Environmental Engineering Reference
that houses in countries with cold winters could be heated with solar energy alone.
But in recent years many single-family houses have proven that heating require-
ments can be covered by the sun even in Central Europe. The fi rst multiple - family
dwelling in Europe to be heated 100% with solar thermal heat was built in Burgdorf
near Bern, Switzerland, in 2007 (Figure 14.4).
Figure 14.4 Left: First multiple-family dwelling in Europe to be heated 100% with solar thermal heat.
Right: Installation of 276 m 2 roof-integrated solar collector. Source: Jenni Energietechnik AG, www.jenni.ch.
High-quality heat insulation and a ventilation system with heat recovery ensure that
heat losses in this building are relatively low. The large 276 square metre roof is
completely covered with solar collectors. An enormous hot water storage tank con-
taining 205 000 litres is located in the centre of the building. The seasonal storage
tank extends from the cellar to the loft. The collectors heat the storage tank with
solar heat in the summer. In winter when the collectors cannot supply suffi cient
heat, the heat from the storage keeps the building toasty warm. Supplemental heat
is not required.
Less than 10% of the total construction cost of around 1.8 million euros for the
building was spent on the solar system. Yet aside from the small expenditure for
electricity for the solar and heating cycle pumps, no additional heating costs are
actually incurred. Heating costs are included in the rent, so that residents of the
block do not have to worry about constant rises in energy bills.
14.1.5 Zero Heating Costs after Redevelopment
Practically all technical options can be incorporated into new-builds without a
problem. The situation is considerably more complex with existing buildings that
date from a time before protecting the environment was considered important.
Building renovations or the installation of a new heating system present the ideal
opportunity to make enormous reductions in carbon dioxide. One example is the