HTML and CSS Reference
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For both modes, typing punctuation is difficult because fewer common
punctuation symbols are often available through a single key, which
cycles through a dozen or more symbols.
14.2.3. Network Constraints
Most mobile content designers are keenly aware of the constraints im-
posed by the slow networking speeds of most mobile devices. What
many fail to appreciate, however, is how much users have to pay for
each byte of mobile web content. Ironically, today's mobile web design-
ers need to return to a 1995-era design mindset, when advanced dial-up
speeds were reaching just 56 kilobits per second and connection times
were metered by the Internet service provider (ISP). Is your content so
valuable that users are willing to pay every time they want to view your
Beyond bandwidth concerns, mobile device users often operate within
odd, carrier-imposed limitations that network PC users would never tol-
erate. Some URLs may be blocked by certain carriers, and others may
be passed through proxy servers that alter or translate content for the
mobile device. It is difficult to predict how a particular carrier will treat
a particular page. The best defensive strategy is to keep your content
as simple as possible to avoid odd translation and conversion of your
Finally, network connectivity is not constant while viewing content on
a mobile device. Users may reach your site, view a page or two, and
suddenly lose their connection as they pass into a dead zone in their
coverage. Content that requires lots of navigation among pages can be
frustrating in marginal coverage areas.
14.2.4. Display Constraints
There is no denying one attribute of all mobile devices: the display is
small, even tiny. Even convergence device displays, which manufactur-
ers boast to be the largest within the mobile phone market, are minis-
cule when compared to a conventional desktop browser. Most devices
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