Health

Worldwide Health Indicators

Column data as follows: Life expectancy in 2005; Doctors = persons per doctor1; Infant mortality per 1,000 births in 2005; Water = percentage (%) of population with access to safe drinking water in 2004; Food = percentage (%) of the FAO recommended minimum in 20 042.

 

LIFE EXPECTANCY

 

INFANT

 

 

REGION/BLOC

MALE

FEMALE

DOCTORS

MORTALITY

WATER

FOOD

World

66.0

70.0


730

38.3

83

118

Africa

51.8

53.8

2,560

78.4

643

103

Central Africa

49.8

50.2

12,890

96.1

463

80

East Africa

46.9

48.2

13,620

86.7

503

86

North Africa

67.2

71.0

890

39.2

91

125

Southern Africa

47.8

51.2

1,610

55.1

853

119

West Africa

47.7

49.7

6,260

94.3

653

109

Americas

71.5

77.6

520

17.1

913

129

Anglo-America4

75.0

80.4

370

6.2

1003

140

Canada

76.7

83.6

540

4.8

100

136

United States

74.8

80.1

360

6.4

100

141

Latin America

69.4

76.0

690

23.6

91

123

Caribbean

67.5

71.6

380

29.4

793

118

Central America

67.9

73.7

950

21.4

883

106

Mexico

72.7

77.6

810

12.6

97

134

South America

68.9

76.2

710

26.3

863

122

Andean Group

69.4

75.6

830

23.5

863

108

Brazil

67.7

75.9

770

30.7

90

132

Other South America

72.1

79.4

410

17.5

823

120

Asia

67.2

70.3

970

39.6

813

116

Eastern Asia

71.2

75.0

610

22.3

785

121

China

70.4

73.7

620

25.2

77

123

Japan

78.6

85.6

530

2.7

100

110

Republic of Korea

71.7

79.3

740

6.4

92

123

Other Eastern Asia

71.7

77.3

500

13.8

943

93

 

Worldwide Health Indicators

 

 

 

LIFE EXPECTANCY

 

INFANT

 

 

REGION/BLOC

MALE

FEMALE

DOCTORS

MORTALITY

WATER

FOOD

Asia (continued)

 

 

 

 

 

 

South Asia

63.3

64.6

2,100

60.5

856

108

India

63.6

65.2

1,920

56.3

86

112

Pakistan

64.7

65.5

1,840

76.2

91

100

Other South Asia

60.4

60.5

5,080

71.0

853

97

Southeast Asia

66.8

71.9

3,120

33.9

82

123

Southwest Asia

67.3

71.9

610

35.5

853

118

Central Asia

61.0

68.9

330

54.0

823

99

Gulf Cooperation Council

73.4

77.5

620

12.7

953

117

Iran

68.6

71.4

1,200

41.6

94

131

Other Southwest Asia

67.6

71.9

690

31.6

823

119

Europe

71.0

79.1

300

7.2

983

130

European Union (EU)

75.5

81.8

290

4.8

1003

137

France

76.7

83.8

330

3.6

100

142

Germany

75.8

82.0

290

4.1

100

131

Italy

77.6

83.2

180

5.9

1003

151

Spain

76.7

83.2

240

4.4

100

138

United Kingdom

75.9

81.0

720

5.1

100

137

Other EU

73.6

80.3

320

5.2

1003

133

Non-EU7

78.5

83.5

480

3.8

1003

131

Eastern Europe

62.3

73.8

290

11.7

953

119

Russia

59.9

73.3

240

11.5

97

117

Ukraine

62.2

74.0

330

10.0

96

120

Other Eastern Europe

67.3

74.7

370

13.4

843

121

Australia

78.5

83.3

400

4.7

100

116

Oceania

74.5

79.4

480

14.7

508

117

Pacific Ocean Islands

68.3

73.3

770

30.1

673

118

1Latest data available for individual countries. 2The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) calculates this percentage by dividing the caloric equivalent to the known average daily supply of foodstuffs for human consumption in a given country by its population, thus arriving at a minimum daily per capita caloric intake. The higher the percentage, the more calories consumed. 3Data for 2000. 4Includes Canada, the US, Greenland, Bermuda, and St. Pierre and Miquelon. 5Does not include Japan. 6Includes Iran. 7Western Europe only; includes Andorra, Faroe Islands, Gibraltar, Guernsey, Iceland, Isle of Man, Jersey, Liechtenstein, Monaco, Norway, San Marino, and Switzerland. 8Does not include New Zealand.

Causes of Death, Worldwide, by Sex

Global estimates for 2002 as published in the World Health Organization World Health Report 2003. Data are percentages of total deaths in each category. Ranking is based on categories defined by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision. All other causes of death (mostly residual) make up approximately 3.7 percent of all deaths.

LEADING CAUSES OF DEATH

1 Major cardiovascular diseases Ischemic heart diseases Cerebrovascular diseases Hypertensive heart disease

2 Infectious and parasitic diseases

HIV/AIDS

Diarrheal diseases Tuberculosis Childhood diseases Malaria

3 Malignant neoplasms

Trachea, bronchus, and lung Stomach

Colon, rectum, and anus Liver

4 Respiratory infections

5 Respiratory diseases

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

ALL CATE-

MALES

FEMALES

GORIES (%)

(%)

(%)

29.2

27.0

31.7

12.6

12.6

12.5

9.6

8.5

10.9

1.6

1.4

1.8

19.5

19.9

19.0

4.9

5.1

4.8

3.1

3.1

3.1

2.8

3.5

2.0

2.4

2.3

2.5

2.1

2.0

2.4

12.5

13.2

11.6

2.2

3.0

1.3

1.5

1.7

1.2

1.1

1.1

1.1

1.1

1.4

0.7

6.7

6.4

7.1

6.5

6.4

6.6

4.8

4.7

4.9

Causes of Death, Worldwide, by Sex

 

 

ALL CATE

MALES

FEMALES

 

LEADING CAUSES OF DEATH

GORIES (%)

(%)

(%)

6

Accidents (unintentional injuries)

6.2

7.7

4.6

 

Road traffic injuries

2.1

2.9

1.2

 

Falls

0.7

0.8

0.6

7

Perinatal conditions

4.3

4.6

4.0

8

Digestive diseases

3.4

3.6

3.2

 

Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis of the liver 1.4

1.7

1.0

9

Neuropsychiatric disorders

1.9

1.9

2.0

 

Alzheimer and other dementias

0.7

0.5

0.9

10

Diabetes mellitus

1.7

1.5

2.0

11

Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, and nephrosis

1.2

1.2

1.2

12

Intentional injuries

2.9

3.9

1.7

 

Intentional self-harm (suicide)

1.5

1.8

1.2

 

Violence (assault)

1.0

1.5

0.4

Causes of Death, Worldwide, by Region

Global estimates for 2002 as published in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Health Report 2004. Regions are as defined by the WHO. Numbers are in thousands (’000).

 

LEADING ALL CATE-

ALL CATE-

AFRI-

AMER-

REGI EASTERN MEDITER-

DN

EUROPE

SOUTHEAST

WESTERN

 

CAUSES OF DEATH GORIES (%)

GORIES

CA

ICAS

RANEAN

 

