Environmental Engineering Reference
In-Depth Information
1 . 0ms 1 and the exponent c is 0.63 for symmetrical plate temperatures
or plate distances d> 0 . 4m. For asymmetrical plate temperatures and plate distances
d< 0 . 4m, the exponent c
where u 0 =
0 . 61. For higher velocities ( u> 1 . 0ms 1 ), u gap is fixed
to a maximum permissible value of 1.0m s 1 . In this case, the relation u gap / u 0 is
1.0 and Nu H,mix becomes zero. Consequently, Equation 2.1 will be reduced to
Equation 2.2.
The Reynolds number Re H,res is calculated from both free and forced flow condi-
tions, where asymmetric plate temperatures for the warm and cold side of the fa¸ade
gap can be used.
Re 2 H,force +
Re 2 H,free
Re H,res
Gr H / 2 . 5
Re H,force =
; Re H,free =
T ( WS )
T m H 3
T ( CS )
T m H 3
Gr H ( WS )
; Gr H ( CS )
υ 2
υ 2
Gr H ( WS ) represents the buoyancy-driven flow for the warmer plate and Gr H ( CS ) that of
the colder plate.
The new correlation is able to cover a wide range of boundary conditions for mixed
flowinfa¸ades: namely, plate distances between 5 and 50 cm, inlet air temperatures
10 and +60 CandReynolds
numbers Re d (for plates at distance d ) between 500 and 6500 (corresponding to flow
velocities analysed between 0.06 and about 2.0m s 1 ). Compared with the simpler
approaches chosen in the European standard DIN EN 13363-2 and the international
standard ISO/DIS 15099, the correlation agrees excellently with experiments and CFD
simulations. While the ISO/DIS 15099 method agrees quite well with the CFD results
for some cases, the simplified DIN EN 13363-2 model usually leads to higher heat
transfer rates.
The dynamic thermal model is based on a numerical solution of the one-dimensional
heat conduction equation applied to both sides of the ventilated fa¸ade. Both sides are
coupled by long-wave radiative heat exchange across the air gap, which can be up to
90% higher than the convective part. After solving the heat conduction equation on
both sides of the ventilation gap in each simulation time step, the determined radiative
heat flow is added as heat gain to the colder surfaces and is subtracted as heat loss
from the warmer surfaces. Then the calculation of the actual time step is repeated
with the new heat gains and the resulting layer temperatures are again determined.
This procedure is repeated several times for each time step. The calculations have
shown that three iterations usually provide a sufficient convergence in temperature.
The model has been implemented both as an independent software tool (TransFact)
10 and +30 C, surface temperatures between
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