Government (United States)

The Presidency at a Glance

 

PRESIDENT

POLITICAL PARTY

TIME IN OFFICE

VICE PRESIDENT

1

George Washington

Federalist

1789-

1797

John Adams

2

John Adams

Federalist

1797-

1801

Thomas Jefferson

3

Thomas Jefferson

Jeffersonian

1801-

1809

Aaron Burr


 

 

Republican

 

 

George Clinton

4

James Madison

Jeffersonian

1809-

1817

George Clinton

 

 

Republican

 

 

Elbridge Gerry

5

James Monroe

Jeffersonian

1817-

1825

Daniel D. Tompkins

 

 

Republican

 

 

 

6

John Quincy Adams

National Republican

1825-

1829

John C. Calhoun

 

 

PRESIDENT

POLITICAL PARTY

TIME IN OFFICE

VICE PRESIDENT

7

Andrew Jackson

Democratic

1829-

1837

John C. Calhoun

 

 

 

 

 

Martin Van Buren

8

Martin Van Buren

Democratic

1837-

1841

Richard M. Johnson

9

William Henry Harrison*

Whig

4 Mar-

-4

John Tyler

 

 

 

Apr 1841

 

10

John Tyler

Whig

1841-

1845

none

11

James K. Polk

Democratic

1845-

1849

George Mifflin Dallas

12

Zachary Taylor*

Whig

1849-

1850

Millard Fillmore

13

Millard Fillmore

Whig

1850-

1853

none

14

Franklin Pierce

Democratic

1853-

1857

William Rufus de Vane King

15

James Buchanan

Democratic

1857-

1861

John C. Breckinridge

16

Abraham Lincoln*t

Republican

1861-

1865

Hannibal Hamlin

 

 

 

 

 

Andrew Johnson

17

Andrew Johnson

Democratic (Union)

1865-

1869

none

18

Ulysses S. Grant

Republican

1869-

1877

Schuyler Colfax

 

 

 

 

 

Henry Wilson

19

Rutherford B. Hayes

Republican

1877-

-1881

William A. Wheeler

20

James A. Garfield*t

Republican

4 Mar

 

Chester A. Arthur

 

 

 

19 Sep 1881

 

21

Chester A. Arthur

Republican

1881-

1885

none

22

Grover Cleveland

Democratic

1885-

1889

Thomas A. Hendricks

23

Benjamin Harrison

Republican

1889-

1893

Levi Parons Morton

24

Grover Cleveland

Democratic

1893-

1897

Adlai E. Stevenson

25

William McKinley*t

Republican

1897-

1901

Garret A. Hobart

 

 

 

 

 

Theodore Roosevelt

26

Theodore Roosevelt

Republican

1901-

1909

Charles Warren Fairbanks

27

William Howard Taft

Republican

1909-

1913

James Schoolcraft Sherman

28

Woodrow Wilson

Democratic

1913-

1921

Thomas R. Marshall

29

Warren G. Harding*

Republican

1921-

1923

Calvin Coolidge

30

Calvin Coolidge

Republican

1923-

1929

Charles G. Dawes

31

Herbert Hoover

Republican

1929-

1933

Charles Curtis

32

Franklin D. Roosevelt*

Democratic

1933-

1945

John Nance Garner

 

 

 

 

 

Henry A. Wallace

 

 

 

 

 

Harry S. Truman

33

Harry S. Truman

Democratic

1945-

1953

Alben W. Barkley

34

Dwight D. Eisenhower

Republican

1953-

1961

Richard M. Nixon

35

John F. Kennedy*t

Democratic

1961-

1963

Lyndon B. Johnson

36

Lyndon B. Johnson

Democratic

1963-

1969

Hubert H. Humphrey

37

Richard M. Nixon**

Republican

1969-

1974

Spiro T. Agnew

 

 

 

 

 

Gerald R. Ford

38

Gerald R. Ford

Republican

1974-

1977

Nelson A. Rockefeller

39

Jimmy Carter

Democratic

1977-

1981

Walter F. Mondale

40

Ronald Reagan

Republican

1981-

1989

George H.W. Bush

41

George H.W. Bush

Republican

1989-

1993

Dan Quayle

42

William J. Clinton

Democratic

1993-

2001

Albert Gore

43

George W. Bush

Republican

2001-

 

Richard B. Cheney

Presidential Biographies

George Washington (22 Feb [11 Feb, Old Style] 1732, Westmoreland county VA-14 Dec 1799, Mt. Vernon, in Fairfax county VA), American Revolutionary commander-in-chief (1775-83) and first president of the US (1789-97). Born into a wealthy family, he was educated privately and worked as a surveyor from age 14. In 1752 he inherited his brother’s estate at Mount Vernon, including 18 slaves whose ranks grew to 49 by 1760, though he disapproved of slavery. In the French and Indian War he was commissioned a colonel and sent to the Ohio Territory. After Edward Braddock was killed, Washington became commander of all Virginia forces, entrusted with defending the western frontier (1755-58). He resigned to manage his estate and in 1759 married Martha Dandridge Custis (1731-1802), a widow. He served in the House of Burgesses 1759-74, where he supported the colonists’ cause, and in the Continental Congress 1774-75. In 1775 he was elected to command the Continental Army. In the ensuing American Revolution, he proved a brilliant commander and stalwart leader despite several defeats. With the war effectively ended by the capture of Yorktown (1781), he resigned his commission and returned to Mount Vernon (1783). He was a delegate to and presiding officer of the Constitutional Convention (1787) and helped secure ratification of the Constitution in Virginia. When the state electors met to select the first president (1789), Washington was the unanimous choice. He formed a cabinet to balance sectional and political differences but was committed to a strong central government. Elected to a second term, he followed a middle course between the political factions that became the Federalist Party and Democratic Party. He proclaimed a policy of neutrality in the war between Britain and France (1793) and sent troops to suppress the Whiskey Rebellion (1794). He declined to serve a third term, setting a 144-year precedent, and retired in 1797 after delivering his “Farewell Address.” Known as the “father of his country,” he is regarded as one of the greatest figures in US history.

John Adams (30 Oct [19 Oct, Old Style] 1735, Braintree [now in Quincy] MA—4 Jul 1826, Quincy MA), first vice president (1789-97) and second president (1797-1801) of the US. He practiced law in Boston and in 1764 married Abigail Smith. Active in the American independence movement, he was elected to the Massachusetts legislature and served as a delegate to the Continental Congress (1774-78), where he was appointed to several committees, including one with Thomas Jefferson and others to draft the Declaration of Independence. He served as a diplomat in France, The Netherlands, and England (1778-88). In the first US presidential election, he received the second largest number of votes and became vice president under George Washington. Adams’s term as president was marked by controversy over his signing the Alien and Sedition Acts in 1798 and by his alliance with the conservative Federalist Party. In 1800 he was defeated for reelection by Jefferson and retired to live a secluded life in Massachusetts. In 1812 he was reconciled with Jefferson, with whom he began an illuminating correspondence. Both men died on 4 Jul 1826, the Declaration’s 50th anniversary. Pres. John Quincy Adams was his son.

Thomas Jefferson (13 Apr [2 Apr, Old Style] 1743, Shadwell VA—4 Jul 1826, Monticello VA), third president of the US (1801-9). He was a planter and lawyer from 1767, as well as a slaveholder who opposed slavery. While a member of the House of Burgesses (1769-75), he initiated the Committee of Correspondence (1773) with Richard Henry Lee and Patrick Henry. In 1774 he wrote the influential Summary View of the Rights of British America, stating that the British Parliament had no authority to legislate for the colonies. A delegate to the second Continental Congress, he was appointed to the committee to draft the Declaration of Independence and became its primary author. He was elected governor of Virginia (1779-81) but was unable to organize effective opposition when British forces invaded the colony (1780-81). Criticized for his conduct, he retired, vowing to remain a private citizen. Again a member of the Continental Congress (1783-85), he proposed territorial provisions later incorporated in the Northwest Ordinances. He traveled in Europe on diplomatic missions and became minister to France (1785-89). George Washington made him secretary of state (1790-93). He soon became embroiled in conflict with Alexander Hamilton over their opposing interpretations of the Constitution. This led to the rise of factions and political parties, with Jefferson representing the Democratic-Republicans. He served as vice president (1797-1801) but opposed the Alien and Sedition Acts enacted under Pres. John Adams. As part of this opposition, Jefferson drafted one of the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions. In 1801 he became president after an electoral-vote tie with Aaron Burr was settled by the House of Representatives. Jefferson initiated frugal fiscal policies and simplicity in the ceremonial role of the president. He oversaw the Louisiana Purchase and authorized the Lewis and Clark Expedition. He sought to avoid involvement in the Napoleonic Wars by signing the Embargo Act. He retired to his plantation, Monticello, where he pursued his many interests in science, philosophy, and architecture. He served as president of the American Philosophical Society 1797-1815, and in 1819 he founded and designed the University of Virginia. In January 2000, the Thomas Jefferson Memorial Foundation accepted the conclusion, supported by DNA evidence, that Jefferson had fathered at least one, and perhaps as many as six, children with Sally Hemings, one of his house slaves. After a long estrangement, he and Adams became reconciled in 1813 and exchanged views on national issues. They both died on July 4, 1826, the 50th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence.

James Madison (16 Mar [5 Mar, Old Style] 1751, Port Conway VA—28 Jun 1836, Montpelier VA), fourth president of the US (1809-17). He served in the state legislature (1776-80, 1784-86). At the Constitutional Convention (1787), his active participation and his careful notes on the debates earned him the title “father of the Constitution.” To promote ratification, he collaborated with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay on The Federalist. In the House of Representatives (1789-97), he sponsored the Bill of Rights, was a leading Jeffersonian Republican, and split with Hamilton over funding state war debts. In reaction to the Alien and Sedition Acts, he drafted one of the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions (1798). He was appointed secretary of state (1801-9) by Thomas Jefferson, with whom he developed US foreign policy. Elected president in 1808, he was occupied by the trade and shipping embargo problems caused by France and Britain that led to the War of 1812. He was reelected in 1812; his second term was marked principally by the war, during which he reinvigorated the Army and also saw approval of the charter of the Second Bank of the US and the first US protective tariff. He retired to his Virginia estate, Montpelier, with his wife, Dolley (1768-1849), whose political acumen he had long prized. He continued to write articles and letters and served as rector of the University of Virginia (1826-36).