ASIA

PACIFIC

1

Ischemic heart disease 12.6

7,208

332

921

538

2,373

2,039

993

2

Cerebrovascular disease

9.7

5,509

359

452

227

1,447

1,059

1,957

3

Lower respiratory infections

6.8

3,884

1,104

223

348

280

1,453

471

4

HIV disease

4.9

2,777

2,095

103

44

36

436

61

5

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

4.8

2,748

117

241

95

261

656

1,375

6

Perinatal conditions

4.3

2,462

554

175

303

65

1,012

349

7

Diarrheal diseases

3.2

1,798

707

57

259

16

604

154

8

Tuberculosis

2.7

1,566

348

46

138

69

599

366

9

Malaria

2.2

1,272

1,136

1

59

0

65

11

10

Trachea, bronchus, and lung cancers

2.2

1,243

17

231

27

366

174

427

11

Road traffic accidents

2.1

1,192

195

135

133

127

296

304

12

Diabetes mellitus

1.7

988

80

253

55

142

263

192

13

Hypertensive heart disease

1.6

911

60

135

97

179

152

284

14

Self-inflicted injuries

1.5

873

34

63

34

163

246

331

15

Stomach cancer

1.5

850

34

74

21

157

63

500

16

Cirrhosis of the liver

1.4

786

54

105

67

171

204

185

17

Nephritis and nephrosis

1.2

677

99

102

65

76

169

165

18

Colon and rectum cancers

1.1

622

20

109

15

228

63

186

19

Liver cancer

1.1

618

45

37

15

66

61

394

20

Measles

1.1

611

311

0

70

6

196

28

21

Violence

1.0

559

134

146

26

73

113

66

22

Congenital anomalies

0.9

493

56

58

83

38

149

108

23

Breast cancer

0.8

477

35

89

27

150

93

82

24

Esophagus cancer

0.8

446

22

32

16

48

82

245

25

Inflammatory heart disease

0.7

404

42

67

37

101

76

81

26

Alzheimer/other dementias

0.7

397

7

118

11

105

88

66

27

Drowning

0.7

382

65

22

26

38

98

132

28

Poisoning

0.6

350

39

17

15

111

95

75

29

Lymphomas

0.6

334

33

68

20

75

96

42

30

Rheumatic heart disease

0.6

327

20

10

24

30

133

110

31

Mouth and oropharynx cancers

0.6

318

18

24

20

51

149

57

32

Pertussis

0.5

294

131

3

46

0

111

2

33

Prostate cancer

0.5

269

41

78

8

93

27

21

34

Leukemia

0.5

264

13

48

20

62

46

74

35

Peptic ulcer disease

0.5

264

15

20

12

39

99

79

36

Malnutrition

0.5

260

104

43

26

5

68

14

37

Asthma

0.4

240

26

18

16

43

97

42

38

Cervix uteri cancer

0.4

239

38

31

7

26

101

34

39

Pancreas cancer

0.4

231

8

52

5

88

19

58

40

Tetanus

0.4

214

84

0

36

0

82

11

Ten Leading Causes of Death in the US, by Age

Preliminary data for 2006. Numbers in thousands. Rates per 100,000 population. Numbers are based on weighted data rounded to the nearest individual, so category percentages and rates may not add to totals given.

CAUSE NUMBER

RATE

%

CAUSE

NUMBER

RATE

%

1-4 YEARS

 

 

 

3 Diseases of heart

14,873

17.7

11.9%

1 Accidents

1,591

9.8

34.3%

4 Intentional self-harm

11,240

13.4

9.0%

Motor-vehicle accidents

586

3.6

12.6%

(suicide\

 

 

 

All other accidents

1,005

6.2

21.7%

5 Assault (homicide)

7,525

8.9

6.0%

2 Congenital malformations,

501

3.1

10.8%

6 HIV disease

5,150

6.1

4.1%

deformations, and chromo

 

 

 

7 Chronic liver disease

2,805

3.3

.2%

somal abnormalities

 

 

 

and cirrhosis

 

 

 

3 Malignant neoplasms

372

2.3

8.0%

8 Diabetes mellitus

2,705

3.2

2.2%

4 Assault (homicide)

350

2.1

7.5%

9 Cerebrovascular

2,703

3.2

2.2%

5 Diseases of heart

160

1.0

3.5%

diseases

 

 

 

6 Influenza and pneumonia

114

0.7

2.5%

10 Septicemia

1,131

1.3

0.9%

7 Septicemia

88

0.5

1.9%

All other causes

28,488

33.9

22.8%

8 Conditions of perinatal origin 67

0.4

1.4%

All causes, 25-44

125,173

148.9 100.0%

9 Nonmalignant/unknown

63

0.4

1.4%

years

 

 

 

neoplasms

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10 Cerebrovascular diseases

53

0.3

1.1%

45-64 YEARS

 

 

All other causes

1,277

7.8

27.5%

1 Malignant

151,654

202.6

32.7%

All causes, 1-4 years

4,636 28.5 100.0%

neoplasms

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2 Diseases of heart

101,588

135.7

21.9%

5-14 YEARS

 

 

3 Accidents

29,505

39.4

6.4%

1 Accidents

2,228

5.5

36.3%

Motor-vehicle

10,939

14.6

2.4%

Motor-vehicle accidents

1,323

3.3

21.6%

accidents

 

 

 

All other accidents

905

2.2

14.7%

All other accidents

18,566

24.8

4.0%

2 Malignant neoplasms

916

2.3

14.9%

4 Diabetes mellitus

17,012

22.7

3.7%

3 Assault (homicide)

387

1.0

6.3%

5 Cerebrovascular

16,779

22.4

3.6%

4 Congenital malformations,

330

0.8

5.4%

diseases

 

 

 

deformations, and chromo

 

 

 

6 Chronic lower

16,181

21.6

3.5%

somal abnormalities

 

 

\

respiratory diseases

 

 

 

5 Diseases of heart

242

0.6

3.9%

7 Chronic liver disease

14,725

19.7

3.2%

6 Intentional self-harm

213

0.5

3.5%

and cirrhosis

 

 

 

(suicide)

 

 

 

8 Intentional self-harm

11,492

15.4

2.5%

7 Chronic lower respiratory

113

0.3

1.8%

(suicide)

 

 

 

diseases

 

 

 

9  Nephritis, nephrotic

6,495

8.7

1.4%

8 Cerebrovascular diseases

93

0.2

1.5%

syndrome, and

 

 

 

9 Septicemia

78

0.2

1.3%

nephrosis

 

 

 

10 Nonmalignant/unknown

76

0.2

1.2%

10 Septicemia

6,184

8.3

1.3%

neoplasms

 

 

 

All other causes

92,848

124.0

20.0%

All other causes

1,460

3.6

23.8%

All causes, 45-64

464,463

620.4 100.0%

All causes, 5-14 years

6,136

15.2 100.0%

years

 

15-24 YEARS

 

 

65 YEARS AND OVER

1 Accidents 15,859

37.4

45.8%

1 Diseases of heart

510,934 1,371.3

29.0%

Motor-vehicle accidents 10,845

25.6

31.3%

2 Malignant

387,828 1,040.9

22.0%

All other accidents

5,014

11.8

14.5%

neoplasms

 

2 Assault (homicide)

5,596

13.2

16.2%

3 Cerebrovascular

117,284

314.8

6.7%

3 Intentional self-harm

4,097

9.7

11.8%

diseases

 

(suicide)

 

\

 

4 Chronic lower

107,058

287.3

6.1%

4 Malignant neoplasms

1,643

3.9

4.7%

respiratory

 

5 Diseases of heart

1,021

2.4

2.9%

diseases

 

6 Congenital malformations,

456

1.1

1.3%

5 Alzheimer disease

72,135

193.6

4.1%

deformations, and chromo

 

 

 

6 Diabetes mellitus

52,599

141.2

3.0%

somal abnormalities

 

 

 

7 Influenza and

49,459

132.7

2.8%

7 Cerebrovascular diseases

206

0.5

0.6%

pneumonia

 

8 HIV disease

198

0.5

0.6%

8 Nephritis, nephrotic

36,960

99.2

2.1%

9 Influenza and pneumonia

180

0.4

0.5%

syndrome, and

 

10 Pregnancy and childbirth

172

0.4

0.5%

nephrosis

 

All other causes

5,204

12.3

15.0%

9 Accidents

36,436

97.8

2.1%

All causes, 15-24 years 34,632

81.6 100.0%

Motor-vehicle

6,953

18.7

0.4%

 

 

 

 

accidents

 

25-44 YEARS

\

 

All other accidents

29,483

79.1

1.7%

1 Accidents 30,949

36.8

24.7%

10 Septicemia

26,125

70.1

1.5%

Motor-vehicle 13,779

16.4

11.0%

All other causes

365,186

980.1

20.7%

accidents

 

 

 

All causes, 65 years 1,762,004 4,728.9 100.0%

All other accidents 17,170

20.4

13.7%

and over

 

2 Malignant neoplasms 17,604

20.9

14.1%

 

Twenty Leading Causes of Death in the US for All Ages

Data for 2006. Rates per 100,000 population.

 

CAUSE

NUMBER

RATE

TOTAL %

% MALE (RANK)1

% FEMALE (RANK)1

1

Diseases of heart

629,121

210.2

25.9

28.0 (1)

28.0 (1)

 

Ischemic heart diseases

424,892

141.9

17.5

20.5

18.8

 

Heart failure

60,315

20.1

2.5

1.9

2.8

2

Malignant neoplasms

560,102

187.1

23.1

24.0 (2)

21.6 (2)

 

Neoplasms of the trachea,

158,525

52.9

6.5

7.5

5.5

 

bronchus, and lung

 

 

 

 

 

 

Neoplasms of the colon,

53,465

17.9

2.2

2.3

2.2

 

rectum, and anus

 

 

 

 

 

 

Neoplasms of the breast

41,223

13.8

1.7

0.03

3.3

3

Cerebrovascular diseases

137,265

45.8

5.7

5.1 (4)

7.7 (3)

4

Chronic lower

124,614

41.6

5.1

5.1 (5)

5.3 (4)

 

respiratory diseases

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emphysema

12,570

4.2

0.5

0.6

0.6

5

Accidents

117,748

39.3

4.9

5.9 (3)

3.1 (7)

 

Motor-vehicle accidents

44,572

14.9

1.8

2.6

1.1

 

Accidental poisoning and

24,702

8.3

1.0

1.1

0.5

 

exposure to noxious substances

 

