Image Processing Reference
such as in Kavaklı, Yakuplu, and Kıraç, for example, witnessed a population growth
rate of 70-125% during the period 1970-1985 and increased to 1,150-2,300% dur-
ing the period 1985-1998. Even in Hoşdere, which was only a village in 1997, the
increase in population was approximately 1,300% between 1985 and 1997.
Likewise, the increase in Esenyurt was 221% between 1970 and 1985 then reached
372% in the period 1985-1997. The population in this sub-district has been con-
tinuously increasing from 1985 (21,000) to 1997 (100,000) and reached a greater
population than the coastal sub-districts and city centre. The main reason for the
increase in population is related to the huge amount of migration from other parts
of Turkey rather than natural population growth. It is obvious that such a population
explosion would cause great land use changes in the area.
The results obtained from the classified LANDSAT TM image of 1984
(Fig. 15.4a, b , Table 15.3 ) showed that 93.4% (21,013.8 ha) of the Büyükçekmece
was covered with agricultural fields. For the fields located in Büyükçekmece, its
sub-districts and villages the proportion was approximately 86-98% (except in
Ahmediye). Before 1984 the whole area was covered with watermelon, musk-
melon, grain, and sunflower fields, with farming and agriculture being the main
land use activities. On the other hand, in Büyükçekmece there were only 3.6%
settlement areas, having the densest building in Mimarsinan with 10.2% and a
minimum proportion of settlement in Ahmediye with only 0.6%. The district had
virtually no forested areas (only 2.4%). In this district, there were some stone
quarries located in a 40.2 ha area and its percentage of coverage area within the
total district was only 0.2%. There were no industrialized areas established prior
According to the results obtained from classified LANDSAT TM data dated
1998 (Fig. 15.5a, b , Table 15.4 ) the percentage area of the fields averaged 67%.
Fields in Kumburgaz and Türkoba located on the west of the Büyükçekmece Lake,
and Karaağaç on the northeast of the lake covered 83-86% of the areas, but only
50-78% in other parts of the district (with the exception of Ahmediye, where they
are only 29.3% of the area).
In Büyükçekmece, settlements covered 5,242 ha, which is about 1/4 of the total
district. Industrialized areas comprising 3-5% of the study area were mostly located
at the eastern part of the Büyükçekmece Lake in Kavaklı, Yakuplu, and Kıraç, and
in Mimarsinan at the southwestern part of the lake. All of these sub-districts have
shores or coastlines, except Kıraç. Forest areas covered approximately 6% of the
Karaağaç, but they were less than 3.2% in all other areas. In the whole district, per-
centage of the forest areas average 1.7%, with half of it in the Karaağaç. Percentage
of land used for stone quarries in the district was 1.5% (340 ha).
In this example, the overall performance of classification is a compound of the
accuracies of the individual classifications which, in turn, depend largely on the
consistency, homogeneity and separability of the original training classes and how
representative they are (Coppin and Bauer 1996 ). Hence, classification accuracy
analysis was performed after each classification process with error matrix and
Kappa analysis using 50 randomly selected test points which are independent of
training areas from the existing field maps (Table 15.5 ).