James Monroe (28 Apr 1758, Westmoreland county VA—4 Jul 1831, New York NY), fifth president of the US (1817-25). He fought in the American Revolution and studied law under Thomas Jefferson. He served in the Congress (1783-86) and Senate (1790-94), where he opposed George Washington’s administration. He nevertheless became minister to France (1794-96), where he misled the French about US politics and was recalled. He served as governor of Virginia 1799-1802. President Jefferson sent him to France, where he helped negotiate the Louisiana Purchase (1803), then named him minister to Britain (1803-7). He returned to Virginia and became governor (1811), but he resigned to become US secretary of state (1811-17) and secretary of war (1814-15). He served two terms as president, presiding in a period that became known as the Era of Good Feelings. He oversaw the Seminole War (1817-18) and the acquisition of the Floridas (1819-21) and signed the Missouri Compromise (1820). With secretary of state John Quincy Adams, he developed the principles of US foreign policy later called the Monroe Doctrine.

John Quincy Adams (11 Jul 1767, Braintree [now in Quincy] MA-23 Feb 1848, Washington DC), sixth president of the US (1825-29). He was the eldest son of Pres. John Adams and Abigail. He accompanied his father to Europe on diplomatic missions (1778-80) and was later appointed minister to The Netherlands (1794) and Prussia (1797). In 1801 he returned to Massachusetts and served in the Senate (1803-8). Resuming his diplomatic service, he became minister to Russia (1809-11) and Britain (1815-17). Appointed secretary of state (1817-24), he was instrumental in acquiring Florida from Spain and in drafting the Monroe Doctrine. He was one of three candidates in the 1824 presidential election, in which none received a majority of the electoral votes, though Andrew Jackson received a plurality. The decision went to the House of Representatives, where Adams received crucial support from Henry Clay and the electoral votes necessary to elect him president. He appointed Clay secretary of state, which further angered Jackson. Adams’s presidency was unsuccessful; when he ran for reelection, Jackson defeated him. In 1830 he was elected to the House of Representatives, where he served until his death. He was outspoken in his opposition to slavery and in 1839 proposed a constitutional amendment forbidding slavery in any new state admitted to the Union. Southern congressmen prevented discussion of an-tislavery petitions by passing gag rules (repealed in 1844 as a result of Adams’s persistence). In 1841 he successfully defended the slaves in the Amistad mutiny case.

Andrew Jackson (15 Mar 1767, Waxhaws region SC-8 Jun 1845, the Hermitage, near Nashville TN), seventh president of the US (1829-37). He fought briefly in the American Revolution near his frontier home, where his family was killed. He studied law and in 1788 was appointed prosecuting attorney for western North Carolina. When the region became the state of Tennessee, he was elected to the House of Representatives (1796-97) and Senate (1797-98). He served on the state supreme court (1798-1804) and in 1802 was elected major general of the Tennessee militia. When the War of 1812 began, he offered the US the services of his 50,000-volunteer militia. He was sent to fight the Creek Indians allied with the British in Mississippi Territory. After a lengthy battle (1813-14), he defeated them at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. After capturing Pensacola FL from the British-allied Spanish, he marched overland to engage the British in Louisiana. A decisive victory at the Battle of New Orleans made him a national hero, dubbed “Old Hickory” by the press. After US acquisition of Florida, he was named governor of the territory (1821). One of four candidates in the 1824 presidential election, he won an electoral-votes plurality but the House gave the election to John Quincy Adams. In 1828 Jackson defeated Adams after a fierce campaign and became the first president elected from west of the Appalachian Mountains. His election was considered a triumph of political democracy. He replaced many federal officeholders with his supporters, a process that became known as the spoils system. He pursued a policy of moving Native Americans westward with the Indian Removal Acts. He split with his vice president, John C. Calhoun, over the nullification movement. His reelection in 1832 was due in part to support for his anticapitalistic fiscal policies and a controversial veto that affected the Bank of the US. His popularity continued to build throughout his presidency. During his tenure a strong Democratic Party developed that led to a vigorous two-party system.

Martin Van Buren (5 Dec 1782, Kinderhook NY-24 Jul 1862, Kinderhook NY), eighth president of the US (1837-41). He practiced law and served in the NY state senate (1812-20) and as state attorney general (1816-19). He became the leader of an informal group of political supporters, called the Albany Regency because they dominated state politics even while Van Buren was in Washington. He was elected to the US Senate (1821-28), where he supported states’ rights and opposed a strong central government. After John Quincy Adams became president, he joined with Andrew Jackson and others to form a group that later became the Democratic Party. He was elected governor of New York (1828) but resigned to become US secretary of state (1829-31). He was nominated for vice president at the first Democratic Party convention (1832) and served under Jackson (1833-37). As Jackson’s chosen successor, he defeated William H. Harrison to win the 1836 election. His presidency was marked by an economic depression, the Maine-Canada border dispute, the Seminole War in Florida, and debate over the annexation of Texas. He was defeated in his bid for reelection and failed to win the Democratic nomination in 1844 because of his antislavery views. In 1848 he was nominated for president by the Free Soil Party but failed to win the election and retired.

William Henry Harrison (9 Feb 1773, Charles City county VA-4 Apr 1841, Washington DC), ninth president of the US (1841). Born into a political family, he enlisted in the army at 18 and served under Anthony Wayne at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. In 1798 he became secretary of the Northwest Territories, and in 1800 governor of the new Indiana Territory. In response to pressure from white settlers, he negotiated treaties with the Native Americans that ceded millions of acres of additional land to the US. When Tecumseh organized an uprising in 1811, Harrison led a US force to defeat the Indians at the Battle of Tippecanoe, a victory that largely established his reputation in the public mind. In the War of 1812 he was made a brigadier general and defeated the British and their Indian allies at the Battle of the Thames in Ontario. After the war he moved to Ohio, where he became prominent in the Whig Party. He served in the House of Representatives (1816-19) and Senate (1825-28). As the Whig candidate in the 1836 presidential election, he lost narrowly. In 1840 he and his running mate, John Tyler, won election with a slogan emphasizing Harrison’s frontier triumph: “Tippecanoe and Tyler too!” The 68-year-old Harrison delivered his inaugural speech without a hat or overcoat in a cold drizzle, contracted pneumonia, and died one month later, the first president to die in office.

John Tyler (29 Mar 1790, Charles City county VA-18 Jan 1862, Richmond VA), 10th president of the US (1841-45). He practiced law before serving in the state legislature (1811-16, 1823-25, 1839) and 1 Data include only those IDPs to whom UNHCR extends protection and/or assistance. 2Includes unlisted returned IDPs. 3Includes 38 undefined persons. 4A separate mandate of the UN Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNWRA) covers more than 4,300,000 Palestinans. Palestinians outside of the UNWRA, such as those in Iraq and Libya, numbered 341,237 in 2008. In addition, there were an estimated 1,739,000 refugees in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip in 2007.

The higher number is used if Felix (II), who reigned from 355 to 358 and is ordinarily classed as an antipope, is counted as a pope. 2Though elected on 23 Mar 752, Stephen (II) died two days later before he could be consecrated and thus is ordinarily not counted. The issue has made the numbering of subsequent Stephens somewhat irregular. 3Either Leo VIII or Benedict V may be considered an antipope. 4A confusion in the numbering of popes named John after John XIV (reigned 983-984) resulted because some 11th-century historians mistakenly believed that there had been a pope named John between antipope Boniface VII and the true John XV (reigned 985-996). Therefore they mistakenly numbered the real popes John XV to XIX as John XVI to XX. These popes have since customarily been renumbered XV to XIX, but John XXI and John XXII continue to bear numbers that they themselves formally adopted on the assumption that there had indeed been 20 Johns before them. In current numbering there thus exists no pope by the name of John XX. 5In the 13th century the papal chancery misread the names of the two popes Marinus as Martin, and as a result of this error Simon de Brie in 1281 assumed the name of Pope Martin IV instead of Martin II. The enumeration has not been corrected, and thus there exist no Martin II and Martin III.

As governor of Virginia (1825-27). In the House of Representatives (1817-21) and Senate (182736), he was a states-rights supporter. Though a slaveholder, he sought to prohibit the slave trade in the District of Columbia, provided Maryland and Virginia concurred. He resigned from the Senate rather than acquiesce to state instructions to change his vote on a censure of Pres. Andrew Jackson. After breaking with the Democratic Party, he was nominated by the Whig Party for vice president under William H. Harrison. They won the 1840 election, carefully avoiding the issues and stressing party loyalty and the slogan “Tippecanoe and Tyler too!” Harrison died a month after taking office, and Tyler became the first to attain the presidency “by accident.” He vetoed a national bank bill supported by the Whigs, and all but one member of the cabinet resigned, leaving him without party support. Nonetheless, he reorganized the navy, settled the second of the Seminole Wars in Florida, and oversaw the annexation of Texas. He was nominated for reelection but withdrew in favor of James Polk and retired to his Virginia plantation. Committed to states’ rights but opposed to secession, he organized the Washington Peace Conference (1861) to resolve sectional differences. When the Senate rejected a proposed compromise, Tyler urged Virginia to secede.

