annotateverb to add notes to an existing document, book, chart, etc. o He annotated his report after he was asked to give the exact time of the incident. Variation is annotated east or west according to the direction of change.
announceverb to state something publicly or officially o British Airways announce the departure of flight BA152 to New York. announcement noun a public statement o The captain made a public address (PA) system announcement asking passengers to remain seated.
annunciationnoun an announcement or indication on the annunciator panel □ failure annunciation signals on the annunciator panel indicating the failure of a system annunciatornoun a device which gives off a sound or light to indicate which of several electrical circuits is active o An annunciator panel may contain a precise warning. anodenoun a positive pole or electrode o The positive connector of a battery is usually called the anode and is indicated by the sign +. anodiseanodize verb to coat or cover by using electrolysis o Anti-corrosion treatment includes the anodizing of aluminium parts. anomalousadjective referring to something unusual, unexpected or otherwise departing from what is the normal order or range □ an anomalous instrument reading an unusual instrument reading which may require further investigation anomalynoun something unusual, unexpected or otherwise not within the normal order or range o Any anomalies in the localiser will be detected during calibration. anoxianoun a state in which no oxygen reaches the body tissues, resulting in death. t> hypoxia
Comment: Anoxia is a complete lack of oxygen and can, of course, be fatal.
Hypoxia is a lack of sufficient oxygen, the symptoms of which are sometimes difficult to detect.
anticipate‘ verb to realise what is likely happen and do what is necessary in readiness □ during take-offs, pilots should anticipate an engine failure pilots should think ahead and be ready to act immediately if an engine fails during take-off anticipationnoun a state in which you realise what is likely to happen and do what is necessary in readiness
anticyclonenoun an area of high atmospheric pressure, usually associated with fine dry weather in summer and fog in winter o Winds circulate round an anticyclone clockwise in the northern hemisphere and anticlockwise in the southern hemisphere.
anti-skidadjective designed to prevent skidding anvilnoun a metal block which ends in a point, has a rounded bottom and a flat top, and on which horseshoes, etc., are made o A cumulonimbus cloud has a characteristic anvil shape.
APHAZ abbreviation aircraft proximity hazard
APP abbreviation 1. approach 2. approach control
apparentadjective 1. obvious, clear o It became apparent that carbon monoxide was entering the cabin. □ from the above, it will be apparent that … from the above, it will be clear that … 2. seeming or appearing to be o an apparent failure of the system o The ILS showed an apparent deflection to the right. appearverb 1. to come into view o Another aircraft appeared on the radar screen. 2. to seem to be o Although air may appear to be still, it is in fact, moving.
appearancenoun 1. an instance of being seen or coming into view o The appearance of the passenger on the flight deck surprised the crew. 2. the way something looks o It may be difficult to recognise a particular stretch of coast in an area simply by its appearance.
applicationnoun 1. a formal request, often on paper, for employment □ application form a form to be filled out by a person looking for a job, and sent back to the organisation offering the job 2. the act of putting a substance onto something □ the application of a coat of paint the covering of something with a coat of paint 3. the act of using something, e.g. an ability, to carry out a task o When an accident occurs, the application of knowledge and skills is important.
applyverb 1. □ to apply for a job to formally ask for employment o He applied for the post of chief engineer but was not successful. 2. to put on o to apply a coat of paint o Apply a plaster to the skin. 3. to use something to carry out a task o Apply the same method as in the example. 4. to be relevant or relate to o The rules which apply to the measurement of wind velocities on isobaric charts apply equally to contour charts. (note: applying – applied)
appreciableadjective 1. possible to measure o Appreciable weakening may be permitted without risk of failure. 2. considerable, large in size or amount □ there is an appreciable difference between statute miles and nautical miles there is a big difference between statute miles and nautical miles
appreciateverb 1. to understand or recognise the importance or significance of something o The map reader is in a position to appreciate the relative values of the features seen on the ground. 2. to increase in value o The value of the building has appreciated by 100% in 10years. Opposite depreciate 3. to be thankful or grateful for something o The student appreciated the extra help given by the instructor.
appreciationnoun 1. understanding o It is essential to have an appreciation of the basic gas laws. 2. an increase in value o There has been an appreciation of 100% in the value of the building in 10years. Opposite depreciation 3. thankfulness, gratitude o After gaining her private pilot’s licence, the newly-qualified pilot showed her appreciation by sending a letter of thanks to her instructor.
