deaths occur. Spraying of lindane of 1.12 kg/ha resulted in significant reduction of
Haemaphysalis population for at least 12 weeks. As cattle constitute the major host
for Haemaphysalis adult ticks, the effect of insecticide on cattle was also studied.
Cattle were spread and dusted with different concentration of insecticides, that is
0.5% malathion, 0.25% and 0.5% of carbaryl, and 0.01% and 0.03% lindane, result-
ing in significant control of ticks on cattle.
Kulkarni and Naik studied the repellent effects of six chemicals, namely dibu-
tylphthalate (DBP), dimethylphthalate (DMP), N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET),
two proprietary preparations, “Insect repellent” (DEET
DMP) and “Mylol”
DMP), and pyrethrum were evaluated against larvae, nymphs, and adults
of three species of ixodid ticks, namely H. spinigera, H. turturis, H. kinneari, and
two species of argasid ticks, namely Argas persicus and A. arboreus. In addition,
effect against adults of H. intermedia, H. obesa, and H. wellingtoni was also tested.
DEET showed highest repellency against all stages of tick species except nymphs
and adults of argasid ticks. The overall relative repellency of the six chemicals
following order: DEET
3.8 Phylogeny of Indian Haemaphysalis Ticks 62,96
Structurally primitive Haemaphysalis
Structurally intermediate Haemaphysalis
Structurally advanced Haemaphysalis
In all, 168 species have been included in this genus from all over the world.
They are all mostly parasitic on birds and mammals, constitute the most useful
assemblage in the superfamily Ixodoidea for displaying numerous interrelated
biological clues to affinities between tick species and groups, and to his-
torical and contemporary host associations. A number of structurally primitive spe-
cies, each with specialized biologic properties, provide indicators of the early
history and contemporary survival and adaptation of Haemaphysalis species.
Haemaphysalis ticks differ from those of other genera in that male capitular spurs
and spur-like angles, and also coxal spurs, are almost invariably more luxuriant
than those of females.
The dominating phylogenetic trend throughout the genus Haemaphysalis is the
gradual reduction in the lateral salience of basis capituli and length of palpi which
are characteristic of more primitive genera such as Aponomma and Amblyomma.
These structures' evolution is more toward a rectangular basis capitulum with pos-
terior cornua, compact to broadly basosalient palpi and various combinations of
coxal and trochantal spurs and capitular spurs, angles, or emarginations. These
adaptations apparently enabled the ticks to attach firmly on the host. These hair-
hooking devices assist the small tick in penetrating a maze of stiff hairs and spines
to reach a feeding site on the host integument. A trend toward smaller bodies and
capituli is also strong. In small-sized ticks, posterior cornua on a rectangular basis