James Knox Polk (2 Nov 1795, Mecklenburg county NC—15 Jun 1849, Nashville TN), 11th president of the US (1845-49). He became a lawyer in Tennessee and a friend and supporter of Andrew Jackson, who helped Polk win election to the House of Representatives (1825-39). He left the House to become governor of Tennessee (1839-41). At the deadlocked 1844 Democratic convention Polk was nominated as the compromise candidate; he is considered the first dark-horse presidential candidate. A proponent of western expansion, he campaigned with the slogan “Fifty-four Forty or Fight,” to bring a solution to the Oregon Question. Elected at 49, the youngest president to that time, he successfully concluded the Oregon border dispute with Britain (1846) and secured passage of the Walker Tariff Act (1846), which lowered import duties and helped foreign trade. He led the prosecution of the Mexican War, which resulted in large territorial gains but reopened the debate over the extension of slavery. His administration also established the Department of the Interior, the US Naval Academy, and the Smithsonian Institution, oversaw revision of the treasury system, and proclaimed the validity of the Monroe Doctrine. Though an efficient and competent president, deft in his handling of Congress, he was exhausted by his efforts and did not seek reelection; he died three months after leaving office.

Zachary Taylor (24 Nov 1784, Montebello VA—9 Jul 1850, Washington DC), 12th president of the US (1849-50). Born in Virginia, he grew up on the Kentucky frontier. He fought in the War of 1812, the Black Hawk War (1832), and the Seminole War in Florida (1835-42), earning the nickname “Old Rough-and-Ready” for his indifference to hardship. Sent to Texas in anticipation of war with Mexico, he defeated the Mexican invaders at the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma (1846). After the Mexican War formally began, he captured Monterrey and granted the Mexican army an eight-week armistice. Displeased, Pres. James Polk moved Taylor’s best troops to serve under Winfield Scott in the invasion of Veracruz. Taylor ignored orders to remain in Monterrey and marched south to defeat a large Mexican force at the Battle of Buena Vista (1847). He became a national hero and was nominated as the Whig candidate for president (1848). He defeated Lewis Cass to win the election. His brief term was marked by a controversy over the new territories that produced the Compromise of 1850 as well as by a scandal involving members of his cabinet. He died, probably of cholera, after only 16 months in office and was succeeded by Millard Fillmore.

Millard Fillmore (7 Jan 1800, Locke Township, NY—8 Mar 1874, Buffalo NY), 13th president of the US (1850-53). Born into poverty, he became an indentured apprentice at 15. He studied law with a local judge and began to practice in Buffalo in 1823. Initially identified with the Anti-Masonic Party (1828-34), he followed his political mentor, Thurlow Weed, to the Whigs and was soon a leader of the party’s northern wing. He served in the House of Representatives (1833-35, 1837-43), where he became a follower of Henry Clay. In 1848 the Whigs nominated Fillmore as vice president, and he was elected with Zachary Taylor. He became president on Taylor’s death in 1850. Though he abhorred slavery, he supported the Compromise of 1850 and insisted on federal enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Act. His stand, which alienated the North, led to his defeat by Winfield Scott at the Whigs’ nominating convention in 1852 and effectively led to the death of the party. Throughout his career he advocated US internal development and was an early champion of expansion in the Pacific. In 1853 he sent Matthew Perry with a US fleet to Japan, forcing its isolationist government to enter into trade and diplomatic relations. He returned to Buffalo and was nominated for president by the third-party Know-Nothing Party in 1856, but he was defeated by Democrat James Buchanan.

Franklin Pierce (23 Nov 1804, Hillsboro NH—8 Oct 1869, Concord NH), 14th president of the US (1853-57). He practiced law and served in the House of Representatives (1833-37) and Senate (1837-42). He returned to his law practice, serving briefly in the Mexican War. At the deadlocked Democratic convention of 1852, he was nominated as the compromise candidate; though largely unknown nationally, he unexpectedly trounced Winfield Scott in the general election. For the sake of harmony and business prosperity, he was inclined to oppose antislavery agitation so as to placate Southern opinion. He promoted US territorial expansion, resulting in the diplomatic controversy of the Ostend Manifesto. He reorganized the diplomatic and consular service and created the Court of Claims. He encouraged plans for a transcontinental railroad and approved the Gadsden Purchase. To promote northwestern migration and conciliate sectional demands, he approved the Kansas-Nebraska Act but was unable to settle the resultant problems. Defeated for renomination by James Buchanan in 1856, he retired from politics.

James Buchanan (23 Apr 1791, near Mercersburg PA—1 Jun 1868, near Lancaster PA), 15th president of the US (1857-61). He became a lawyer and member of the Pennsylvania legislature before serving in the House of Representatives (182131), as minister to Russia (1832-34), and in the Senate (1834-45). He was secretary of state in James Polk’s cabinet (1845-49). As minister to Britain (1853-56), he helped draft the Ostend Manifesto. In 1856 he secured the Democratic nomination and election as president, defeating John C. Fremont. Though experienced in government and law, he lacked the moral courage to deal effectively with the slavery crisis and equivocated on the question of Kansas’s status as a slavehold-ing state. The ensuing split within his party allowed Abraham Lincoln to win the election of 1860. He denounced the secession of South Carolina following the election and sent reinforcements to Fort Sumter, but he failed to respond further to the mounting crisis.

Abraham Lincoln (12 Feb 1809, near Hodgenville KY—15 Apr 1865, Washington DC), 16th president of the US (1861-65). Born in a Kentucky log cabin, he moved to Indiana in 1816 and to Illinois in 1830. He worked as a storekeeper, rail-splitter, postmaster, and surveyor, then enlisted as a volunteer in the Black Hawk War and became a captain. Though largely self-taught, he practiced law in Springfield IL and served in the state legislature (1834-40). He was elected as a Whig to the House of Representatives (1847-49). As a circuit-riding lawyer from 1849, he became one of the state’s most successful lawyers, noted for his shrewdness, common sense, and honesty (earning him the nickname “Honest Abe”). In 1856 he joined the Republican Party, which nominated him as its candidate in the 1858 Senate election. In a series of seven debates with Stephen A. Douglas (the Lincoln-Douglas Debates), he argued against the extension of slavery into the territories, though not against slavery itself. Although morally opposed to slavery, he was not an abolitionist. During the campaign, he attempted to rebut Douglas’s charge that he was a dangerous radical by reassuring audiences that he did not favor political equality for blacks. Despite his loss in the election, the debates brought him national attention. He again ran against Douglas in the 1860 presidential election, which he won by a large margin. But the South opposed his position on slavery in the territories, and before his inauguration seven Southern states had seceeded from the Union. The ensuing American Civil War completely consumed Lincoln’s administration. He excelled as a wartime leader, creating a high command for directing all the country’s energies and resources toward the war effort and combining statecraft and overall command of the armies with what some have called military genius. However, his abrogation of some civil liberties, especially the writ of habeas corpus, and the closing of several newspapers by his generals disturbed both Democrats and Republicans, including some members of his own cabinet. To unite the North and influence foreign opinion, he issued the Emancipation Proclamation (1863); his Gettysburg Address (1863) further ennobled the war’s purpose. The continuing war affected some Northerners’ resolve and his reelection was not assured, but strategic battle victories turned the tide and he easily defeated George B. McClellan in 1864. His platform included passage of the 13th Amendment outlawing slavery (ratified 1865). At his second inaugural, with victory in sight, he spoke of moderation in reconstructing the South and building a harmonious Union. On 14 Apr, five days after the war ended, he was shot by John Wilkes Booth and soon after died.

Andrew Johnson (29 Dec 1808, Raleigh NC—31 Jul 1875, near Carter Station TN), 17th president of the US (1865-69). Born in North Carolina and reared in Tennessee, he was self-educated and initially worked as a tailor. He organized a work-ingman’s party and was elected to the state legislature (1835-43), where he became a spokesman for small farmers. He served in the House of Representatives (1843-53) and as governor of Tennessee (1853-57). Elected to the Senate (1857-62), he opposed antislavery agitation, but in 1860 he opposed Southern secession, even after Tennessee seceded in 1861, and during the Civil War he was the only Southern senator who refused to join the Confederacy. In 1862 he was appointed military governor of Tennessee, then under Union control. In 1864 he was selected to run for vice president with Pres. Abraham Lincoln; he assumed the presidency after Lincoln’s assassination. During Reconstruction he favored a moderate policy that readmitted former Confederate states to the Union with few provisions for reform or civil rights for freedmen. In 1867 the Radical Republicans in Congress passed civil rights legislation and established the Freedmen’s Bureau. His veto angered Congress, which passed the Tenure of Office Act. In 1868 in defiance of the act, Johnson dismissed secretary of war Edwin M. Stanton, an ally of the Radicals. The House responded by impeaching the president for the first time in US history. In the subsequent Senate trial, the charges proved weak and the necessary two-thirds vote needed for conviction failed by one vote. Johnson remained in office until 1869, but his effectiveness had ended. He returned to Tennessee, where he won reelection to the Senate shortly before he died.

Ulysses S. Grant (Hiram Ulysses Grant) (27 Apr 1822, Point Pleasant OH—23 Jul 1885, Mount McGregor NY), 18th president of the US (1869-77). He served in the Mexican War under Zachary Taylor; he resigned his commission in 1854 when he could not afford to bring his family west. Allegations that he became a drunkard in the lonely years in the West and in later life, though never proved, would affect his reputation. He worked unsuccessfully at farming in Missouri and at his family’s leather business in Illinois. When the Civil War began (1861), he was appointed brigadier general; his 1862 attack on Fort Donelson TN, produced the first major Union victory. He drove off a Confederate attack at Shiloh but was criticized for heavy Union losses. He devised the campaign to take the stronghold of Vicksburg MS, in 1863, cutting the Confederacy in half from east to west. Following his victory at the Battle of Chattanooga in 1864, he was appointed commander of the Union army. While William T. Sherman made his famous march across Georgia, Grant attacked Robert E. Lee’s forces in Virginia, bringing the war to an end in 1865. Grant’s administrative ability and innovative strategies were largely responsible for the Union victory. His successful Republican presidential campaign made him, at 46, the youngest man yet elected president. His two terms were marred by administrative inaction and political scandal involving members of his cabinet, including the Credit Mobilier scandal and the Whiskey Ring operation. He was more successful in foreign affairs, in which he was aided by his secretary of state, Hamilton Fish. He supported amnesty for Confederate leaders and protection for black civil rights. His veto of a bill to increase the amount of legal tender (1874) diminished the currency crisis in the next 25 years.

