Environmental Engineering Reference
zero-heating cost apartment block in Ludwigshafen, Germany, which was built in
the 1970s and then renovated in 2007 to a technical standard comparable to today's
levels (Figure 14.5 ).
Figure 14.5 Constant hikes in energy bills are a thing of the past for this zero-heating cost house in
Ludwigshafen, Germany. Source: LUWOGE, www.luwoge.de.
The result is a reduced heat energy requirement of around 80%, which now amounts
to only about 20 kilowatt hours per square metre of living space per year. Thirty-
centimetre thick outer wall insulation and triple-glazed thermal windows provide
optimal building insulation. Controlled living space ventilation with heat recovery
reduces ventilation heat losses. Solar thermal façade collectors provide for the hot
water supply and a large grid-coupled photovoltaic system is located on the roof.
The minimal remaining heating needs are covered electrically. The yield from the
photovoltaic system should be roughly the same as the heating electricity costs. The
tenants do not pay for any heating. Constant rises in heating costs are therefore also
a thing of the past for this building. Taking into account all costs including upkeep
and vacancy rates, the modernization measures have also turned out to be very
lucrative for the investor. Both sides benefi ted from the climate-protection measures
that were taken.
14.2 Working and Producing in Compatibility
with the Climate
14.2.1 Offi ces and Shops in Solar Ship
The Sonnenschiff (Solar Ship) is located near the housing estate in Freiburg
discussed above. The Sonnenschiff is a solar service centre that houses shops,