 

 

 

 

Falls

20,533

6.9

0.8

0.7

0.7

6

Diabetes mellitus

72,507

24.2

3.0

2.9 (6)

3.1 (6)

7

Alzheimer disease

72,914

24.4

3.0

1.5 (10)

3.6 (5)

8

Pneumonia

55,387

18.5

2.3

2.3 (7)

2.8 (8)

9

Nephritis, nephrotic

44,791

15.0

1.8

1.7 (9)

1.8 (9)

\

syndrome, and nephrosis

 

 

 

 

 

10

Septicemia

34,031

11.4

1.4

1.2 (12)

1.5 (10)

11

Intentional self-harm (suicide)

32,185

10.7

1.3

2.1 (8)

0.5 (17)

12

Chronic liver disease and

27,299

9.1

1.1

1.5 (11)

0.8 (12)

 

cirrhosis

 

 

 

 

 

13

Essential (primary)

23,985

8.0

1.0

0.7 (18)

1.1 (11)

 

hypertension and

 

 

 

 

 

 

hypertensive renal disease

 

 

 

 

 

14

Parkinson disease

19,660

6.6

0.8

0.8 (14)

0.6 (15)

5

Assault (homicide)

18,029

6.0

0.7

1.2 (13)

0.3 (21)

16

Pneumonitis due

16,961

5.7

0.7

0.7 (17)

0.7 (13)

 

to solids and liquids

 

 

 

 

 

17

Conditions of perinatal origin

14,384

4.8

0.6

0.7 (19)

0.5 (18)

18

Benign and in situ neoplasms

14,101

4.7

0.6

0.6 (20)

0.6 (16)

19

Aortic aneurysm and dissection

13,178

4.4

0.5

0.7 (16)

0.5 (19)

20

HIV disease

12,045

4.0

0.5

0.8 (15)

0.3 (22)

HIV/AIDS

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, or AIDS, is a fatal transmissable disorder of the immune system that is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV was first isated in 1983. In most cases, HIV slowly attacks and destroys the immune system, leaving the infected individual vulnerable to malignancies and infections that eventually cause death. AIDS is the last stage of HIV infection, during which time these diseases arise. An average interval of 10 years exists between infection with HIV and development of the conditions typical of AIDS. Pneumonia and Kaposi’s sarcoma are two of the most common diseases seen in AIDS patients.

HIV is contracted through semen, vaginal fluid, breast milk, blood, or other body fluids containing blood. Health care workers may come into contact with other body fluids that may transmit the HIV virus, including amniotic and synovial fluids. Although it is a transmissable virus, it is not contagious and it cannot be spread through coughing, sneezing, or casual physical contact. Other STDs, such as genital herpes, may increase the risk of contracting HIV through sexual contact.  

The main cellular target of HIV is a special class of white blood cells critical to the immune system known as T4 helper cells. Once HIV has entered a helper T cell, it can cause the cell to function poorly or it can destroy the cell. A hallmark of the onset of AIDS is a drastic reduction in the number of helper T cells in the body. Two predominant strains of the virus, designated HIV-1 and HIV-2, are known. Worldwide the most common strain is HIV-1, with HIV-2 more common primarily in western Africa; the two strains act in a similar manner, but the latter causes a form of AIDS that progresses much more slowly.

Diagnosis is made on the basis of blood tests approved by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that may be administered by a doctor or at a local health department. Alternately, a home collection kit may be purchased at many pharmacies. No vaccine or cure has yet been developed that can prevent HIV infection. Several drugs are now used to slow the development of AIDS, including azi-dothymidine (AZT). Protease inhibitors, such as ritonavir and indinavir, have been shown to block the development of AIDS, at least temporarily. Protease inhibitors are most effective when used in conjunction with two different reverse transcriptase inhibitors—the so-called “triple-drug therapy.”

HIV/AIDS is a major problem in developing countries, particularly sub-Saharan Africa. At the end of 2007, as many as 36.1 million people were estimated to be living with HIV. In 2007 alone, as many as 4.1 million contracted the disease and up to 2.4 million died of it.

For information on prevention, see Safer Sex Defined, below.

For confidential information on HIV/AIDS, call 1-800-342-AIDS.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

A sexually transmitted disease (STD) is usually passed from person to person by direct sexual contact. It may also be transmitted from a mother to her child before or at birth or, less frequently, may be passed from person to person in nonsexual contact. STDs usually initially affect the genitals, the reproductive tract, the urinary tract, the oral cavity, the anus, or the rectum but may mature in the body to attack various organs and systems. Following are some of the major STDs:

Syphilis was first widely reported by European writers in the 16th century, and a virtual epidemic swept Europe around the year 1500. Syphilis is spread through direct contact with a syphilis sore (chancre); development of this sore is the first stage of the disease. The second stage manifests itself as a rash on the palms and the bottoms of the feet. In the last stage, symptoms disappear, but the disease remains in the body and may damage internal organs and lead to paralysis, blindness, dementia, and even death. For individuals infected less than a year, a single dose of penicillin will cure the disease. Larger doses are needed for those who have had it for a longer period of time.

Gonorrhea, a form of urethritis (an infection and inflammation of the urethra), is one of the most common STDs. Although spread through sexual contact, the gonorrhea infection can also be spread to other parts of the body after touching the infected area. Men manifest symptoms, which include discharge and a burning sensation when urinating, more often than women. If gonorrhea is left untreated, women may develop pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and men may become infertile. The disease can also spread to the blood or joints and is potentially life threatening.

Chlamydia, another form of urethritis, can be transmitted during vaginal, anal, ororal sex. Since there are frequently no symptoms, most infected individuals do not know they have the disease until complications develop. Untreated chlamydia can cause pain during urination or sex in men and PID in women. Antibiotics can successfully cure the disease.

Genital herpes, a disease that became especially widespread in the 1960s and 1970s, often presents minimal symptoms upon infection. The most common sign, however, is blistering in the genital area; outbreaks can occur over many years but generally decrease in severity and number. Genital herpes is caused by the herpes simplex viruses type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2). The former causes infections on and around the mouth but may be spread through the saliva to the genitals; the latter is transmitted during sexual contact with someone who has a genital infection. The HSV-2 infection can cause problems for people with suppressed immune systems and for infants who contract the disease upon delivery. Herpes can also leave individuals more susceptible to HIV infection and make those carrying the disease more infectious. A variety of treatments, including antiviral medications, have been used to help manage genital herpes, but currently there is no cure for the disease.

Almost all STDs have reasonably effective drug cures. For information on STD prevention, see below, “Safer Sex Defined.” For information on HIV disease, see individual entry.

Safer Sex Defined

Defining risky sexual behavior. Any activity involving the exchange of body fluids—vaginal secretions, semen, or blood—could result in the transmission of AIDS and other STDs. Unprotected vaginal and anal intercourse present the highest risks for contraction of STDs. Women are at greater risk than men of developing an infection as a result of heterosexual intercourse, though many STDs present fewer symptoms in women than in men. Men and women of all sexual orientations should practice safer sex to reduce their risk of contracting an STD.

HIV testing. It can take years to develop symptoms of HIV disease, so it is important to be tested for HIV after any behavior that might have resulted in infection. The CDC recommends undergoing two separate HIV-antibody tests, six months apart. If the second test is negative, there is a reasonable certainty that HIV is not present.

STD testing. It is important to get checked for other STDs at least once a year. Do not assume that STD testing is part of a routine checkup.

Abstinence. Refraining from any sexual activity that would allow the exchange of body fluids is by far the most effective method of birth control and disease prevention.

Monogamous intercourse. Sexual intercourse with only one partner can be as effective as abstinence in preventing disease transmission, if both partners have been properly tested for AIDS and other STDs. Most health professionals, however, recommend continuing to practice safer sex, even in monogamous relationships, as there is no way to be sure a partner is being faithful.

Condoms. Using a latex or female condom correctly and consistently significantly reduces the chance of unplanned pregnancy. Condoms also reduce the risk of transmission of HIV, vaginitis, chlamydia, honeymoon cystitis, syphilis, pelvic inflammatory disease, chancroid, and gonorrhea. Condoms may be less effective in preventing genital warts, herpes, and hepatitis B. Male and female condoms should not be worn simultaneously.

Birth control. There are many methods of birth control that can help prevent unwanted pregnancy, including birth-control pills, Norplant, Depo-Provera, condoms, diaphragms, and cervical caps. However, of these, only condoms protect against STDs. Emergency contraception, including the “morning-after” pill, should be used only when necessary and not relied upon as a regular method of birth control. Withdrawal and family planning are not recommended forms of birth control.

Contraceptive Use by US Women

Percent distribution by age.

