Biology Reference
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is added to the salt and fi sh to lower the pH (8 kg of tamarind to 100 kg
of fi sh). The fi sh are kept covered in brine with the help of weighted mats
and are fermented for 2 to 4 mon. They are transferred to wooden barrels
and care is taken to keep them covered with brine. The fermented fi sh can
be kept for 1 yr (Prajapati and Nair, 2003; Lopetcharat et al., 2001).
Lona Ilisha
Lona ilish is a traditional salt fermented fi sh product widely consumed
in Bangladesh and eastern and North-Eastern parts of India, prepared
exclusively from Hilsha fi sh, Tenualosa ilisha, a high fat fi sh. It is prepared
by dry salting the diagonally cut hilsha chunks followed by fermentation
in saturated brine (previously brined and cooled) till desirable fl avour
and taste develop. The fermentation period is usually for 4-6 mon. The
fi sh is kept in the fermentation medium (saturated brine) till consumption
(Majumdar and Basu, 2010).
Very little is known on the biochemical composition and microbiology
of Lona ilish . The moisture, salt and pH of the products available in the
market averaged 54%, 15% and 5.7%, respectively. The bacterial fl ora
comprised of Micrococccus and Bacillus species (Majumdar and Basu,
5. Myanmar
This Myanmar product is made of salted mackerel. During the preparation,
the intestines are removed through the mouth. The fi sh are then salted,
3 kg of fi sh to 1 kg of salt, and stored for 24 h. Ripening takes place under
anaerobic conditions. The brine formed is removed regularly. A red colour
appears after ripening. (Berkel et al., 2004).
6. Japan
Sushi is a group of preserved fi sh products in Japan which are formed
through the addition of boiled rice to fermented fi sh and salt. The low
pH which results from the growth of lactic acid bacteria contributes to
the preserving effect. The general preparation is as follows. The intestines
of the fi sh are removed and the fi sh is mixed with 20 to 30% salt. After
being stored for 1 to 2 mon the fi sh are desalted and the liquid is removed.
Boiled rice and koji (fermented wheat) are placed at the bottom of a basket
and the desalted fi sh are alternated in layers with boiled rice or koji . The
amount of boiled rice added is equal to 40 or 50% of the weight of the fi sh,
the amount of koji is half the amount of boiled rice (rice: fi sh: koj i = 2 : 4 : 1).
The fermentation continues for another 10 d. (Berkel et al., 2004).
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