Image Processing Reference
Table 10.6 Performance measures for various techniques for visualization of the coral data
Variance Entropy Avg gradient Relative Fusion
factor FF symmetry FS
Bilateral filtering technique
Three band selection
Piecewise linear function
Color matching function
The details of the quantitative assessment of the results of the urban data are
provided in Table 10.7 . We may also observe high values of the variance and the
average gradient for all the presented techniques as against the corresponding values
for the other techniques described here except possibly for the variational technique.
The smoothness constraint in this case helps producing smooth and thus visually
pleasing images, but at the cost of reduced sharpness. The contributions from the
input bands are also quite high for all the discussed techniques as observed from
the fusion factor FF. Fusion using the PLF and the CMF have captured some of
the subtle features from the data, however, their results appear quite dull, and thus
lack visual appeal and the clarity of details. As per Table 10.7 , all techniques have
performed well in terms of low values of the relative bias b with the variational
technique providing the smallest value indicating the least deviation from the input
data with respect to the mean intensity value. Also, low values of fusion symmetry
FS indicate high level of uniformity in the participation from various hyperspectral
bands towards the fusion output for all techniques studied in this chapter.
We now discuss the computational requirements of these fusion techniques before
we conclude this chapter. We have implemented all the algorithms in
version R2009a running on a P-IV computer running at 2.66 GHz with 2 GB RAM.
Out of four techniques discussed in the monograph, the bilateral filtering-based one
is a non-iterative single pass procedure. The technique initially produces a bilaterally
filtered output of every band in the data. These outputs are used to compute the fusion
weights while the actual fused image is produced via a normalized sum of bands.
We have used the fast implementation of bilateral filter as described in . The
moffett 2 ,moffett 3 , and lunar datasets provided by the AVIRIS contain 224 bands
pixels each. For the aforementioned computer system,
the bilateral filtering-based solution took nearly 120 s to generate the fused image
geological, coral, and urban datasets contain 242 bands of the size
each, provided by the Hyperion. The proposed solution took nearly 27 s to generate
the fused image with 3 stages of hierarchical processing.
The Bayesian technique can be split into two parts. The first part deals with
the computation of the sensor selectivity factors
over every pixel in the data.