Geology Reference
In-Depth Information
Kenya, 20 000 km2 in 1948; and Serengei
Naional Park in Tanzania, 25 000 km2 in 1951,
were the first two parks in East Africa. Game
reserves in Tanganyika, which specifically forbade
agriculture, settlement, forest exploitaion and, up
to 1964, any form of huning, also covered over
100 000 km2 by 1961.
At Independence legal categories of land use
for consevaion purposes in Kenya and Tanzania
included the following:
National Parks, together with
consiable seaion
of the forest zone. [my emphasis J
(Huxley, 1932)
The landmark 'Arusha Conference' of the
Intenaional Union for the Conservation of
Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) in 1961,
which lauded the achievements of outgoing col-
onial regimes and laid much of the groundwork
for later wildlife conservation (e.g. the origin of
the famed Arusha Manifesto in which President
Nyerere stated the naion's commiment to the
presevation of wildlife), makes absolutely no
menion of the biological values of East Africa's
forests (IUCN, 1963).
Naional Park, no human rights or utilisaion,
enacted by Parliament.
Game Reseve (or Naional Reserve in Kenya),
no human rights or uilisaion, enacted by
Ministerial gazettement.
Game Controlled Area/Hunting Block, all
forms of ulisaion allowed, including
settlement and culivaion, but shooing
Forest Reserve, no settlement or human rights,
but varied possibiliies of exploitation from
complete protecion to clear elling and
exoic plantation, enacted by Ministerial
gazettement. Kenya incorporated a
category of 'Nature Reserve' to give
greater protecion to speciic areas in the
Forest Reserve Estate.
Forests and land use praaices from
Independence to 1985
Both Kenya and Tanzania have increased their
respective areas of forest reserves in the 20 years
since Independence. In Tanzania, some 13 700
km2 of new reserves were formed and some 605
km2 were revoked in the face of great demand for
agricultural land, which did unfortunately include
a large area of 120 km2 of valuable natural forest
in the West Usambaras (Lundgren & Lundgren,
1982). Detailed informaion on East Usambara
forest development is given by Hamilton &
Mwasha (1990).
Major changes of forest policy resulted in a
great decrease in the volume of hardwoods
exported, the increased importance of industrial
plantaions, the beginnings of a zonaion system
for natural forests into producion and protecion
forest areas and, belatedly, much greater attenion
to social foresy and the needs of common
people. The village forestry programme of
Tanzania (Mnzava, 1980) is an important exam-
ple of Government's evolving forest policies.
In Tanzania forest policy has, in theory, given
equal attention to protecing and managing the
reserved forests in order to achieve perpetual
wood producion and to secure ecological and
hydrological stability of watersheds (Lundgren &
Lundgren, 1982). In pracice, however, protec-
ion orestry has received much less attenion
owing to inadequate staffing and financial
resources (Nordic Review Mission, 1979). The
Naional Parks and Game Reserves were
created largely for fauna) conservaion (especially
for large animals). Controlled Areas regulated
offtake of wildlife with commercial values, and
Forest Reserves served a variety offunctions from
protecing watersheds to regulaing commercial
oftake of imber. The funcion of conserving
unique and threatened biological components had
not yet, however, been officially menioned. The
Tanganyika Handbook of 1958 (Govenment of
Tanganyika, 1958b), which stresses 'game
preservaion', makes no menion of the conserva-
ion of forest values. Sir Julian Huxley, in a spon-
sored series of essays on African development,
did foresee the need for forest parks to conserve
forest values:
First and foremost the alpine zone of the great
mountains, Kilimanjaro, Kenya and Rwenzori,
and perhaps Mount Meru, should be made
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