 

AE

 

 

AGE

 

 

 

 

15-44

15-19

20-24

25-29

30-34

35-39

40-44

Ising contraception

 

 

 

 

 

\

 

ill

19.0

16.7

31.8

25.6

21.8

13.2

7.6

ondom

11.1

8.5

14.0

14.0

11.8

11.1

8.0

emale sterilization

16.7

-

2.2

10.3

19.0

29.2

34.7

lale sterilization

5.7

-

0.5

2.8

6.4

10.0

12.7

mplant or patch1

0.8

0.4

0.9

1.7

0.9

0.5

0.2

njectable2

3.3

4.4

6.1

4.4

2.9

1.5

1.1

ntrauterine device (IUD)

1.3

0.1

1.1

2.5

2.2

1.0

0.8

iaphragm

0.2

-

0.1

0.3

0.1

-

0.4

‘eriodic abstinence (rhythm)

0.7

-

0.8

0.3

0.9

1.1

1.2

atural family planning

0.2

-

-

0.4

0.2

0.3

0.4

Withdrawal

2.5

0.8

3.1

5.3

2.6

2.4

1.0

ther3

0.6

0.6

0.2

0.4

0.4

0.5

1.1

otal using contraception4

61.9

31.5

60.7

68.0

69.2

70.8

69.1

ot using contraception

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

■urgically sterile female or male

1.5

-

 

0.

0.9

2.1

4.9

onsurgically sterile female or male

1.6

0.7

0.7

0.9

1.4

1.2

4.4

regnant or postpartum

5.3

3.5

9.5

8.4

6.9

3.8

0.8

eeking pregnancy ther

4.2

1.2

2.8

5.5

7.0

5.1

3.3

Never had intercourse

10.9

49.5

11.4

2.7

1.5

1.6

1.1

No intercourse in last 3 months

7.2

6.7

6.6

6.2

6.1

7.5

9.7

Had intercourse in last 3 months

7.4

6.9

8.4

8.0

7.0

7.7

6.7

otal not using contraception4

38.1

68.5

39.3

32.0

30.8

29.2

30.9

1Includes Lunelle™. 2Depo-Provera™. 3Includes female condom, cervical cap, Today™ sponge, and other methods. 4Includes other categories not listed. Detail may not add to total given because of rounding.

tmpD-1_thumb[1]

1 Calendar year 2005. Details may not add to 100% because of rounding.

2 Other private includes industrial in-plant, privately funded construction, and non-patient revenues, including philanthropy.

3 Other public includes programs such as workers’ compensation, public health activity, US Department of Defense, US Department of Veterans Affairs, Indian Health Service, state and local hospital subsidies, and school health.

4 Other spending includes dentist and other professional services, home health care, durable medical equipment, other nondurable medical products, government public health activities, and research and construction.

The FDA is a division of the US Department of Health

Mission: To promote and protect the public health by helping safe and effective products reach the market in a timely way and monitoring products for continued safety after they are in use. History: The FDA celebrated its 100th anniversary in 2006, having been created by the passing of the Food and Drugs Act, or Wiley Act, in 1906. The Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938 then brought cosmetics and medical devices under the authority of the FDA. The Food and Drug Administration Act of 1988 officially established the body as an agency of the Department of Health and Human Services, with a commissioner of food and drugs appointed by the president with the consent of the Senate. Location: Rockville MD (with a transfer to Silver Spring MD in progress and scheduled to be completed in 2012). Commissioner of Food and and Human Services.

Drugs: Andrew C. von Eschenbach. Budget: FY 2009 (requested) US$2.4 billion. Functions: The FDA is the agency of the US federal government authorized by Congress to inspect, test, approve, and set safety standards for foods and food additives, drugs, chemicals, cosmetics, and household and medical devices. Generally, the FDA is empowered to prevent untested products from being sold and to take legal action to halt sale of undoubtedly harmful products or of products which involve a health or safety risk. Through court procedure, the FDA can seize products and prosecute the persons or firms responsible for legal violation. FDA authority is limited to interstate commerce. The agency cannot control prices nor directly regulate advertising except of prescription drugs and medical devices.

Diet and Exercise The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

Vitamins, with Daily Recommendations

Vitamins are organic substances that are usually divided into two types: water-soluble and fat-soluble. Small quantities are necessary for normal health and growth in higher forms of animal life, as they work to regulate reactions that occur in metabolism (in contrast to macronutrients such as fats, carbohydrates, and proteins, which are the compounds utilized in the reactions regulated by vitamins). Absence of a vitamin blocks one or more specific metabolic reactions in a cell; thus, vitamin deficiency may result in specific diseases. As they generally cannot be synthesized by humans, vitamins must be obtained from the diet or from a synthetic source.

The name of each vitamin is followed by its alternative name and usual pharmaceutical preparation, respectively. Amounts shown indicate recommended daily consumption.

Abbreviations—mg: milligram; mcg: microgram; RAE: retinol activity equivalent; IU: international unit; N/A: not applicable.

Water-soluble vitamins_

Thiamin (vitamin B1; thiamine hydrochloride)

Purpose: energy metabolism and initiation of nerve impulses. Dietary sources: pork, nuts, peas. Men over 13: 1.2 mg; women over 18: 1.1 mg; pregnant women: 1.4 mg; lactating women: 1.4 mg.

Riboflavin (vitamin B2; riboflavin)

Purpose: release of energy from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins; maintaining integrity of red blood cells. Dietary sources: milk, eggs, kidney, liver, peas, soybeans, leafy vegetables. Men over 13: 1.3 mg; women over 18: 1.1 mg; pregnant women: 1.4 mg; lactating women: 1.6 mg.

Niacin (nicotinic acid; nicotinamide or niacinamide)

Purpose: release of energy from carbohydrates and fats; red-blood-cell formation; metabolism of proteins. Dietary sources: cereal grains, nuts, green vegetables, liver, kidney. Men over 13: 16.0 mg; women over 18: 14.0 mg; pregnant women: 18.0 mg; lactating women: 17.0 mg.

Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5; calcium pantothenate)

Purpose: metabolism of carbohydrates; synthesis and degradation of fats; synthesis of sterols and other compounds. Dietary sources: liver, kidney, eggs, avocados, bananas. All adults: 4.0-7.0 mg.

Did you knows

The celebrated “four-color map problem,” framed in 1850 and publicized in 1878, bears little relation to cartography. The question is mathematical: how many colors are needed to color any map so that no two regions sharing a common border will have the same color? The proof, in 1977, that four colors are always sufficient occupied 170 pages of text and diagrams derived from more than 1,000 hours of calculations on a large computer.

Vitamins, with Daily Recommendations

Water-soluble vitamins

Vitamin B6 (pyroxidine; pyroxidine hydrochloride)

Purpose: amino acid, carbohydrate, and fat metabolism. Dietary sources: bananas, cereal grains, fish, nuts, spinach. Men 14-50: 1.3 mg; men over 50: 1.7 mg; women 19-50:1.3 mg; women over 50: 1.5 mg; pregnant women: 1.9 mg; lactating women: 2.0 mg.

Biotin (N/A; biotin)

Purpose: carbohydrate and fat metabolism. Dietary sources: beef liver, yeast, oatmeal. Adults: 30 mcg; pregnant women: 30 mcg; lactating women: 35 mcg.

Folate (folacin or vitamin Bg; folacin or folic acid)

Purpose: cellular metabolism, including synthesis of DNA components; normal red-blood-cell formation. Dietary sources: chicken, liver, green leafy vegetables, wheat bran and germ, citrus fruits, cereals, beans, asparagus. Adults: 400 mcg; pregnant women: 600 mcg; lactating women: 500 mcg.

Vitamin B12 (cobalamin; cyanocobalamin or hydroxocobalamin)

Purpose: proper functioning of many enzymes involved in carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism; synthesis of the insulating sheath around nerve cells; cell reproduction and normal growth; red-blood-cell formation. Dietary sources: eggs, meat, milk, nutritional yeast, fortified cereals. Adults: 2.4 mcg; pregnant women: 2.6 mcg; lactating women: 2.8 mcg.

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid; ascorbic acid)

Purpose: prevention of oxidative damage to DNA, membrane lipids, and proteins; synthesis of collagen, hormones, transmitters of the nervous sytem, lipids, and proteins; proper immune function. Dietary sources: citrus fruits, green peppers, broccoli, cantaloupe, green leafy vegetables. Men over 18: 90 mg; women over 18: 75 mg; pregnant women: 80-85 mg; lactating women: 115-120 mg.

Fat-soluble vitamins

Vitamin A (retinol; retinol)

Purpose: functioning of the retina; growth and maturation of epithelial cells; growth of bone; reproduction and embryonic development. Dietary sources: fish and fish-liver oils, liver, butter, orange vegetables and fruits, dark green leafy vegetables; tomatoes. Men over 13: 900 RAE; women over 13: 700 RAE; pregnant women: 750-770 RAE; lactating women: 1,200-1,300 RAE.

