Geography Reference
In-Depth Information
no signal contributions, theoretical or otherwise, to communist rule
in China.
Hu Shi (1891-1962): Chinese intellectual educated at Cornell and
Columbia in the early twentieth century; influential May Fourth
thinker who espoused the thought of John Dewey and opposed
communism; energetic advocate of the plain language movement.
Hu Yaobang (1915-1989): Originally a fellow moderate and trusted
confederate of Deng Xiaoping; replaced Hua Guofeng as CCP chairman
in 1981, only to be dismissed from this post in 1987 by Deng Xiaoping,
who disapproved of his bourgeois liberalism and support of student
demands for increased democratization; mourning after his death of a
heart attack in April 1989 led to student demonstrations and eventually
the Tiananmen Square movement during the spring of 1989.
Hua Guofeng (1920-): One-time designated heir of Mao Zedong;
briefly chairman of the CCP after Mao's death; ordered the arrest of
the Gang of Four; elbowed out of power and relegated into obscurity
by Deng Xiaoping.
Huang Chao (d. 884): Late Tang rebel leader who captured Canton
(Guangzhou) in 879 and slaughtered thousands of Christian, Jewish,
and Muslim merchants there, perhaps blaming them for China's fam-
ines and other troubles.
Hurley, Patrick (1883-1963): American diplomat who attempted
unsuccessfully right after World War II to get the Chinese Nationalists
and Communists to enter into a peace agreement.
Jan Wong: See Wong, Jan.
Jiang Zemin (1926-): Third major leader of the People's Republic of
China from 1997; handpicked successor of Deng Xiaoping; unoriginal
intellect and continuator of Deng Xiaoping's policies; voiced approval
of Tiananmen Square Massacre. Replaced by Hu Jintao in early 2000s
as China's strongman.
Kang Youwei (1858-1927): Late Qing idealist and would-be
reformer; unsuccessfully launched comprehensive reform movement
in 1898; subsequently fled to Japan, where he energetically advocated
constitutional monarchy for China under the Manchu emperors.
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