In 1881 he moved to New York; when a partner defrauded an investment firm co-owned by his son, the family was impoverished. His memoirs were published by his friend Mark Twain.

Rutherford Birchard Hayes (4 Oct 1822, Delaware OH—17 Jan 1893, Fremont OH), 19th president of the US (1877-81). He practiced law in Cincinnati, representing defendants in several fugitive-slave cases and becoming associated with the new Republican Party. After fighting in the Union army, he served in the House of Representatives (186567). As governor of Ohio (1868-72, 1875-76), he advocated a sound currency backed by gold. In 1876 he won the Republican nomination for president. His opponent, Samuel Tilden, won a larger popular vote, but Hayes’s managers contested the electoral-vote returns in four states, and a special Electoral Commission awarded the election to Hayes. As part of a secret compromise reached with Southerners, he withdrew the remaining federal troops from the South, ending Reconstruction, and promised not to interfere with elections there, ensuring the return of white Democratic supremacy. He introduced civil-service reform based on merit, incurring a dispute with Roscoe Conkling and the conservative “stalwart” Republicans. At the request of state governors, he used federal troops against strikers in the railroad strikes of 1877. Declining to run for a second term, he retired to work for humanitarian causes.

James Abram Garfield (19 Nov 1831, near Orange [in Cuyahoga county] OH—19 Sep 1881, Elberon [now in Long Branch] NJ), 20th president of the US (1881). He graduated from Williams College, then returned to Ohio to teach and head an academy that became Hiram College. In the Civil War he led the 42nd Ohio Volunteers and fought at Shiloh and Chickamauga. He resigned as a major general to serve in the House of Representatives (1863-80). A Radical Republican during Reconstruction, he served on the Electoral Commission in the 1876 election and was the House Republican leader from 1876 to 1880, when he was elected to the Senate. At the 1880 Republican nominating convention, the delegates supporting Ulysses S. Grant and James Blaine became deadlocked. On the 36th ballot Garfield was nominated as a compromise presidential candidate, with Chester Arthur as vice president, and won by a narrow margin. His brief term, less than 150 days, was marked by a dispute with Sen. Roscoe Conkling over patronage. On July 2 he was shot at Washington’s railroad station by Charles J. Guiteau, an Arthur supporter. He died on September 19 after 11 weeks of public debate over the ambiguous constitutional conditions for presidential succession (later clarified by the 20th and 25th Amendments).

Chester Alan Arthur (5 Oct 1829, North Fairfield VT— 18 Nov 1886, New York NY), 21st president of the US (1881-85). He practiced law in New York City from 1854. He became active in local Republican politics and a close associate of party leader Roscoe Conkling, and was appointed customs collector for the port of New York (1871-78), an office long known for its employment of the spoils system. He conducted the business of the office with integrity but continued to pad its payroll with Conkling loyalists. At the Republican national convention in 1880, Arthur became the compromise choice for vice president on the ticket with James Garfield, and he became president upon Garfield’s assassination. As president, Arthur displayed unexpected independence by vetoing measures that rewarded political patronage. He also signed the Pendleton Act, which created a civil-service system based on merit. He recommended the appropriations that initiated the rebuilding of the Navy toward the strength it later achieved in the Spanish-American War (1898). He failed to win his party’s nomination for a second term.

(Stephen) Grover Cleveland (18 Mar 1837, Caldwell NJ—24 Jun 1908, Princeton NJ), 22nd and 24th president of the US (1885-89,1893-97). He practiced law in Buffalo NY from 1859, where he entered Democratic Party politics. As mayor of Buffalo (1881-82), he was known as a foe of corruption. As governor of New York (1883-85), he earned the hostility of Tammany Hall with his independence, but in 1884 he won the Democratic nomination for president. The first Democratic president since 1856, he supported civil-service reform and opposed high protective tariffs, which became an issue in the 1888 election, when he was narrowly defeated by Benjamin Harrison. In 1892 he was reelected by a huge popular plurality. In 1893 he attributed the US’s severe economic depression to the Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890 and strongly urged Congress to repeal the act. The economic unrest resulted in the Pullman Strike in 1894. An isolationist, he opposed territorial expansion. In 1895 he invoked the Monroe Doctrine in the border dispute between Britain and Venezuela. By 1896 supporters of the Free Silver Movement controlled the Democratic Party, which nominated William Jennings Bryan instead of Cleveland for president. He retired to New Jersey, where he lectured at Princeton University.

Benjamin Harrison (20 Aug 1833, North Bend OH— 13 Mar 1901, Indianapolis IN), 23rd president of the US (1889-93). The grandson of Pres. William H. Harrison, he practiced law in Indianapolis from the mid-1850s. He served in the Union army in the Civil War, rising to brigadier general. He served a term in the Senate (1881-87) and, even though he lost reelection, was nominated for president by the Republicans. He went on to defeat the incumbent, Grover Cleveland, who lost despite winning more of the popular vote. As president, his domestic policy was marked by passage of the Sherman Antitrust Act. His foreign policy expanded US influence abroad. His secretary of state, James Blaine, presided at the conference that led to the establishment of the Pan-American Union, resisted pressure to abandon US interests in the Samoan Islands (1889), and negotiated a treaty with Britain in the Bering Sea Dispute (1891). Defeated for reelection by Cleveland in 1892, he returned to Indianapolis to practice law. In 1898-99 he was the leading counsel for Venezuela in its boundary dispute with Britain.

William McKinley (29 Jan 1843, Niles OH—14 Sep 1901, Buffalo NY), 25th president of the US (1897-1901). He served in the Civil War as an aide to Col. Rutherford B. Hayes, who later encouraged his political career. He was elected to the House of Representatives (1877-91), where he favored protective tariffs and sponsored the McKinley Tariff of 1890. With the support of Mark Hanna, he was elected governor (1892-96). In 1896 he won the Republican presidential nomination and the general election, defeating William Jennings Bryan. He called a special session of Congress to increase customs duties, but was soon embroiled in events in Cuba and responses to the sinking of the USS Maine, which led to the Spanish-American War. At the war’s end, he advocated US dependency status for the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and other former Spanish territories. He again defeated Bryan by a large majority in 1900 and began a tour to urge control of trusts and commercial reciprocity to boost foreign trade, issues neglected during the war. In Buffalo NY on 6 Sep 1901, he was fatally shot by an anarchist, Leon Czolgosz. He was succeeded by Theodore Roosevelt.

Theodore Roosevelt (27 Oct 1858, New York NY—6 Jan 1919, Oyster Bay NY), 26th president of the US (1901-9). He was elected to the New York legislature in 1882, where he became a Republican leader opposed to the Democratic political machine. After political defeats and the death of his wife, he went to the Dakota Territory to ranch. He returned to New York to serve on the US Civil Service Commission (1889-95) and as head of the city’s board of police commissioners (1895-97). A supporter of William McKinley, he served as assistant secretary of the navy (1897-98). When the Spanish-American War was declared, he resigned to organize a cavalry unit, the Rough Riders. He returned to New York a hero and was elected governor in 1899. As the Republican vice-presidential nominee, he took office when McKinley was reelected, and he became president on McKinley’s assassination in 1901. One of his early initiatives was to urge enforcement of the Sherman Antitrust Act against business monopolies. He won election in his own right in 1904, defeating Alton Parker. At his urging, Congress regulated railroad rates and passed the Pure Food and Drug Act and Meat Inspection Act (1906) to provide new consumer protections. He set aside national forests, parks, and mineral, oil, and coal lands for conservation. He and secretary of state Elihu Root announced the Roosevelt corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, which reinforced the US position as defender of the Western Hemisphere. For mediating an end to the Russo-Japanese War, he received the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize. He secured a treaty with Panama for construction of a trans-isthmus canal. Declining to seek reelection, he secured the nomination for William H. Taft. After traveling in Africa and Europe, he tried to win the Republican presidential nomination in 1912; when he was rejected, he organized the Bull Moose Party and ran on a policy of New Nationalism, but he failed to win the election. Throughout his life he continued to write, publishing extensively on history, politics, travel, and nature.

William Howard Taft (15 Sep 1857, Cincinnati OH— 8 Mar 1930, Washington DC), 27th president of the US (1909-13). He served on the state superior court (1887-90), as US solicitor general (189092), and as US appellate judge (1892-1900). He was appointed head of the Philippine Commission to set up a civilian government in the islands and was its first civilian governor (1901-4). He served as US secretary of war (1904-8) under Pres. Theodore Roosevelt, who supported Taft’s nomination for president in 1908. He won the election but became allied with the conservative Republicans, causing a rift with party progressives. He was again the nominee in 1912, but the split with Roosevelt and the Bull Moose Party resulted in the electoral victory of Woodrow Wilson. Taft later taught law at Yale University (1913-21), served on the National War Labor Board (1918), and was a supporter of the League of Nations. As chief justice of the Supreme Court (1921-30), he introduced reforms that made it more efficient. He secured passage of the Judges Act of 1925, which gave the Court wider discretion in accepting cases. His important opinion in Myers v. US (1926) upheld the president’s authority to remove federal officials. In poor health, he resigned in 1930.

