Image Processing Reference
Fig. 15.3 Sample pictures for some of land use classes utilized in the case study (fields, stone
quarries, settlement, and industrial areas)
The percentage of their distribution over the 14 administrative units of Istanbul was
calculated from land use classification results for both dates. Classification accu-
racy analysis for each classification was performed to calculate the confusion
matrix and Kappa coefficient using 50 ground truth sample points, which were
selected independent of training areas.
Using the multi-temporal LANDSAT TM images, change detection methods
were applied to reveal changes in land use between 1984 and 1998. In this study,
both the image differencing and image ratioing methods were utilized. Band 3
(0.63-0.69 mm) of the first LANDSAT TM data (1984) was subtracted/divided
from band 3 of the second LANDSAT TM data (1998). Band 3 was selected
because it is believed to be the best band for cultural/urban feature identification.
The resulting difference image was then classified to reveal changes in areas of
different land uses between the years 1984 and 1998. In addition, the NDVI was
used to evaluate urban change in a focused area, Mimarsinan - one of Istanbul's
sub-districts known of main land use changes, between 1998 and 2002.
Results and Discussion
The population growth between 1970 and 1985 in some sub-districts of
Büyükçekmece exploded after 1985 to reach a growth rate of over 1000% during
the period 1985-1997 (Table 15.1 and Fig. 15.2 ). Attractive coastal sub-districts