Vitamin D (vitamins D2 and D3; [ergo] calciferol)

Purpose: promotes formation of bone by increasing the blood levels of calcium and phosphorus. Dietary sources: fish-liver oils, eggs, milk enriched with Vitamin D. All adults: 200-600 IU.

Vitamin E (N/A; tocopherol)

Purpose: protection of cell membranes and prevention of damage to membrane-associated enzymes. Dietary sources: nuts, vegetable oils, margarine, cereal grains. Adults: 15 mg; pregnant women: 15 mg; lac-tating women: 19 mg.

Vitamin K (N/A; vitamin K1)

Purpose: formation of several blood clotting factors. Dietary sources: green leafy vegetables, vegetable oils. Men over 18: 120 mcg; women over 18: 90 mcg; pregnant women: 75-90 mcg; lactating women: 75-90 mcg.

tmpD-2_thumb[1]

tmpD-3_thumb[1]

Individuals Meeting Dietary Guidelines 1977-78 and 1994-96.

Percentages of US population that meet or exceed the minimum dietary guidelines given in Nutrition and Your Health: Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 5th ed. (2000), a joint publication of the Departments of Health and Human Services and Agriculture. (The 2005 edition does not include this breakout.)

AGE AND GENDER

Children (2-17)

38

37

31

1994-96

77

39

39

37

59

Adults (18 and over)

27

37

43

69

34

20

21

60

Males 60 and over

28

36

43

65

30

26

16

77

Females 60 and over

18

41

49

79

54

35

6

56

All individuals 2 and over

30

37

40

71

35

25

25

59

N/A indicates data not available.

Nutrient Composition of Selected Fruits and Vege tables 

Values s hown are approximations for 100 grams (3.57 oz.). Foods are raw unless otherwise noted. Source: USDA Nutrient Data Laboratory. kcal: kilocalorie; g: gram; mg: milligram; IU: international unit.

 

 

 

C ARBO-

 

 

 

 

 

RIB-

 

 

ENERGY

WA\TER

HYDRATE

PROTEIN

FAT

VITAMIN A

VITAMIN C

THIAMINE

FLAVIN

NIACIN

 

(KCAL)

(G)

(G)

(G)

(G)

(IU)

(MG)

(MG)

(MG)

(MG)

Fruits

 

 

 

 

 

\

 

 

 

 

Apple

59

83.93

15.25

0.19

0.36

53

5.7

0.017

0.014

0.077

Apricot

48

86.35

11.12

1.40

0.39

2,612

10.0

0.030

0.040

0.600

Avocado

161

74.27

7.39

1.98

15.32

61

7.9

0.108

0.12

1.921

Banana

92

74.26

23.43

1.03

0.48

81

9.1

0.045

0.100

0.540

Blackberries

52

85.64

12.76

0.72

0.39

165

21.0

0.030

0.040

0.400

Blueberries

56

84.61

14.13

0.67

0.38

100

13.0

0.048

0.050

0.359

Cantaloupe

35

89.78

8.36

0.88

0.28

3,224

42.2

0.036

0.021

0.574

Cherries (sweet)

72

80.76

16.55

1.20

0.96

214

7.0

0.050

0.060

0.400

Grapes

67

81.30

17.15

0.63

0.35

100

4.0

0.092

0.057

0.300

Grapefruit

32

90.89

8.08

0.63

0.10

124

34.4

0.036

0.020

0.250

Kiwi

61

83.05

14.88

0.99

0.44

175

98.0

0.020

0.050

0.500

Lemon

29

88.98

9.32

1.10

0.30

29

53.0

0.040

0.020

0.100

Lime

30

88.26

10.54

0.70

0.20

10

29.1

0.030

0.020

0.200

Mango

65

81.71

17.00

0.51

0.27

3,894

27.7

0.058

0.057

0.584

Nectarine

49

86.28

11.78

0.94

0.46

736

5.4

0.017

0.041

0.990

Orange

47

86.75

11.75

0.94

0.12

205

53.2

0.087

0.040

0.282

Peach

43

87.66

11.10

0.70

0.09

535

6.6

0.017

0.041

0.990

Pear

59

83.81

15.11

0.39

0.40

20

4.0

0.020

0.040

0.100

Pineapple

49

86.50

12.39

0.39

0.43

23

15.4

0.092

0.036

0.420

Plum

55

85.20

13.01

0.79

0.62

323

9.5

0.043

0.096

0.500

Raspberries

49

86.57

11.57

0.91

0.55

130

25.0

0.030

0.090

0.900

Strawberries

30

91.57

7.02

0.61

0.37

27

56.7

0.020

0.066

0.230

Tangerine

44

87.60

11.19

0.63

0.19

920

30.8

0.105

0.022

0.160

Watermelon

32

91.51

7.18

0.62

0.43

366

9.6

0.080

0.020

0.200

Vegetables

Artichoke1

50

83.97

11.18

3.48

0.16

177

10.0

0.065

0.066

1.001

Asparagus1

24

92.20

4.23

2.59

0.31

539

10.8

0.123

0.126

1.082

Beans (snap, green)

31

90.27

7.14

1.82

0.12

668

16.3

0.084

0.105

0.752

Beet

43

87.58

9.56

1.61

0.17

38

4.9

0.031

0.040

0.334

Broccoli

28

90.69

5.24

2.98

0.35

1,542

93.2

0.065

0.119

0.638

Brussels sprout

43

86.00

8.96

3.38

0.30

883

85.0

0.139

0.090

0.745

Cabbage

25

92.15

5.43

1.44

0.27

133

32.2

0.050

0.040

0.300

Carrot

43

87.79

10.14

1.03

0.19

28,129

9.3

0.097

0.059

0.928

Cauliflower

25

91.91

5.20

1.98

0.21

19

46.4

0.057

0.063

0.526

Nutrient Composition of Selected Fruits and Vegetables (continued)

 

 

 

CARBO

 

 

 

 

 

RIBO-

 

 

ENERGY

WATER

HYDRATE

PROTEIN

FAT

VITAMIN A

VITAMIN C

THIAMINE

FLAVIN

NIACIN

 

(KCAL)

(G)

(G)

(G)

(G)

(IU)

(MG)

(MG)

(MG)

(MG)

Vegetables

\

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(continued)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Celery

16

94.64

3.65

0.75

0.14

134

7.0

0.046

0.045

0.323

Collards1

26

91.86

4.90

2.11

0.36

3,129

18.2

0.040

0.106

0.575

Corn (sweet,

108

69.57

25.11

3.32

1.28

217

6.2

0.215

0.072

1.614

yellow)1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cucumber

13

96.01

2.76

0.69

0.13

215

5.3

0.024

0.022

0.221

Eggplant1

28

91.77

6.64

0.83

0.23

64

1.3

0.076

0.020

0.600

Lettuce (iceberg)

12

95.89

2.09

1.01

0.19

330

3.9

0.046

0.030

0.187

Mushroom1

27

91.08

5.14

2.17

0.47

0

4.0

0.073

0.300

4.460

Okra1

32

89.91

7.21

1.87

0.17

575

16.3

0.132

0.055

0.871

Onion1

44

87.86

10.15

1.36

0.19

0

5.2

0.042

0.023

0.165

Pepper (sweet,

27

92.19

6.43

0.89

0.19

632

89.3

0.066

0.030

0.509

green)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pepper (sweet, red) 27

92.19

6.43

0.89

0.19

5,700

190.0

0.066

0.030

0.509

Potato2

93

75.42

21.56

1.96

0.10

0

12.8

0.105

0.021

1.395

Spinach

22

91.58

3.50

2.86

0.35

6,715

28.1

0.078

0.189

0.724

Sweet potato2

103

72.85

24.27

1.72

0.11

21,822

24.6

0.073

0.127

0.604

Tomato (red)

21

93.76

4.64

0.85

0.33

623

19.1

0.059

0.048

0.628

Nutritional Value of Selected Foods

Values shown are approximations. Source:Home and Garden Bulletin No. 72, USDA. kcal: kilocalorie; g: gram; mg: milligram; oz: ounce; fl oz: fluid ounce.

