Table 1.2 Known and potential vector species of Plasmodium vivax
reviewed by MAP †
complex * or group
Notes and reference(s)
An. atroparvus van
An. atroparvus has been shown to be experimentally infected with P. vivax by
humans ( Daskova and Rasnicyn, 1982 ) and ( Collins et al., 1980 ; Collins et al.,
2009 ). This species has been shown to be refractory to P. falciparum infection ( de
Zulueta et al., 1975 ; Daskova and Rasnicyn, 1982 ; Romi et al., 2001 ).
An. baimaii Sallum
Yes (part of the
An. dirus com-
P. vivax and P. falciparum are commonly found in An. baimaii ( Sallum et al.,
2005 ; Obsomer et al., 2007 ), but original sources do not differentiate the
members of the Dirus Complex ( Prakash et al., 2001 ).
Naturally P. vivax -infected An. culicifacies were found in Madhya Pradesh (Spe-
cies C and D) ( Subbarao et al., 1992 ) and Uttar Pradesh (Species A) ( Sub-
barao et al., 1988 ) in India, and in Sri Lanka ( Amerasinghe et al., 1991b ).
An. culicifacies have been experimentally infected with P. vivax in from
infected monkeys ( Collins et al., 2009 ) and laboratory colonies established
from wild caught An. culicifacies (Species A, B and C) were infected with
vivax from blood drawn from infected humans ( Adak et al., 1999 ). Species
A and C showed relatively high oocyst infections but Species B did not.
Sporozoite infections were relatively high in Species A compared to Spe-
cies C and negligible in Species B. There is evidence that Species B may be
refractory to P. vivax infection ( Adak et al., 2006 ; Vijay et al., 2011 ).
Sporozoites were detected in specimens collected in Iran and the species is said
to transmit both P. vivax and P. falciparum ( Eshghi et al., 1976 ). Both oocytes
and sporozoites were found in an An. fluviatilis (Species T) laboratory colony
infected by human volunteers under controlled conditions ( Adak et al., 2005 ).