris, 1924-27. Family: Married Jacqueline Trehet in 1961. Career: Translator and writer in Paris; editor of the review, Discontinuity in late 1920s and L’Heure Nouvelle, 1945-47; increasingly involved in left-wing politics during the […]


Also known as Adunis; Ali Ahmad Esber; Ali Ahmad Sa’id. Born: Ali Ahmad Esber in Qassabin, Syria, in 1930. Education: Attended school in Qassabin (in Arabic), and Tarsus, 1943-47 (where he learned French); Lycee in Latakia, 1947-49; studied philosophy at Damascus University, 1950-54; in Paris on French government scholarship, 1960-61; St. Joseph University, Beirut, Ph.D., […]


Born: Eleusis, Greece, 525 or 524 bc. Military Service: Fought in the Battle of Marathon, 490 BC, and probably at Artemisium and Salamis, 480 BC. Career: Wrote possibly over 90 plays; also acted in his plays; visited Sicily to produce plays for Hieron I of Syracuse, soon after the foundation of the city of Aetna, […]


Born: Shmuel Yosef Halesi Czaczkes in Buczacz, Galicia, Austro-Hungarian Empire (now in Poland), 17 July 1888. Education: Educated at private schools; Baron Hirsch School. Family: Married Esther Marx in 1919; one daughter and one son. Career: Lived in Palestine, 1907-13: first secretary of Jewish Court in Jaffa, and secretary of the National Jewish Council; lecturer […]


Born: Guayaquil, Ecuador, 24 May, 1909. Education: Elementary studies in the Colegio de San Jose and the Escuela Municipal Nelson Mateus; high school in the Colegio Vicente Rocafuerte; studied law for two years at the University of Guayas, in Guayaquil at the same time attending art classes at the School of Fine Arts. Family: Married […]


Born: Anna Andreievna Gorenko in Bolshoi Fontan, near Odessa, Ukraine, 23 June 1889. Education: Educated at girls’ gymnasium, Tsarskoe Selo; Smolnyi Institute, St. Petersburg; Fundukleevskaia gymnasium, 1906, and law school, 1907, both Kiev. Family: Married 1) Nikolai S. Gumilev in 1910 (divorced 1918), one son, the writer Lev Gumilev; 2) Vladimir Shileiko in 1918 (separated […]