Geology Reference
In-Depth Information
This policy statement downgraded earlier prio-
riies of protective forestry in favour of pressing
demands of agriculture, with the declaraion that
'forest cover should be limited to the minimum
area which will achieve the primary aims of
management' (Hamilton, 1984).
Similar policy changes took place at this time in
Tanganyika as well (probably due to the post-war
economic slump). The Secretary of State Forestry
Advisor said, 'Protecion, whilst sill most import-
ant, had been over-stressed. Production should
get more attention.' The Forest Department
expected export revenue to increase as a conse-
quence (Govenment of Tanganyika, 1946).
By the end of 1950s, with Independence com-
ing, forest policy grew more complicated, and
Tanganyika again gave precedence to protection.
The new forest policy, first proposed in 1953 and
enacted in 1961, stated objecives as:
Forest management acVlles were directed
towards immediate economic returns. The early
20th century saw the great expansion of industrial
pulp and imber requirements, and it rapidly
became obvious that the natural forest resources,
with only a low proportion of valuable species,
could not meet this demand. Indeed, commercial
non-destructive harvesting of natural forests gave
yields too low to pay for their protecion (Lund-
gren, 197 5). As a result both Kenya and
Tanganyika started to replace logged natural for-
ests with exotic softwood plantations; large areas
of forest on Mounts Meru and Kilimanjaro, and
in the West Usambaras were so replanted. In
Tanganyika this policy was described by Sangster
(1962) as 'the development of productive forests
follows lines well known in other countries of the
Commonwealth ...replacement of local timbers
by plantaions of exoic trees, either on the same
site or elsewhere ... '. Hamilton & Mwasha
(1990) present a detailed review of forest develop-
ment in the Usambaras in the British period.
However, another set of priorities was develop-
ing. The early 1900s saw the beginnings of an
international movement to conserve the aesthetic
and biological values of natural resources, not
merely their economic values. This was first for-
mally stated at a London Convenion in 1901.
This movement, which led to the creaion of
'National Parks' in areas of exceptional natural
beauty and richness (for example, Albert Park in
the then Belgian Congo, 1925; Kruger Park in
South Africa, 1926), achieved recognition in col-
onial Africa. The London 'Faunal' Conference of
1933, which advocated an increased reservation
of land for the conservaion of important biologi-
cal resources, extended these acions.
Foresters had long seen the need for some
form of natural reference and protection system
for seed sources and the maintenance of refuges
for pest-controlling birds and insects, etc. This
need was met by a system of small nature reserves
or preservaion plots in major forest areas in
several countries including Kenya and Uganda
but not Tanganyika. These plots, each averaging
much less than 2 km2, were insignificant beside
the huge parks and reserves created for large
mammal conservation. Tsavo Naional Park in
(a) To demarcate and reserve in perpetuity, for
the benefit of present and future inhabitants
of the country, sufficient forested land or
land capable of afforestation to preserve or
improve local climates and water supplies,
stabilize land which is liable to deterioration,
and provide a sustained yield of forest
produce of all kinds for internal use and
(b) To manage forest estate and all forest
growth on public land so as to obtain the
best financial returns on capital value and
cost of management in so far as such returns
are consistent with the primary aims above.
(c) To encourage and assist the practice of
foresry by local Government bodies and by
private enterprise.
(d) To undertake and promote research and
educaion in all branches of forestry and to
build up by example and teaching a real
understanding among the people of the
country, of the value of forests and forestry
to them and their descendants.
The Forest Deparment Annual Report con-
taining this policy statement went on to say that in
the past preoccupaion had been with paragraph
(b), i.e. financial gain (Govenment of Tangan-
yika, 1959). It is noteworthy that export value of
forest products had gone from UK £120 000 in
1946 to £580 000 in 1959.
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