(Thomas) Woodrow Wilson (28 Dec 1856, Staunton VA—3 Feb 1924, Washington DC), 28th president of the US (1913-21). He earned a law degree and later received his doctorate from Johns Hopkins University. He taught political science at Princeton University (1890-1902), and as its president (1902-10), he introduced various reforms. With the support of progressives, he was elected governor of New Jersey. His reform measures attracted national attention, and he became the Democratic presidential nominee in 1912. His campaign emphasized the progressive measures of his New Freedom policy, and he defeated Theodore Roosevelt and William H. Taft to win the presidency. As president, he approved legislation that lowered tariffs, created the Federal Reserve System, established the Federal Trade Commission, and strengthened labor unions. In foreign affairs he promoted self-government for the Philippines and sought to contain the Mexican civil war. From 1914 he maintained US neutrality in World War I, offering to mediate a settlement and initiate peace negotiations. After the sinking of the Lusitania (1915) and other unarmed ships, he obtained a pledge from Germany to stop its submarine campaign. Campaigning on the theme that he had “kept us out of war,” he was narrowly reelected in 1916, defeating Charles Evans Hughes. Germany’s renewed submarine attacks on unarmed passenger ships caused Wilson to ask for a declaration of war in April 1917. In a continuing effort to negotiate a peace agreement, he presented the Fourteen Points (1918). He led the US delegation to the Paris Peace Conference, where he attempted to stand on his original principles but was forced to compromise by the demands of various countries. The Treaty of Versailles faced opposition in the Senate from the Republican majority led by Henry C. Lodge. In search of popular support for the treaty and its League of Nations, Wilson began a cross-country speaking tour, but he collapsed and returned to Washington DC (Sep 1919), where a stroke left him partially paralyzed. He rejected any attempts to compromise his version of the League of Nations and urged his Senate followers to vote against ratification of the treaty, which was defeated in 1920. He was awarded the 1919 Nobel Peace Prize for his work on the League of Nations.

Warren Gamaliel Harding (2 Nov 1865, Caledonia (now Blooming Grove) OH—2 Aug 1923, San Francisco CA), 29th president of the US (1921-23). He became a newspaper publisher in Marion OH, where he was allied with the Republican Party’s political machine. He served successively as state senator (1899-1902), lieutenant governor (190304), and US senator (1915-21), supporting conservative policies. At the deadlocked 1920 Republican presidential convention, he was chosen as the compromise candidate. Pledging a “return to normalcy” after World War I, he defeated James Cox with over 60% of the popular vote, the largest margin to that time. On his recommendation, Congress established a budget system for the federal government, passed a high protective tariff, revised wartime taxes, and restricted immigration. His administration convened the Washington Conference (1921-22). His ill-advised cabinet and patronage appointments, including Albert Fall, led to the Teapot Dome scandal and characterized his administration as corrupt. While in Alaska, he received word of the corruption about to be exposed and headed back. He arrived in San Francisco exhausted, reportedly suffering from food poisoning and other ills, and died there under unclear circumstances. He was succeeded by his vice president, Calvin Coolidge.

(John) Calvin Coolidge (4 Jul 1872, Plymouth VT—5 Jan 1933, Northampton MA), 30th president of the US (1923-29). He practiced law in Massachusetts from 1897 and served as lieutenant governor before being elected governor in 1918. He gained national attention by calling out the state guard during the Boston police strike in 1919. At the 1920 Republican convention, “Silent Cal” was nominated for vice president on Warren G. Hard-ing’s winning ticket. When Harding died in office in 1923, Coolidge became president. He restored confidence in an administration discredited by scandals and won the presidential election in 1924, defeating Robert La Follette. He vetoed measures to provide farm relief and bonuses to World War I veterans. His presidency was marked by apparent prosperity. Congress maintained a high protective tariff and instituted tax reductions that favored capital. Coolidge declined to run for a second term. His conservative policies of domestic and international inaction have come to symbolize the era between World War I and the Great Depression.

Herbert Clark Hoover (10 Aug 1874, West Branch IA—20 Oct 1964, New York NY), 31st president of the US (1929-33). As a mining engineer, he administered engineering projects on four continents (1895-1913). He then headed Allied relief operations in England and Belgium prior to World War I, at which time he was appointed national food administrator (1917-19) and instituted programs that furnished food to the Allies and famine-stricken areas of Europe. Appointed secretary of commerce (1921-27), he reorganized the department, creating divisions to regulate broadcasting and aviation. He oversaw commissions to build Boulder (later Hoover) Dam and the St. Lawrence Seaway. In 1928, as the Republican presidential candidate, he soundly defeated Alfred E. Smith. His hopes for a “New Day” program were quickly overwhelmed by the Great Depression. As a believer in individual freedom, he vetoed bills to create a federal unemployment agency and to fund public-works projects, instead favoring private charity. In 1932 he finally allowed relief to farmers through the Reconstruction Finance Corp. He was overwhelmingly defeated in 1932 by Franklin Roosevelt. He continued to speak out against relief measures and criticized New Deal programs. After World War II he participated in famine-relief work in Europe and was appointed head of the Hoover Commission.

Franklin Delano Roosevelt (30 Jan 1882, Hyde Park NY—12 Apr 1945, Warm Springs GA), 32nd president of the US (1933-45). He was attracted to politics as an admirer of his cousin Pres. Theodore Roosevelt and became active in the Democratic Party. In 1905 he married distant cousin Eleanor Roosevelt, who would become a valued adviser in future years. He served in the state senate (1910-13) and as assistant secretary of the navy (1913-20). In 1920 he was nominated for vice president. The next year he was stricken with polio; though unable to walk, he remained active in politics. As governor of New York (1929-33), he set up the first state relief agency in the US. In 1932 he won the Democratic presidential nomination with the help of James Farley and easily defeated Pres. Herbert Hoover. In his inaugural address to a nation of more than 13 million unemployed, he pronounced that “the only thing we have to fear is fear itself.” Congress passed most of the changes he sought in his New Deal program in the first hundred days of his term. He was overwhelmingly reelected in 1936 over Alf Landon. To solve legal challenges to the New Deal, he proposed enlarging the Supreme Court, but his “court-packing” plan aroused strong opposition and had to be abandoned. By the late 1930s economic recovery had slowed, but Roosevelt was more concerned with the growing threat of war. In 1940 he was reelected to an unprecedented third term, defeating Wendell Willkie. He maintained US neutrality toward the war in Europe but approved the principle of lend-lease and in 1941 met with Winston Churchill to draft the Atlantic Charter. With US entry into World War II, he mobilized industry for military production and formed an alliance with Britain and the Soviet Union; he met with Churchill and Joseph Stalin to form war policy at Tehran (1943) and Yalta (1945). Despite declining health, he won reelection for a fourth term against Thomas Dewey (1944) but served only briefly before his death. His presidency is well regarded in US history.

Harry S. Truman (8 May 1884, Lamar MO—26 Dec 1972, Kansas City MO), 33rd president of the US (1945-53). He worked at various jobs before serving with distinction in World War I. He became a partner in a Kansas City haberdashery; when the business failed, he entered Democratic Party politics with the help of Thomas Pendergast. He was elected county judge (1922-24), and later became presiding judge of the county court (1926-34). His reputation for honesty and good management gained him bipartisan support. In the Senate (1935-45), he led a committee that exposed fraud in defense production. In 1944 he was chosen to replace the incumbent Henry Wallace as vice-presidential nominee and was elected with Pres. Franklin Roosevelt. After only 82 days as vice president, he became president on Roosevelt’s death (April 1945). He quickly made final arrangements for the San Francisco charter-writing meeting of the UN; helped arrange Germany’s unconditional surrender on 8 May, which ended World War II in Europe; and in July attended the Potsdam Conference. The Pacific war ended officially on 2 Sep, after he ordered atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki; his justification was a report that 500,000 US troops would be lost in a conventional invasion of Japan. He announced the Truman Doctrine to aid Greece and Turkey (1947), established the Central Intelligence Agency, and pressed for passage of the Marshall Plan to aid European countries. In 1948 he defeated Thomas Dewey despite widespread expectation of his own defeat. He initiated a foreign policy of containment to restrict the Soviet Union’s sphere of influence, pursued his Point Four Program, and initiated the Berlin airlift and the NATO pact of 1949. In the Korean War he sent troops under Gen. Douglas MacArthur to head the United Nations forces. Problems of pursuing the waroccupied his administration until he retired. Though he was often criticized during his presidency, Truman’s reputation grew steadily in later years.

Dwight David Eisenhower (14 Oct 1890, DenisonTX — 28 Mar 1969, Washington DC), 34th president of the US (1953-61). He graduated from West Point (1915), then served in the Panama Canal Zone (1922-24) and in the Philippines under Douglas MacArthur (1935-39). In World War II Gen. George Marshall appointed him to the army’s war-plans division (1941), then chose him to command US forces in Europe (1942). After planning the invasions of North Africa, Sicily, and Italy, he was appointed supreme commander of Allied forces (1943). He planned the Normandy Campaign (1944) and the conduct of the war in Europe until the German surrender (1945). He was promoted to five-star general (1944) and was named army chief of staff in 1945. He served as president of Columbia University from 1948 until being appointed supreme commander of NATO in 1951. Both Democrats and Republicans courted Eisenhower as a presidential candidate; in 1952, as the Republican candidate, he defeated Adlai Stevenson with the largest popular vote up to that time. He defeated Stevenson again in 1956 in an even larger landslide. His achievements included efforts to contain Communism with the Eisenhower Doctrine. He sent federal troops to Little Rock AR to enforce integration of a city high school (1957). When the Soviet Union launched Sputnik I (1957), he was criticized for failing to develop the US space program and responded by creating NASA (1958). In his last weeks in office the US broke diplomatic relations with Cuba.

John Fitzgerald Kennedy (29 May 1917, Brookline MA—22 Nov 1963, Dallas TX), 35th president of the US (1961-63). The son of Joseph P. Kennedy, he graduated from Harvard University and joined the Navy in World War II, where he earned medals for heroism. Elected to the House of Representatives (1947-53) and the Senate (1953-60), he supported social legislation and became increasingly committed to civil rights legislation. He supported the policies of Harry Truman but accused the State Department of trying to force Chiang Kai-shek into a coalition with Mao Zedong. In 1960 he won the Democratic nomination for president; after a vigorous campaign, managed by his brother Robert F. Kennedy and aided financially by his father, he narrowly defeated Richard Nixon. He was the youngest person and the first Roman Catholic elected president. In his inaugural address he called on Americans to “ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country.” He proposed tax-reform and civil rights legislation but received little congressional support. He established the Peace Corps and the Alliance for Progress. His foreign policy began with the abortive Bay of Pigs invasion (1961), which emboldened the Soviet Union to move missiles to Cuba, sparking the Cuban missile crisis. In 1963 he successfully concluded the Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty. In November 1963 he was assassinated while riding in a motorcade in Dallas by a sniper, allegedly Lee Harvey Oswald. The killing is considered the most notorious political murder of the 20th century. Kennedy’s youth, energy, and charming family brought him world adulation and sparked the idealism of a generation, for whom the Kennedy White House became known as “Camelot.” Details about his powerful family and personal life, especially concerning his extramarital affairs, tainted his image in later years.

