Archaeology of Ancient Egypt

Second Intermediate Period, overview (Archaeology of Ancient Egypt)

The "Second Intermediate Period" is the term conventionally used for the period of divided rule in Egypt after the Middle Kingdom. It begins after the end of the 12th Dynasty and ends with the expulsion of the Hyksos from Egypt and the inception of the New Kingdom (18th Dynasty). Dynastic stability ended with the beginning […]

New Kingdom, overview (Archaeology of Ancient Egypt)

"New Kingdom" is the term generally given to the five centuries of Egyptian history from circa 1550 to 1050 BC. The New Kingdom covers the 17th-20th Dynasties, during which the bounds of Egypt’s empire and international influence reached their greatest extent. Historical summary The New Kingdom was inaugurated (17th-18th Dynasties) by a family of Theban […]

Third Intermediate Period, overview (Archaeology of Ancient Egypt)

The "Third Intermediate Period" is nothing more than a generally accepted term used to encompass the 21st—25th Dynasties, which is composed of three distinct cultural periods. Egypt of the 21st Dynasty was, in theory, a unified state whose ruling family was linked through marriage to that of the 20th Dynasty, and in many ways served […]

Late and Ptolemaic periods, overview (Archaeology of Ancient Egypt)

The Saites took control over the western Delta with the support of the Assyrians, who had driven the Kushite rulers (25th Dynasty) from Egypt by 665 BC. Gradually, Psamtik I of Sais extended his control and by the eighth year of his reign he controlled the entire Delta. He supported men loyal to him for […]

Roman period, overview (Archaeology of Ancient Egypt)

The Roman period in Egypt is conventionally defined as extending from the conquest of Egypt by Augustus in 30 BC to the reorganization of the administration of Egypt by Diocletian in the late third century AD. Identification of these three centuries as forming a distinct period in Egyptian history is relatively recent. Nineteenth-century and early […]

A-Group culture To Abu Sha’ar (Archaeology of Ancient Egypt)

A-Group culture The A-Group is a distinctive culture of Lower Nubia contemporary with the Predynastic (Nagada) culture of Upper Egypt. This culture was first identified by George Reisner, who studied the artifacts collected during the First Archaeological Survey of Nubia (1907-8). Reisner’s classification was later revised by Trigger, Adams and Nordstrom, based on archaeological evidence […]

Abu Simbel To Abydos, Early Dynastic funerary enclosures (Archaeology of Ancient Egypt)

Abu Simbel Abu Simbel (22°21′ N, 31°38′ E) is situated 280km south of Aswan on the west bank of the Nile and approximately 52km north of the modern political boundary between Egypt and Sudan. Before the building of the Aswan High Dam (1960-70) and the subsequent flooding of Lake Nasser, there was a relatively rich […]

Abydos, Middle Kingdom cemetery To Abydos, North, ka chapels and cenotaphs (Archaeology of Ancient Egypt)

Abydos, Middle Kingdom cemetery The Northern Cemetery was the principal burial ground for non-royal individuals at Abydos during the Middle Kingdom, and continued in use through the Graeco-Roman period. Its exact limits are as yet unknown, but it covers a minimum of 50ha. During the Middle Kingdom, this area served local elites, as well as […]

Abydos, Osiris temple of Seti I To Abydos, South (Archaeology of Ancient Egypt)

Abydos, Osiris temple of Seti I Beside the modern village of el-’Araba el-Madfuna (26°11′ N, 31°55′ E) are the impressive remains of a unique Egyptian temple constructed by Seti I (19th Dynasty). The temple contains seven sanctuaries set in a row, each dedicated to a different deity, the southernmost one honoring Seti I himself. This […]

Abydos, Umm el-Qa’ab To el-Adaima (Archaeology of Ancient Egypt)

Abydos, Umm el-Qa’ab The Predynastic/Early Dynastic royal cemetery at Umm el-Qa’ab is located about 1.5km from cultivated land in the low desert (26°11′ N, 31°55′ E). To the east is a large wadi ending near the ancient settlement at Abydos known as Kom es-Sultan, next to the great funerary enclosures of the 1st and 2nd […]