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Table 3.1 Classification of Indian Haemaphysaline Subgenera
Structurally Primitive
Structurally Intermediate
Structurally Advanced
Alloceraea (1 species)
Herpetobia (6 species)
(5 species)
Allophysalis (2 species)
Haemaphysalis (4 species)
Aboimisalis (1 species)
Kaiseriana (17 species)
Aborphysalis (2 species)
Segalia (2 species)
Rhipistoma (2 species)
capituli and compact or short, broad palpi function more effectively to force a pas-
sage though feathers or fur than do a broad basis capituli and elongate palpi. Large
primitive ticks parasitizing glabrous reptiles were not faced with this problem.
On the basis of structural development as one of the criteria laid by Hoogstraal
and Kim for the classification of different subgenera, 42 Indian Haemaphysalis
ticks can be divided into 10 subgenera as given in Table 3.1 .
Of the 42 Indian Haemaphysalis ticks recorded in 10 subgenera, species belong-
ing to three subgenera, that is Alloceraea [1 species], Allophysalis [2 species], and
Aboimisalis [1 species] are supposed to be structurally primitive (SP), six subge-
nera (Ornithophysalis [5 species], Haemaphysalis [4 species], Kaiseriana [17 spe-
cies], Aborphysalis [2 species], Segalia [2 species], Rhipistoma [2 species]) are
structurally advanced (SA) and includes 31 species. Herpetobia subgenus which
includes six species, exhibit characters intermediate between the SA and SP species
so they are considered as structurally intermediate haemaphysalids (SI) ( Table 3.1 ).
3.8.1 Structurally Primitive Haemaphysalis
A total of four species are included in these subgenera. The most basic criterion of
the four SP species is the presence, in each stage, or only in larvae and nymphs, of
a lateral convexity of the basis capituli or of a projection from each side of the
basis capituli. SP palpi are elongated and compact, but not basolaterally salient. SP
capitular and leg-spur development is with few notable exceptions, exceedingly
slight. In all other SA haemaphysaline species, the basis capitulum is rectangular,
usually with posterior cornua; lateral projections are absent. SP palpi are elongated
and compact, but not basolaterally salient. The three SP subgenera link
Haemaphysalis and other non-rhipicephaline ixodids and differ distinctly from
other haemaphysaline species in other subgenera.
There is only one species included under the subgenus Alloceraea in India, that
is H. aponommoides Warburton, which is found in the highlands of Central and
eastern Himalayan range of Southern China. Alloceraea males, nymphs, and larvae
each also have a laterally convex or otherwise laterally projecting basis capituli,
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