Lyndon Baines Johnson (27 Aug 1908, Gillespie county TX—22 Jan 1973, San Antonio TX), 36th president of the US (1963-69). He taught school in Houston before going to Washington DC in 1932 as a congressional aide. There he was befriended by Sam Rayburn and his political career blossomed. He won a seat in the House of Representatives (1937-49) as the New Deal was under conservative attack. His loyalty impressed Pres. Franklin Roosevelt, who made Johnson a protege. He won election to the Senate in 1949 in a vicious campaign that saw fraud on both sides. As Democratic whip (1951-55) and majority leader (1955-61), he developed a talent for consensus building among dissident factions with methods both tactful and ruthless. He was largely responsible for passage of the civil rights bills of 1957 and 1960, the first in the 20th century. In 1960 he was elected vice president; he became president after the assassination of John F. Kennedy. In his first few months in office he won from Congress passage of a huge quantity of important civil rights, tax-reduction, antipoverty, and conservation legislation. He defeated Barry Goldwater in the 1964 election by the largest popular majority to that time and announced his Great Society program. He was diverted from overseeing its enactment by the escalation of US involvement in the Vietnam War, beginning with the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. His approval ratings diminished markedly and led to his decision not to seek reelection in 1968. He retired to his Texas ranch.

Richard Milhous Nixon (9 Jan 1913, Yorba Linda CA— 22 Apr 1994, New York NY), 37th president of the US (1969-74). He studied law at Duke University and practiced in California 1937-42. After serving in World War II, he was elected to the House of Representatives in 1947, employing harsh campaign tactics. He came to national attention with the Alger Hiss case and was elected to the Senate in 1951, again following a bitter campaign. He won the vice presidency in 1952 on a ticket with Dwight D. Eisenhower; they were reelected easily in 1956. As presidential candidate in 1960, he lost narrowly to John F. Kennedy. After failing to win the 1962 California gubernatorial race, he retired from politics and moved to New York to practice law. He reentered politics by running for president in 1968, and he defeated Hubert H. Humphrey with his “Southern strategy” of seeking votes from Southern and Western conservatives in both parties. As president, he began to gradually withdraw US military forces in an effort to end the Vietnam War while ordering the secret bombing of North Vietnamese military centers in Laos and Cambodia. Attacks on North Vietnamese sanctuaries in Cambodia drew widespread protest. Economic problems caused by inflation made the US budget deficit the largest to date, and in 1971 Nixon established unprecedented peacetime controls on wages and prices. He won reelection in 1972 with a landslide victory over George McGovern. Assisted by Henry A. Kissinger, he concluded the Vietnam War. He reopened communications with Communist China and made a state visit there. On his visit to the Soviet Union, the first by a US president, he signed the bilateral SALT agreements. The Watergate scandal overshadowed his second term; his complicity in efforts to cover up his involvement and the likelihood of impeachment led to his becoming, in August 1974, the first president to resign from office.

Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. (Leslie Lynch King, Jr.; 14 Jul 1913, Omaha NE—26 Dec 2006, Rancho Mirage CA), 38th president of the US (1974-77). He was an infant when his parents divorced, and his mother later married Gerald R. Ford. He attended the University of Michigan and Yale Law School, and practiced law in Michigan after World War II. He served in the House of Representative 1948-73, becoming minority leader in 1965. After Spiro Agnew resigned as vice president in 1973, Richard Nixon nominated Ford to fill the vacant post. When the Watergate scandal forced Nixon’s departure, Ford became the first president who had not been elected to either the vice presidency or the presidency. A month later he pardoned Nixon; to counter widespread outrage, he voluntarily appeared before a House subcommittee to explain his action. His administration gradually lowered the high inflation rate it inherited. Ford’s relations with the Democratic-controlled Congress were typified by his more than 50 vetoes, of which more than 40 were sustained. In the final days of the Vietnam War in 1975, he ordered an airlift of 237,000 anti-Communist Vietnamese refugees, most of whom came to the US. Reaction against Watergate contributed to his defeat by James Earl Carter, Jr., in 1976.

James Earl Carter, Jr. (1 Oct 1924, Plains GA), 39th president of the US (1977-81). He graduated from the US Naval Academy and served in the navy until 1953, when he left to manage the family peanut business. He served in the state senate 1962-66. Elected governor (1971-75), he opened Georgia’s government offices to blacks and women and introduced stricter budgeting procedures for state agencies. In 1976, though lacking a national political base or major backing, he won the Democratic nomination and the presidency, defeating the sitting president, Gerald Ford. As president, Carter helped negotiate a peace treaty between Egypt and Israel, signed a treaty with Panama to make the Panama Canal a neutral zone after 1999, and established full diplomatic relations with China. In 1979-80 the Iran hostage crisis became a major political liability. He responded more forcefully to the USSR’s invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, embargoing the shipment of US grain to that country and leading a boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow. Hampered by high inflation and a recession engineered to tame it, he lost his bid for reelection to Ronald Reagan. He subsequently became involved in international diplomatic negotiations and helped oversee elections in countries with insecure democratic traditions. Carter was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2002.

Ronald Wilson Reagan (6 Feb 1911, Tampico IL—5 Jun 2004, Bel Air CA), 40th president of the US (1981-89). He attended Eureka College and worked as a radio sports announcer before going to Hollywood in 1937. In his career as a movie actor, he had roles in 50 films and was twice president of the Screen Actors Guild (1947-52, 1959-60). Reagan became a spokesman for the General Electric Co. and hosted its television theater program 1954-62. Having gradually changed his political affiliation from liberal Democrat to conservative Republican, he was elected governor of California and served 1967-74. In 1980 he defeated incumbent Pres. James Earl Carter, Jr., to become president. Shortly after taking office, he was wounded in an assassination attempt. Reagan adopted supply-side economics to promote rapid economic growth and reduce the federal deficit. Congress approved most of his proposals (1981), which succeeded in lowering inflation but doubled the national debt by 1986. He began the largest peacetime military buildup in US history and in 1983 proposed construction of the Strategic Defense Initiative. His foreign policy included the INF Treaty to restrict intermediate-range nuclear weapons and the invasion of Grenada. In 1984 Reagan defeated Walter Mondale in a landslide for reelection. Details of his administration’s involvement in the Iran-Contra Affair emerged in 1986 and significantly weakened his popularity and authority. Though his intellectual capacity for governing was often disparaged, his artful communication skills enabled him to pursue numerous conservative policies with conspicuous success. In 1994 he revealed that he had Alzheimer disease.

George Herbert Walker Bush (12 Jun 1924, Milton MA), 41st president of the US (1989-93). The son of Prescott Bush, later a Connecticut senator, he served in World War II, graduated from Yale University, and started an oil business in Texas. He served in the House of Representatives 1966-70 as a Republican. He then served as ambassador to the UN (1971-72), chief liaison to China (1974-76), and head of the CIA (1976-77). In 1980 he ran for president but lost the nomination to Ronald Reagan. Bush served as vice president with Reagan (1981-88), whom he succeeded as president, defeating Michael Dukakis. He made no dramatic departures from Reagan’s policies. In 1989 he ordered a brief military invasion of Panama, which toppled that country’s leader, Gen. Manuel Noriega. He helped impose a UN-approved embargo against Iraq in 1990 to force its withdrawal from Kuwait. When Iraq refused, he authorized a US-led air offensive that began the Persian Gulf War. Despite general approval of his foreign policy, an economic recession led to his defeat by William Jefferson Clinton in 1992. His son George W. Bush was elected president in 2000 and reelected in 2004. In the aftermath of the 26 Dec 2004 tsunami, Bush joined fellow former president Bill Clinton as leader of a fundraising effort to aid victims of the disaster.

William Jefferson Clinton (William Jefferson Blythe III; 19 Aug 1946, Hope AR), 42nd president of the US (1993-2001). He was adopted, after his father’s death in a car crash, by his mother’s second husband, Roger Clinton. He attended Georgetown University, Oxford University (as a Rhodes Scholar), and Yale Law School, then taught at the University of Arkansas School of Law. He served as state attorney general (1977-79) and served several terms as governor (1979-81, 1983-92), during which he reformed Arkansas’s educational system and encouraged the growth of industry through favorable tax policies. He won the Democratic presidential nomination in 1992, after withstanding charges of personal impropriety, and defeated the incumbent, George H.W. Bush. As president, he obtained approval of the North American Free Trade Agreement in 1993. He and his wife, Hillary Rodham Clinton, strongly advocated their plan to overhaul the US health care system, but Congress rejected it. He committed US forces to a peacekeeping initiative in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In 1994 the Democrats lost control of Congress for the first time since 1954. Clinton defeated Robert Dole to win reelection in 1996. He faced renewed charges of personal impropriety, this time involving Monica Lewinsky, and as a result, in 1998 he became the second president in history to be impeached. Charged with perjury and obstruction of justice, he was acquitted at his Senate trial in 1999. His two terms saw sustained economic growth and successive budget surpluses, the first in three decades. In the aftermath of the 26 Dec 2004 tsunami, Clinton joined fellow former president George H.W. Bush as leader of a fundraising effort to aid victims of the disaster.

George Walker Bush (6 Jul 1946, New Haven CT), 43rd president of the US (from 2001). The eldest child of Pres. George H.W. Bush, he attended Yale University and Harvard Business School. After spending a decade in the oil business with mixed success, he served as managing general partner of the Texas Rangers baseball franchise. In 1994 he was elected governor of Texas (1995-2000). Despite losing the national popular vote to Vice President Al Gore by more than 500,000 votes, he gained the presidency when a Supreme Court ruling effectively ended a recount of ballots in Florida. His response to the terrorist attacks on 11 Sep 2001 gave shape to his administration. The invasion of Iraq by US-led forces in March 2003 was followed by a problematic occupation during which a burgeoning insurgency threatened Iraqi efforts to stabilize a democratically elected government. Bush won reelection in 2004. The loss of Republican control of Congress in elections in November 2006 limited his power to steer legislation to passage at the end of his time in the White House.