 

 

 

ENERGY

CARBOHYDRATE

T

PROTEIN

OTAL FAT

SATURATED FAT

CALCIUM

IRON

SODIUM

FOOD

AMOUNT

GRAMS

(KCAL)

(G)

(G)

(G)

(G)

(MG)

(MG)

(MG)

Beverages

 

 

 

 

\\

Beer

12 fl oz

360

150

13

1

0

0

14

0.1

18

Cola, regular

12 fl oz

369

160

41

0

0

0

11

0.2

18

Cola, diet (w/aspartame and

12 fl oz

355

0

0

0

0

0

14

0.2

32

saccharine)

\

Coffee, brewed

6 fl oz

180

0

0

0

0

0

4

0

2

Orange juice, canned

8 fl oz

249

105

25

1

0

0

20

1.1

5

Tea, instant, prepared, un-

8 fl oz

241

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

1

sweetened

 

Wine, table, red

3.5 fl oz

102

75

3

0

0

0

8

0.4

5

Dairy

 

Butter, salted

4 oz

113

810

0

1

92

57.1

27

0.2

933

Cheese, American (pasteurized, 1 oz

28.35

105

0

6

9

5.6

174

0.1

406

processed)

Cheese,cheddar

1 oz

28.35

115

0

7

9

6

204

0.2

176

Cheese, mozzarella (whole milk) 1 oz

28.35

80

1

6

6

3.7

147

0.1

106

Cheese, swiss

1 oz

28.35

105

1

8

8

5

272

0

74

Cottage cheese, small curd

8 oz

210

215

6

26

9

6

126

0.3

850

Cream cheese

1 oz

28.35

100

1

2

10

6.2

23

0.3

84

Cream, half and half

0.5 oz

15

20

1

0

2

1.1

16

0

6

Cream, sour

8 oz

230

495

10

7

48

30

268

0.1

123

Eggs, cooked, fried

1 egg

46

90

1

6

7

1.9

25

0.7

162

Eggs, cooked, hard-cooked

1 egg

50

75

1

6

5

1.6

25

0.6

62

Eggs, cooked, scrambled

1 egg

61

100

1

7

7

2.2

44

0.7

171

Ice cream, vanilla, 11% fat

8 oz

133

270

32

5

14

8.9

176

0.1

116

Milk, whole, 3.3% fat

8 oz

244

150

11

8

8

5.1

291

0.1

120

Milk, low fat, 2% fat

8 oz

244

120

12

8

5

2.9

297

0.1

122

Milk, skim

8 oz

245

85

12

8

0

0.3

302

0.1

126

Milk, chocolate

8 oz

250

210

26

8

8

5.3

280

0.6

149

Yogurt, plain, low fat

8 oz

227

145

16

12

4

2.3

415

0.2

159

Fats, oils

Lard

0.5 oz

13

115

0

0

13

5.1

0

0

0

Margarine, hard, 80% fat

0.5 oz

14

100

0

0

11

2.2

4

0

132

Nutritional Value of Selected Foods (continued)

SATU-

CARBO-

TOTAL RATED

ENERGY

HYDRATE

PROTEIN

FAT

FAT

CALCIUM

IRON

SODIUM

FOOD

AMOUNT

GRAMS

(KCAL)

(G)

(G)

(G)

(G)

(MG)

(MG)

(MG)

Fats, oils (continued)

Olive oil

0.5 oz

14

125

0

0

14

1.9

0

0

0

Vegetable shortening

0.5 oz

13

115

0

0

13

3.3

0

0

0

Fish

Crabmeat, canned

8 oz

135

135

1

23

3

0.5

61

1.1

1350

Fish sticks, frozen

1 piece

28

70

4

6

3

0.8

11

0.3

53

Ocean perch, breaded, fried 1 piece

85

185

7

16

11

2.6

31

1.2

138

Oysters, raw

8 oz

240

160

8

20

4

1.4

226 15.6

175

Salmon, baked, red

3 oz

85

140

0

21

5

1.2

26

0.5

55

Shrimp, fried

3 oz

85

200

11

16

10

2.5

61

2

384

Trout, broiled, w/butter and 3 oz

85

175

0

21

9

4.1

26

1

122

lemon juice

Tuna, canned, white, in water 3 oz

85

135

0

30

1

0.3

17

0.6

468

Fruits, fruit products

Apples, peeled, sliced

8 oz

110

65

16

0

0

0.1

4

0.1

0

Applesauce, canned,

8 oz

255

195

51

0

0

0.1

10

0.9

8

sweetened

Apricots

3 apricots

106

50

12

1

0

0

15

0.6

1

Bananas

1 banana

114

105

27

1

1

0.2

7

0.4

1

Blackberries

8 oz

144

75

18

1

1

0.2

46

0.8

0

Blueberries

8 oz

145

80

20

1

1

0

9

0.2

9

Grapefruit, pink V2 grapefruit

120

40

10

1

0

0

14

0.1

0

Grapes, European,

10 grapes

50

35

9

0

0

0.1

6

0.1

1

Thompson

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Oranges

1 orange

131

60

15

1

0

0

52

0.1

0

Peaches

1 peach

87

35

10

1

0

0

4

0.1

0

Pears, Bartlett

1 pear

166

100

25

1

1

0

18

0.4

0

Pineapple, canned, heavy

8 oz

255

200

52

1

0

0

36

1

3

syrup

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Plums, 21/8-in. diam.

1 plum

66

35

9

1

0

0

3

0.1

0

Prunes, dried, large

5 prunes

49

115

31

1

0

0

25

1.2

2

Raisins

8 oz

145

435

115

5

1

0.2

71

3

17

Strawberries

8 oz

149

45

10

1

1

0

21

0.6

1

Watermelon

1 piece

482

155

35

3

2

0.3

39

0.8

10

Grains

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bagels, plain

1 bagel

68

200

38

7

2

0.3

29

1.8

245

Bread, rye, light

1 slice

25

65

12

2

1

0.2

20

0.7

175

Bread, wheat

1 slice

25

65

12

2

1

0.2

32

0.9

138

Bread, white

1 slice

25

65

12

2

1

0.3

32

0.7

129

Bread, whole wheat

1 slice

28

70

13

3

1

0.4

20

1

180

Cereal, Cheerios

1 oz

28.35

110

20

4

2

0.3

48

4.5

307

Cereal, Kellogg’s Corn Flakes 1 oz

28.35

110

24

2

0

0

1

1.8

351

Cereal, Lucky Charms

1 oz

28.35

110

23

3

1

0.2

32

4.5

201

Cereal, Post Raisin Bran

1 oz

28.35

85

21

3

1

0.1

13

4.5

185

Cake, white, w/white

1 piece

71

260

42

3

9

2.1

33

1

176

frosting, commercial

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cheesecake

1 piece

92

280

26

5

18

9.9

52

0.4

204

Chocolate chip cookies,

4 cookies

42

180

28

2

9

2.9

13

0.8

140

commercial

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cornmeal, whole-ground,

8 oz

122

435

90

11

5

0.5

24

2.2

1

dry

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Doughnuts, cake, plain

1 doughnut

50

210

24

3

12

2.8

22

1

192

English muffins, plain

1 muffin

57

140

27

5

1

0.

96

1.7

378

Oatmeal, instant, cooked,

8 oz

234

145

25

6

2

0.4

19

1.6

374

w/salt

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Macaroni, cooked, firm

8 oz

130

190

39

7

1

0.1

14

2.1

1

Muffins, blueberry,

1 muffin

45

140

22

3

5

1.4

15

0.9

225

commercial mix

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pancakes, plain,

1 pancake

27

60

8

2

2

0.5

36

0.7

160

commercial mix

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pie, apple

1 piece

158

405

60

3

18

4.6

13

1.6

476

Nutritional Value of Selected Foods

 

 

ENERGY

CARBOHYDRATE

T

PROTEIN

OTAL R FAT

SATU-ATED FAT

CALCIUM

IRON

SODIUM

FOOD

AMOUNT

GRAMS

(KCAL)

(G)

(G)

(G)

(G)

(MG)

(MG)

(MG)

Grains

 

 

 

 

 

\

 

 

 

 

Popcorn, air-popped,

8 oz

8

30

6

1

0

0

1

0.2

0

unsalted

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pretzels, stick

10 pieces

3

10

2

0

0

0

1

0.1

48

Rice, brown, cooked

8 oz

195

230

50

5

1

0.3

23

1

0

Rice, white, instant, cooked

8 oz

165

180

40

4

0

0.1

5

1.3

0

Saltines

4 pieces

12

50

9

1

1

0.5

3

0.5

165

Spaghetti, cooked, tender

8 oz

140

155

32

5

1

0.1

11

1.7

1

Waffles, from commercial mix

1 waffle

75

205

27

7

8

2.7

179

1.2

515

Meat, poultry

Bacon, regular, cooked

3 slices

19

110

0

6

9

3.3

2

0.3

303

Beef, chuck, lean, cooked

2.2 oz

62

170

0

19

9

3.9

8

2.3

44

Chicken, breast, roasted

3 oz

86

140

0

27

3

0.9

13

0.9

64

Chicken, drumstick, floured,

1.7 oz

49

120

1

13

7

1.8

6

0.7

44

fried

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ground beef, broiled

3 oz

85

245

0

20

18

6.9

9

2.1

70

Ham, roasted, lean and fat

3 oz

85

205

0

18

14

5.1

6

0.7

1009

Hamburger 4-oz patty

174

445

38

25

21

7.1

75

4.8

763

Lamb chops, braised, lean

1.7 o

48

135

0

17

7

2.9

12

1.3

36

Turkey, roasted, light and

8 oz

140

240

0

41

7

2.3

35

2.5

98

dark

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Veal cutlet, med. fat, braised

