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by military metaphors, both repeated and developed, as when the narra-
tor attributes to Jean Rivard 'cette bravoure militaire, cette valeur fou-
gueuse qui se manifeste de temps à autre en présence de l'ennemi, sur un
champ de bataille' (53; that military bravery, that fiery temperament that
arises from time to time in the presence of the enemy on the battle field).
The omnipresent military metaphor becomes all the more prevalent after
he and his hired hand read a Histoire populaire de Napoléon and begin
to  see the forest as a battleground: 'Cet ennemi, c'était la forêt qui les
entourait et à travers laquelle les deux vaillants guerriers devaient se
frayer un passage. Les travaux de nos défricheurs n'étaient plus autre
chose que des batailles sanglantes.' (70; The enemy was the forest sur-
rounding them, through which the two valiant warriers had to forge a
passage. Their work in clearing the land was nothing other than bloody
battles.) In effect, their perception of nature has been transformed by
culture (French at that) by means of a book and in the form of a social
institution (the army), whose organization they then impose on the wil-
derness. Again it is difficult not to read into this extended metaphor rem-
nants of the Conquest and repressed rebellions, a re-enactment and
reversal of past military misfortunes in which the French Canadian now
emerges as the ultimate conqueror of the land. 5 Their victory may be read
as compensation for paternal property, fatherland, and paradise lost, but
now, through their efforts, regained, as foreseen in Rivard's founding
dream (the ultimate expression of repressed and disguised desire):
'Il s'endormit profondément, et eut un songe assez étrange. Il se crut
transporté au milieu d'une immense forêt. Tout à coup des hommes appa-
rurent armés de haches, et les arbres tombèrent çà et là sous les coups de
la cognée. Bientôt ces arbres furent remplacés par des moissons luxurian-
tes; puis des vergers, des jardins, des fleurs surgirent comme par enchan-
tement. Le soleil brillait dans tout son éclat; il se crut au milieu du paradis
terrestre. En même temps il lui sembla entendre une voix lui dire: il ne
dépend que de toi d'être un jour l'heureux et paisible possesseur de ce
domaine.' [31; He fell fast asleep, and had a dream that was quite strange.
He found himself transported to the middle of a vast forest. Suddenly men
armed with axes appeared, and the trees fell here and there under their
blows. Soon those trees were replaced by rich harvests; then orchards,
gardens, flowers surged forth as if by magic. The sun was shining in full
brightness, he believed himself in the middle of earthly paradise. At the
same time, he seemed to hear a voice tell him: it depends on you alone to
one day be the happy, peaceful owner of this domain.]
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