Vice Presidents

name

dates of birth/death

time in office

president

1

John Adams

30 Oct 1735-4 Jul 1826

1789-

97

George Washington

2

Thomas Jefferson

13 Apr 1743-4 Jul 1826

1797-

1801

John Adams

3

Aaron Burr

6 Feb 1756-14 Sep 1836

1801-

05

Thomas Jefferson

4

George Clinton1

26 Jul 1739-20 Apr 1812

1805-

09

Thomas Jefferson

1809-

12

James Madison

5

Elbridge Gerry

17 Jul 1744-23 Nov 1814

1813-

14

James Madison

6

Daniel D.Tompkins

21 Jun 1774-11 Jun 1825

1817-

25

James Monroe

7

John C. Calhoun2

18 Mar 1782-31 Mar 1850

1825-

29

John Quincy Adams

1829-

32

Andrew Jackson

8

Martin Van Buren

5 Dec 1782-24 Jul 1862

1833-

37

Andrew Jackson

9

Richard M.

17 Oct 1781-19 Nov 1850

1837-

41

Martin Van Buren

Johnson

10

John Tyler

29 Mar 1790-18 Jan 1862

1841

William Henry Harrison1

11

George Mifflin

10 Jul 1792-31 Dec 1864

1845-

49

James K. Polk

 

Dallas

 

 

 

 

12

Millard Fillmore

7 Jan 1800-8 Mar 1874

1849-

50

Zachary Taylor1

13

William Rufus de

7 Apr 1786-18 Apr 1853

4 Mar

-18 Apr 1853

Franklin Pierce

 

Vane King1

 

 

 

 

14

John C. Breckin-

21 Jan 1821-17 May 1875

1857-

61

James Buchanan

 

ridge

 

 

 

 

15

Hannibal Hamlin

27 Aug 1809-4 Jul 1891

1861-

65

Abraham Lincoln1

16

Andrew Johnson

29 Dec 1808-31 Jul 1875

1865

 

 

17

Schuyler Colfax

23 Mar 1823-13 Jan 1885

1869-

73

Ulysses S. Grant

18

Henry Wilson1

16 Feb 1812-22 Nov 1875

1873-

75

Ulysses S. Grant

19

William A.

30 Jun 1819-4 Jun 1887

1877-

81

Rutherford B. Hayes

 

heeler

\

 

 

 

20

Chester A. Arthur

5 Oct 1829-18 Nov 1886

1881

 

James A. Garfield1

21

Thomas A.

7 Sep 1819-25 Nov 1885

4 Mar

-25 Nov 1885

Grover Cleveland

 

Hendricks1

 

 

 

 

22

Levi Parsons

16 May 1824-16 May 1920

1889-

93

Benjamin Harrison

 

Morton

 

 

 

 

23

Adlai E. Stevenson

23 Oct 1835-14 Jun 1914

1893-

97

Grover Cleveland

24

Garret A. Hobart1

3 Jun 1844-21 Nov 1899

1897-

99

William McKinley

25

Theodore

27 Oct 1858-6 Jan 199

1901

 

William McKinley1

 

Roosevelt

\

 

 

 

26

Charles Warren

11 May 1852-4 Jun 1918

1905-

09

Theodore Roosevelt

 

Fairbanks

 

 

 

 

27

James Schoolcraft

24 Oct 1855-30 Oct 1912

1909-

12

William Howard Taft

 

Sherman1

 

 

 

 

28

Thomas R. Marshall

14 Mar 1854-1 Jun 1925

1913-

21

Woodrow Wilson

 

name

dates of birth/death

time in office

president

29

Calvin Coolidge

4 Jul 1872-5 Jan 1933

1921-

23

Warren G. Harding1

30

Charles G. Dawes

27 Aug 1865-23 Apr 1851

1925-

29

Calvin Coolidge

31

Charles Curtis

25 Jan 1860-8 Feb 1936

1929-

33

Herbert Hoover

32

John Nance

22 Nov 1868-7 Nov 1967

1933-

41

Franklin D. Roosevelt

Garner

 

 

 

 

33

Henry A. Wallace

7 Oct 1888-18 Nov 1965

1941-

45

Franklin D. Roosevelt

3

Harry S. Truman

8 May 1884-26 Dec 1972

1945

 

Franklin D. Roosevelt1

35

Alben W. Barkley

24 Nov 1877-30 Apr 1956

1949-

53

Harry S. Truman

36

Richard M. Nixon

9 Jan 1913-22 Apr 1994

1953-

61

Dwight D. Eisenhower

37

Lyndon B. Johnson

27 Aug 1908-22 Jan 1973

1961-

63

John F. Kennedy1

38

Hubert H.

27 May 1911-13 Jan 1978

1965-

69

Lyndon B. Johnson

 

Humphrey

 

 

 

 

39

Spiro T. Agnew2

9 Nov 1918-17 Sep 1996

1969-

73

Richard M. Nixon

40

Gerald R. Ford

14 Jul 1913

1973-

74

Richard M. Nixon2

41

Nelson A.

8 Jul 1908-26 Jan 1979

1974-

77

Gerald R. Ford

 

Rockefeller

 

 

 

 

42

Walter F. Mondale

5 Jan 1928

1977-

81

Jimmy Carter

43

George H.W. Bush

12 Jun 1924

1981-

89

Ronald Reagan

44

Dan Quayle

4 Feb 1947

1989-

93

George H.W. Bush

45

Albert Gore

31 Mar 1948

1993-

2001

William J. Clinton

46

Richard B. Cheney

30 Jan 1941

2001-

George W. Bush

Presidents’ Spouses and Children

Maiden names of the presidents’ wives appear in small capital letters.

date of marriage

presidents, spouses, and children

6 Jan 1759

George Washington

Martha Dandridge Custis (2 Jun 1731-22 May 1802) no children

25 Oct 1764

John Adams

Abigail Smith (22 Nov 1744-28 Oct 1818)

► Abigail Amelia Adams (1765-1813), ► John Quincy Adams (1767-1848), ► Susanna Adams (1768-1770), ► Charles Adams (1770-1800), ► Thomas Boylston Adams (1772-1832)

1 Jan 1772

Thomas Jefferson

Martha Wayles Skelton (30 Oct 1748-6 Sep 1782)

► Martha Washington Jefferson (1772-1836), ► Jane Randolph Jefferson (1774-1775),

► infant son (1777-1777), ► Mary Jefferson (1778-1804), ► Lucy Elizabeth Jefferson (1780-1781), ► Lucy Elizabeth Jefferson (1782-1785)

15 Sep 1794

James Madison

Dolley Dandridge Payne Todd (20 May 1768-12 Jul 1849) no children

16 Feb 1786

James Monroe

Elizabeth Kortright (30 Jun 1768-23 Sep 1830)

► Eliza Kortright Monroe (1786-1835?), ► James Spence Monroe (1799-1800),

► Maria Hester Monroe (1803-1850)

26 Jul 1797

John Quincy Adams

Louisa Catherine Johnson (12 Feb 1775-15 May 1852)

► George Washington Adams (1801-1829), ► John Adams (1803-1834), ► Charles Francis Adams (1807-1886), ► Louisa Catherine Adams (1811-1812)

Aug 1791

Andrew Jackson

Rachel Donelson Robards (15? Jun 1767-22 Dec 1828) no children

date of marriage

presidents, spouses, and children

21 Feb 1807

Martin Van Buren

Hannah Hoes (8 Mar 1783-5 Feb 1819)

► Abraham Van Buren (1807-1873), ► John Van Buren (1810-1866), ► Martin Van Buren (1812-1855), ► Smith Thompson Van Buren (1817-1876)

William Henry Harrison

25 Nov 1795

Anna Tuthill Symmes (25 Jul 1775-25 Feb 1864)

► Elizabeth Bassett Harrison (1796-1846), ► John Cleves Symmes Harrison (17981830), ► Lucy Singleton Harrison (1800-1826), ► William Henry Harrison (1802-1838),

► John Scott Harrison (1804-1878), ► Benjamin Harrison (1806-1840), ► Mary Symmes Harrison (1809-1842), ► Carter Bassett Harrison (1811-1839), ► Anna Tuthill Harrison (1813-1865), ► James Findlay Harrison (1814-1817)

29 Mar 1813

John Tyler

Letitia Christian (12 Nov 1790-10 Sep 1842)

► Mary Tyler (1815-1848), ► Robert Tyler (1816-1877), ► John Tyler (1819-1896),

► Letitia Tyler (1821-1907), ► Anne Contesse Tyler (1825-1825), ► Alice Tyler (1827-1854), ► Tazewell Tyler (1830-1874)

26 Jun 1844

Julia Gardiner (4 May 1820-10 Jul 1889)

► David Gardiner Tyler (1846-1927), ► John Alexander Tyler (1848-1883), ► Julia Gardiner Tyler (1849?-1871), ► Lachlan Tyler (1851-1902), ► Lyon Gardiner Tyler (1853-1935), ► Robert Fitzwalter Tyler (1856-1927), ► Pearl Tyler (1860-1947)

1 Jan 1824

James K. Polk

Sarah Childress (4 Sep 1803-14 Aug 1891) no children

21 Jun 1810

Zachary Taylor

Margaret Mackall Smith (21 Sep 1788-14 Aug 1852)

► Anne Margaret Mackall Taylor (1811-1875), ► Sarah Knox Taylor (1814-1835),

► Octavia Pannel Taylor (1816-1820), ► Margaret Smith Taylor (1819-1820), ► Mary Elizabeth Taylor (1824-1909), ► Richard Taylor (1826-1879)