3 oz

85

185

0

23

9

4.1

9

0.8

56

or broiled

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

\

 

 

Nuts, legumes, seeds

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mixed nuts w/peanuts, dry,

1 oz

28.35

170

7

5

15

2

20

1

190

salted

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Peanuts, oil-roasted, unsaltec

8 oz

145

840

27

39

71

9.9

125

2.8

22

Peanut butter

0.5 oz

16

95

3

5

8

1.4

5

0.3

75

Pinto beans, dry, cooked

8 oz

180

265

49

15

1

0.1

86

5.4

3

Sunflower seeds

1 oz

28.35

160

5

6

14

1.5

33

1.9

1

Tofu

1 piece

120

85

3

9

5

0.7

108

2.3

8

Sauces, dressings, condiments

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Catsup

0.5 oz

15

15

4

0

0

0

3

0.1

156

Cheese sauce w/milk, from

8 fl oz

279

305

23

16

17

9.3

569

0.3

1565

mix Honey

0.5 oz

21

65

17

0

0

0

1

0.1

1

Jams/preserves

0.5 oz

20

55

14

0

0

0

4

0.2

2

Mayonnaise

0.5 oz

14

100

0

0

11

1.7

3

0.1

80

Mustard, yellow

0.17 oz

5

5

0

0

0

0

4

0.1

63

Salad dressing, French

0.5 oz

16

85

1

0

9

1.4

2

0

188

Salad dressing, Italian, low

0.5 oz

15

5

2

0

0

0

1

0

136

calorie

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Syrup, table

1 oz

42

122

32

0

0

0

1

0

19

Sugars, sweets, miscellaneous snacks

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Caramels, plain or chocolate

1 oz

28.35

115

22

1

3

2.2

42

0.4

64

Chocolate, milk, candy,

1 oz

28.35

150

15

3

10

4.8

65

0.5

23

w/almonds

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

\

 

Chocolate, dark, sweet

1 oz

28.35

150

16

1

10

5.9

7

0.6

5

Gelatin dessert, prepared

4 oz

120

70

17

2

0

0

2

0

55

Hard candy

1 oz

28.35

110

28

0

0

0

0

0.1

7

Popsicle 1 popsicle

95

70

18

0

0

0

0

0

11

Potato chips

10 chips

20

105

10

1

7

1.8

5

0.2

94

Pudding, chocolate, instant

4 oz

130

155

27

4

4

2.3

130

0.3

440

Sugar, brown

8 oz

220

820

212

0

0

0

187

4.8

97

Sugar, white, granulated

8 oz

200

770

199

0

0

0

3

0.1

5

Vegetables

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Beans, snap, yellow, canned,

8 oz

135

25

6

2

0

0

35

1.2

3

no salt

\

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Broccoli

1 spear

151

40

8

4

1

0.1

72

1.3

41

Nutritional Value of Selected Foods

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SATU-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CARBO-

 

TOTAL

RATED

 

 

 

 

 

 

ENERGY

HYDRATE

PROTEIN

FAT

FAT

CALCIUM

IRON

SODIUM

FOOD

AMOUNT

GRAMS

(KCAL)

(G)

(G)

(G)

(G)

(MG)

(MG)

(MG)

Vegetables

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Carrots, cooked from frozen

8 oz

146

55

12

2

0

0

41

0.7

86

Cauliflower, cooked from raw

8 oz

125

30

6

2

0

0

34

0.5

8

Celery, Pascal, raw

1 stalk

40

5

1

0

0

0

14

0.2

35

Corn, yellow, cooked fom

8 oz

165

135

34

5

0

0

3

0.5

8

frozen

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cucumber, w/peel

6 slices

28

5

1

0

0

0

4

0.1

1

Lettuce, crisphead

1 wedge

135

20

3

1

0

26

0.7

12

Mushrooms

8 oz

70

20

3

1

0

0

4

0.9

3

Onions, sliced

8 oz

115

40

8

1

0

0.1

29

0.4

2

Peas, green, cooked from

8 oz

160

125

23

8

0

0.1

38

2.5

139

frozen

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Potatos, boiled, peeled

1 potato

136

120

27

3

0

0

 

0.4

5

after

 

 

\

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tomatoes, raw

1 tomato

123

25

5

1

0

0

9

0.6

10

Reading Food Labels

The FDA requires most food manufacturers to provide standardized information about certain nutrients. Within strict guidelines the nutritional labels are designed to aid the consumer in making informed dietary decisions as well as to regulate claims made by manufacturers about their products. The percent daily value is based on a 2,000-calorie-per-day diet. Some larger packages will have listings for both 2,000-calorie and 2,500-calorie diets. For products that require additional preparation before eating, such as dry cake mixes, manufacturers often provide two columns of nutritional information, one with the values of the food as purchased, the other with the values of the food as prepared.

The FDA selects mandatory label components (see sample label at right) based on current understanding of nutrition concerns, and component order on the label is consistent with the priority of dietary recommendations. Components that may appear in addition to the mandatory components are limited to the following: calories from saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, monounsaturated fat, potassium, soluble fiber, insoluble fiber, sugar alcohol (for example, the sugar substitutes xylitol, mannitol, and sorbitol), other carbohydrate (the difference between total carbohydrate and the sum of dietary fiber, sugars, and sugar alcohol if declared), percent of vitamin A present as beta-carotene, and other essential vitamins and minerals. Any of these optional components that form the basis of product claims, fortification, or enrichment must appear in the nutrition facts. In 2006 labels were required to specify amounts of trans fatty acids.

Certain key descriptions are also regulated by the FDA. They include the following, in amounts per serving: Low fat: 3 g or less Low saturated fat: 1 g or less Low sodium: 140 mg or less Low cholesterol: 20 mg or less and 2 g or less of saturated fat Low calorie: 40 calories or less

tmpD-4_thumb[1]

Americans and Physical Activity

This table shows selected data illustrating the number of leisure-time periods of vigorous physical activity per week (lasting 10 minutes or longer) among persons 18 years of age and over. Numbers are in thousands (’000). Detail may not add to total given because of rounding. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey, 2006.

ALL PERSONS 18 SELECTED YEARS OF AGE CHARACTERISTIC AND OVER

NEVER

LESS THAN 1

1-2

3-4

5 OR MORE

Total

220,267

133,416

5,542

24,964

27,930

23,728

Age

18-44 years 45-64 years 65-74 years 75 years and over

110,391 74,203 19,081 16,593

57,327 46,898 14,764 14,427

3,408 1,805 193 137

15,639 7,931 917 478

17,602 8,291 1,392 645

13,825 7,731 1,447 725

Sex

Male Female

106,252 114,014

59,079 74,337

3,084 2,458

13,753 11,211

14,432 13,498

13,260 10,468

Ethnicity

White Black Asian

Hispanic1 or Latino

179,456 26,223 10,066 28,664

107,599 16,920 6,045 19,491

4,701 514 237 529

20,601 2,847 1,044 2,800

23,034 3,093 1,260 3,011

19,652 2,257 1,285 2,351

Education (respondents 25 and older)

Less than a high-school diploma High-school diploma or GED Some college

Bachelor’s degree or higher

31,750 54,586 51,159 51,863

25,879 38,435 30,246 23,164

362 1,195 1,322 1,709

1,839 4,915 6,483 7,771

1,229 4,395 6,757 10,679

1,844 4,640 5,380 7,504

Family income

Less than US$20,000 US$20,000-US$34,999 US$35,000-US$54,999 US$55,000-US$74,999 US$75,000 or more

38,472 30,921 33,488 23,782 49,556

27,839 21,540 20,559 12,991 22,108

715 709 810 753 1,833

3,218 2,832 3,950 3,618 7,859

2,986 2,768 3,983 3,187 9,953

3,084 2,686 3,706 2,978 7,145

Marital status

Married Widowed

Divorced or separated Never married Living with a partner

124,727 13,182 24,244 44,415 12,860

75,533 11,267 15,989 22,762 7,324

3,316 115 412 1,323 377

14,570 519 2,295 5,962 1,596

15,889 422 2,734 7,029 1,799

12,891 720 2,270 6,309 1,513

Ways To Burn 150 Calories

Values shown are approximations. Activities are listed from more to less vigorous—the more vigorous an activity, the less time it takes to burn a calorie. When specific distances are given, the activity must be performed in the time shown (for example, one must run 1.5 miles in 15 minutes to burn 150 calories).