approachnoun 1. a path towards something o The approach to the terminal was blocked by an overturned lorry. 2. the descent of an aircraft towards the place where it intends to land. Abbreviation APP 3. a way of achieving or doing something □ to take a different approach to a situation to deal with or to manage a situation in a different way verb 1. to move nearer in place or time to something o The aircraft is approaching a danger area. □ nightfall is approaching it will soon be dark 2. to have a particular mental attitude towards something o He approaches his studies with great enthusiasm. 3. to speak to or get in touch with somebody o You must approach the chief flying instructor regarding your requestfor a week’s holiday.
approach controlnoun a control station in an air traffic control centre that guides an aircraft while it is making its approach approachmonitoring aid noun an instrument or system that helps an air traffic controller to track the position and movements of an aircraft during its approach. Abbreviation AMA approach path noun the course taken by the aircraft in preparation for landing approach plate noun a document issued by an aviation authority which provides detailed information about how to land at a given airport in very poor visibility
approach to land noun the final stage of the flight when the aircraft is manoeuvred into position, relative to the landing area, in preparation for landing o on the approach to land, the aircraft reduces speed and height
approvalnoun permission or agreement □ with the captain’s approval with the permission of the captain □ to meet with the approval to be approved by o The management’s plans for restructuring the airline met with the approval of the shareholders. approveverb 1. to allow or agree to something o The air traffic controller approved the emergency landing. 2. □ to approve of to believe something to be right or good o Nearly everybody approved of the new colour scheme for the furnishings. □ he doesn’t approve of women being airline pilots he believes that it is wrong for women to be airline pilots approxsame as approximate, approximately approximate adjective not exact, around or about □ an approximate distance of 60 nm about 60 nautical miles ■ verb to be close to, to be around (note: Approximate can be shortened to approx or APRX (ICAO).) approximately adverb not exactly, around or about o Approximately 2,000people work in the airport. (note: Approximately can be shortened to approx or APRX (ICAO).) approximation noun a calculation which is not exact but near enough, a rough estimate □ an approximation of aircraft height a rough estimate of aircraft height apronnoun an area of tarmac, concrete, etc., outside a hangar for parking aircraft (note: The US term is ramp.)
APRX abbreviation (ICAO) 1. approximate 2. approximately
APU abbreviation auxiliary power unit aquaplaningnoun sliding in an uncontrolled way over a thin layer of water on the runway o Aquaplaning is caused by a layer of water between the tyre and the runway. arbitraryadjective decided by chance rather than by careful logical thought, happening without planning or at random o The statute mile is an arbitrary unit of measurement. (note: The nautical mile is not an arbitrary unit: it is based on calculations which have a wider use. See arc.) arcnoun part of the circumference of a circle o A nautical mile is the length of an arc on the Earth’s surface subtended by an angle of one minute at the centre of the Earth. ■ verb to jump across a gap o The spark arcs from one electrode to another. o The condenser prevents spark plugs from arcing. i> gap Arcticadjective referring to the area around the North Pole □ cold Arctic air cold air from the Arctic □ the Arctic Circle a parallel running round the Earth at latitude 66°32N, to the north of which lies the Arctic region ■ noun □ the Arctic the area of the Earth’s surface around the North Pole, north of the Arctic Circle o The aircraft flew over the Arctic. areanoun 1. a defined part of a surface 2. a region □ area forecasts a weather forecast for a region rather than, e.g., an aerodrome area control service
area navigation a method of navigation that permits aircraft to operate on any desired flight path within the area covered by ground-based navigational aids, self-contained navigational aids or a combination of the two.
argument‘ noun 1. a factor o QNH is the pressure at station level reduced to sea level using arguments of station height and an international standard atmosphere. 2. a verbal disagreement □ to have an argument to disagree openly and verbally with somebody o The investigation revealed that there had been an argument between the commander and the copilot about the advisability of continuing with the final approach to land. 3. a reason o One of the arguments in favour of building the new terminal is the increase in opportunities of employment for the local residents.
Arresternoun a device or substance which prevents or stops something from happening arrivalnoun the act of reaching somewhere. Abbreviation ARR □ Gulf Air announce the arrival of flight GF147 from Abu Dhabi flight GF147 from Abu Dhabi has just landed