 

DURATION

ACTIVITY

(MINUTES)

Climbing stairs

15

Shoveling snow

15

Running 1.5 miles (10 minutes/mile)

15

Jumping rope

15

Bicycling 4 miles

15

Playing basketball

15-20

Playing wheelchair basketball

20

Swimming laps

20

Performing water aerobics

30

Walking 2 miles (15 minutes/mile)

30

Raking leaves

30

 

 

DURATION

ACTIVITY

(MINUTES)

Pushing a stroller 1.5 miles

30

Dancing fast

30

Bicycling 5 miles

30

Shooting baskets

30

Walking 1.75 miles (20 minutes/mile)

35

Wheeling oneself in a wheelchair

30-40

Gardening (standing)

30-45

Playing touch football

30-45

Playing volleyball

45

Washing windows or floors

45-60

Washing and waxing a car or boat

45-60

The BMI is a measure expressing the relationship of weight to height determined by dividing body weight in kilograms by the square of height in meters (for convenience, the information has been converted to standard US measurements in the table below). It is more highly correlated with body fat than any other indicator of height and weight. The National Institutes of Health recommend using the BMI scale to help assess the risk of diseases and disabilities associated with an unhealthy weight. Individuals with a BMI below 18.5 are considered underweight; those with a BMI from 18.5 to 24.9 are considered normal; those with a BMI between 25.0 and 29.9 are considered overweight; and those with a BMI of 30.0 or more are considered obese. The BMI may overestimate body fat in athletes and others who have a muscular build, and it may underestimate body fat in older persons and others who have lost muscle mass.

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Body Mass Index (BMI)

HEIHT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BODY WEIGHT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(INCHES)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(POUND)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

58

91

96

100

105

110

115

119

124

129

134

138

143

148

153

158

162

167

172

177

181

186

59

94

99

104

109

114

119

124

128

133

138

143

148

153

158

163

168

173

178

183

188

193

60

97

102

107

112

118

123

128

133

138

143

148

153

158

163

168

174

179

184

189

194

199

61

100

106

111

116

122

127

132

137

143

148

153

158

164

169

174

180

185

190

195

201

206

62

104

109

115

120

126

131

136

142

147

153

158

164

169

175

180

186

191

196

202

207

213

63

107

113

118

124

130

135

141

146

152

158

163

169

175

180

186

191

197

203

208

214

220

64

110

116

122

128

134

140

145

151

157

163

169

174

180

186

192

197

204

209

215

221

227

65

114

120

126

132

138

144

150

156

162

168

174

180

186

192

198

204

210

216

222

228

234

66

118

124

130

136

142

148

155

161

167

173

179

186

192

198

204

210

216

223

229

235

241

67

121

127

134

140

146

153

159

166

172

178

185

191

198

204

211

217

223

230

236

242

249

68

125

131

138

144

151

158

164

171

177

184

190

197

203

210

216

223

230

236

243

249

256

69

128

135

142

149

155

162

169

176

182

189

196

203

209

216

223

230

236

243

250

257

263

70

132

139

146

153

160

167

174

181

188

195

202

209

216

222

229

236

243

250

257

264

271

71

136

143

150

157

165

172

179

186

193

200

208

215

222

229

236

243

250

257

265

272

279

72

140

147

154

162

169

177

184

191

199

206

213

221

228

235

242

250

258

265

272

279

287

73

144

151

159

166

174

182

189

197

204

212

219

227

235

242

250

257

265

272

280

288

295

74

148

155

163

171

179

186

194

202

210

218

225

233

241

249

256

264

272

280

287

295

303

75

152

160

168

176

184

192

200

208

216

224

232

240

248

256

264

272

279

287

295

303

311

76

156

164

172

180

189

197

205

213

221

230

238

246

254

263

271

279

287

295

304

312

320

BMI

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

 

 

 

NORMAL

 

 

 

OVERWEIGHT

 

 

 

 

 

OBESE

 

 

 

 

The colorful onion domes of Saint Basil the Blessed above Red Square are perhaps the most common vision Westerners conjure up in Moscow. The church was commissioned by Ivan the Terrible in honor of the Russian victory over the Tatars in Kazan and Astrakhan.

On 17 February, after almost a decade of legal limbo and two years of unsuccessful international mediation, Kosovo declared its independence from Serbia. The US moved swiftly to recognize the new country, and nearly 2 million ethnic Albanians celebrated their long-awaited freedom, dancing in city streets, releasing fireworks, and waving flags. Having bristled under Serbian rule and then UN administration, Kosovars were elated by the prospect of at last controlling their own affairs.

The Serbs weren’t quite so thrilled. On 21 February, hundreds of thousands protested in Belgrade, chanting “Kosovo is Serbia” and holding placards that read, RUSSIA, HELP. Rioters set the US embassy on fire; Russian Pres. Vladimir Putin vowed never to recognize Kosovo and threatened to support secessionist movements in Georgia and Moldova—a threat the Russians would keep in August.

The US embassy was unguarded when several hundred demonstrators attacked it following the protest rally. At that event, the sharp divisions that typify Serbian politics were nowhere to be seen, as leaders from across the spectrum united in a massive show of force to protest Kosovo’s secession. The protest turned deadly when several hundred hooded protesters broke away from that 500,000-strong crowd. The smaller group hurled rocks and Molotov cocktails at the Croatian and US embassies. Flames licked up to the second floor of the old brick building, which is located in the heart of the capital. Serbian paramilitary police, arriving in Humvees, dispersed the crowd using tear gas. Speaking at the United Nations, US Ambassador Zalmay Khalilzad condemned the attack, saying he would seek a UN resolution “reminding the Serb government of its responsibility to protect diplomatic facilities.”

Not so long ago, the scenes of unrest would have inspired fears of the kind of ethnic violence that devastated the Balkans in the ’90s. But these are different times. Kosovo’s ethnic Albanian leaders belatedly tried to extend an olive branch to the province’s aggrieved 120,000 Serbs. In addition to allowing Serbs in northern Kosovo to have their own police, schools, and hospitals, Kosovo’s new prime minister, Hashim Thaci, did the unthinkable: he delivered part of his inauguration speech in the hated Serbian language. The gesture failed to quell the Serbs’ discontent, but in reality, Serbia was in no position to cut ties with the West. The EU supplies 49% of Serbia’s imports and buys 56% of its exports—a far more valuable trade relationship than Serbia enjoys with its primary ally, Russia.

Kosovo matters to America’s future because it underscores three alarming features of the current international system. First, it exposes the chill in relations between the US and Russia. Putin, who stepped down from his leadership role in the Kremlin only three months after Kosovo’s declaration of independence, used the standoff in Serbia as yet another excuse to flaunt his petro-powered invincibility, sending his anointed successor, Dmitry Medvedev, to Belgrade to sign a gas agreement. If a firm international response is to be mobilized toward Iran, The Sudan, or other trouble spots in the coming years, the US will have to find a way to persuade Russia to become a partner rather than a rival in improving collective security.

Second, the 27-country EU, which is bitterly divided over Kosovo, lacks an overarching defense or security vision. After Kosovo declared independence, Britain, France, and other countries offered recognition, while Spain, Romania, Greece, Cyprus, Bulgaria, and Slovakia refused to do so. Keeping peace in Kosovo will require European nations to put their citizens at risk. Unfortunately, the stated desire of many European countries to reduce their commitments to the NATO effort in Afghanistan does little to bolster confidence in Europe’s eagerness to maintain international security.

Finally, the disagreements over Kosovo exposed the world’s fickleness in determining which secessionist movements deserve international recognition. A claimant has a far stronger claim if, like Kosovo, it is relatively homogeneous and not yet self-governing, if it has been abused by the sovereign government, and if its quest for independence does not incite its kin in a neighboring country to make comparable demands. Not all secessionists can clear that bar. Iraq’s Kurds, for instance, are clamoring for independence. But the Kurds are already exercising self-government, and their independence could have the destabilizing effect of causing the Kurdish population in Turkey to try to secede.

Taking Sides. The modern world isn’t divided between capitalism and communism; it’s divided in part between nations done dealing with their secessionists and those still fighting. When Kosovo declared its independence, Sri Lanka sided with Serbia, mindful of its Tamil rebels. Even Spain opposed Kosovo’s claim as a precedent that could threaten Madrid’s sovereignty by encouraging separatists.

In August separatist problems in the former Soviet republic of Georgia led to outright war. On 8 August, as the world’s attention was focused on the opening of the Olympic Games in Beijing, Russian tanks rolled into Georgia’s disputed territory of South Ossetia, which has long sought to break away from Georgia and become a province of Russia, after Georgian forces attempted to establish control there. On the 11th, Russian forces invaded Georgia through the disputed territory of Abkhazia in Georgia’s west, opening a second front. Several weeks of fighting and Russian occupation ensued, and hundreds of civilians and troops were killed. Russian forces had largely withdrawn to the two separatist territories by the end of August. On 26 August Russia recognized the independence of South Ossetia and Abkhazia. US Pres. George W. Bush and other NATO leaders strongly denounced the incursion, but no troops were mustered. The world, once again, was taking sides. There’s a reason they call it “Balkanization.”

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