5 Feb 1826 10 Feb 1858

Millard Fillmore

Abigail Powers (13 Mar 1798-30 Mar 1853)

► Millard Powers Fillmore (1828-1889), ► Mary Abigail Fillmore (1832-1854) Caroline Carmichael Mcintosh (21 Oct 1813-11 Aug 1881) no children

10 Nov 1834

Franklin Pierce

Jane Means Appleton (12 Mar 1806-2 Dec 1863)

► Franklin Pierce (1836-1836), ► Frank Robert Pierce (1839-1843), ► Benjamin Pierce (1841-1853)

James Buchanan

never married

4 Nov 1842

Abraham Lincoln

Mary Ann Todd (13 Dec 1818-16 Jul 1882)

► Robert Todd Lincoln (1843-1926), ► Edward Baker Lincoln (1846-1850), ► William Wallace Lincoln (1850-1862), ►Thomas Lincoln (1853-1871)

17 May 1827

Andrew Johnson

Eliza McCardle (4 Oct 1810-15 Jan 1876)

► Martha Johnson (1828-1901), ► Charles Johnson (1830-1863), ► Mary Johnson (1832-1883), ► Robert Johnson (1834-1869), ► Andrew Johnson (1852-1879)

22 Aug 1848

Ulysses S. Grant

Julia Boggs Dent (26 Jan 1826-14 Dec 1902)

► Frederick Dent Grant (1850-1912), ► Ulysses Simpson Grant (1852-1929), ► Ellen Wrenshall Grant (1855-1922), ►Jesse Root Grant (1858-1934)

30 Dec 1852

Rutherford B. Hayes

Lucy Ware Webb (28 Aug 1831-25 Jun 1889)

► Birchard Austin Hayes (1853-1926), ► James Webb Cook Hayes (1856-1934),

► Rutherford Platt Hayes (1858-1927), ► Joseph Thompson Hayes (1861-1863),

► George Crook Hayes (1864-1866), ► Fanny Hayes (1867-1950), ► Scott Russell Hayes (1871-1923), ► Manning Force Hayes (1873-1874)

date of marriage

presidents, spouses, and children

11 Nov 1858

James A. Garfield

Lucretia Rudolph (19 Apr 1832-13 Mar 1918)

► Eliza Arabella Garfield (1860-1863), ► Harry Augustus Garfield (1863-1942),

► James Rudolph Garfield (1865-1950), ► Mary Garfield (1867-1947), ► Irvin McDowell Garfield (1870-1951), ► Abram Garfield (1872-1958), ► Edward Garfield (1874-1876)

25 Oct 1859

Chester A. Arthur

Ellen Lewis Herndon (30 Aug 1837-12 Jan 1880)

► William Lewis Herndon Arthur (1860-1863), ► Chester Alan Arthur (1864-1937),

► Ellen Herndon Arthur (1871-1915)

2 Jun 1886

Grover Cleveland

Frances Folsom (21 Jul 1864-29 Oct 1947)

► Ruth Cleveland (1891-1904), ► Esther Cleveland (1893-1980), ►Marion Cleveland (1895-1977), ► Richard Folsom Cleveland (1897-1974), ► Francis Grover Cleveland (1903-1995)

20 Oct 1853 6 Apr 1896

Benjamin Harrison

Caroline Lavinia Scott (1 Oct 1832-25 Oct 1892)

► Russell Benjamin Harrison (1854-1936), ► Mary Scott Harrison (1858-1930) Mary Scott Lord Dimmick (30 Apr 1858-5 Jan 1948)

► Elizabeth Harrison (1897-1955)

25 Jan 1871

William McKinley

Ida Saxton (8 Jun 1847-26 May 1907)

► Katherine McKinley (1871-1875), ► Ida McKinley (1873-1873)

27 Oct 1880 2 Dec 1886

Theodore Roosevelt

Alice Hathaway Lee (29 Jul 1861-14 Feb 1884)

► Alice Lee Roosevelt (1884-1980)

Edith Kermit Carow (6 Aug 1861-30 Sep 1948)

► Theodore Roosevelt (1887-1944), ► Kermit Roosevelt (1889-1943), ► Ethel Carow Roosevelt(1891-1977), ►Archibald Bulloch Roosevelt(1894-1979), ► Quentin Roosevelt (1897-1918)

19 Jun 1886

William Howard Taft

Helen Herron (2 Jun 1861-22 May 1943)

► Robert Alphonso Taft (1889-1953), ► Helen Herron Taft (1891-1987), ► Charles Phelps Taft (1897-1983)

24 Jun 1885

Woodrow Wilson

Ellen Louise Axson (15 May 1860-6 Aug 1914)

► Margaret Woodrow Wilson (1886-1944), ► Jessie Woodrow Wilson (1887-1933),

18 Dec 1915

► Eleanor Randolph Wilson (1889-1967) Edith Bolling Galt (15 Oct 1872-28 Dec 1961) no children

8 Jul 1891

Warren G. Harding

Florence Mabel Kling De Wolf (15 Aug 1860-21 Nov 1924) no children

4 Oct 1905

Calvin Coolidge

Grace Anna Goodhue (3 Jan 1879-8 Jul 1957) ► John Coolidge (1906-2000), ► Calvin Coolidge (1908-1924)

10 Feb 1899

Herbert Hoover

Lou Henry (29 Mar 1874-7 Jan 1944)

► Herbert Clark Hoover (1903-1969), ►Allan Henry Hoover (1907-1993)

17 Mar 1905

Franklin D. Roosevelt

(Anna) Eleanor Roosevelt (11 Oct 1884-7 Nov 1962)

► Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (1906-1975), ►James Roosevelt (1907-1991), ► Franklin Roosevelt (1909-1909), ► Elliott Roosevelt (1910-1990), ► Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1914-1988), ►John Aspinwall Roosevelt (1916-1981)

date of marriage

presidents, spouses, and children Harry S. Truman

28 Jun 1919

Elizabeth Virginia (Bess) Wallace (13 Feb 1885-18 Oct 1982) ► Margaret (Mary) Truman (1924-2008)

1 Jul 1916

Dwight D. Eisenhower

Marie (Mamie) Geneva Doud (14 Nov 1896-1 Nov 1979)

► Doud Dwight Eisenhower (1917-1921), ► John Sheldon Doud Eisenhower (1922-

12 Sep 1953

John F. Kennedy

Jacqueline Lee Bouvier (28 Jul 1929-19 May 1994)

► Caroline Bouvier Kennedy (1957- ), ► John Fitzgerald Kennedy (1960-1999), Patrick Bouvier Kennedy (1963-1963)

17 Nov 1934

Lyndon B. Johnson

Claudia Alta (Lady Bird) Taylor (22 Dec 1912-11 Jul 2007) ► Lynda Bird Johnson (1944- ), ► Luci Baines Johnson (1947- )

21 Jun 1940

Richard M. Nixon

Thelma Catherine (Patricia) Ryan (16 Mar 1912-22 Jun 1993) ► Patricia Nixon (1946- ), ► Julie Nixon (1948- )

15 Oct 1948

Gerald R. Ford

Elizabeth Ann (Betty) Bloomer Warren (8 Apr 1918- )

► Michael Gerald Ford (1950- ), ► John Gardner Ford (1952- ), ► Steven Meigs Ford (1956- ), ► Susan Elizabeth Ford (1957- )

7 Jul 1946

Jimmy Carter

(Eleanor) Rosalynn Smith (18 Aug 1927- )

► John William Carter (1947- ), ► James Earl Carter (1950- ), ► Donnel Jeffrey Carter (1952- ), ► Amy Lynn Carter (1967- )

24 Jan 1940

Ronald Reagan

Jane Wyman (nee Sarah Jane Fulks) (4 Jan 1914-10 Sep 2007)

► Maureen Elizabeth Reagan (1941-2001), ► Michael Edward Reagan (1945- ),

► Christine Reagan (1947-1947)

4 Mar 1952

Nancy Davis (nee Anne Frances Robbins) (6 Jul 1921- ) ► Patricia Ann Reagan (1952- ), ► Ronald Prescott Reagan (1958- )

6 Jan 1945

George H.W. Bush

Barbara Pierce (8 Jun 1925- )

► George Walker Bush (1946- ), ► Robin Bush (1949-1953), ► John Ellis (Jeb) Bush (1953- ), ► Neil Mallon Bush (1955- ), ► Marvin Pierce Bush (1956- ),

► Dorothy Walker Bush (1959- )

11 Oct 1975

William J. Clinton

Hillary Diane Rodham (26 Oct 1947- ) ► Chelsea Clinton (1980- )

5 Nov 1977

George W. Bush

Laura Lane Welch (4 Nov 1946- ) ► Barbara Bush (1981- ), ► Jenna Bush (1981- )

Presidential Succession

The president is the chief executive of the US. In contrast to the parliamentary form of government, under which the head of state is mainly ceremonial, the presidential system, such as that in the US, vests the president with great authority. The role of the president—including the process of presidential succession—is outlined in Article II of the Constitution of 1787, the fundamental law of the US federal system of government. Presidential nomination procedures are often recognized as constitutional elements, though they are outside the letter of the Constitution.

The Presidential Succession Act of 1792 established the stages of succession: from the president to the vice president, then to the Senate president pro tempore and next to the speaker of the House of Representatives. In 1886 new legislation removed the latter two from succession, replacing them with cabinet officers. The pattern of presidential succession was again changed in 1947, when the the speaker of the House was placed next in line after the vice president, followed by the Senate president pro tempore, the secretary of state, and finally, the remaining cabinet officers in the order that their departments were first formed.

History

The administration of the first president, George Washington, set the customary precedent of serving only two terms, a tradition maintained until Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected to a third and fourth term in the 1940s. Congress adopted the 22nd Amendment in 1951, which limits presidents to two terms in office.

In 1841 William Henry Harrison became the first president to die in office and was succeeded by his vice president, John Tyler. In 1850, when Zachary Taylor died after only 16 months in office, he was succeeded by Millard Fillmore. In the same manner, Vice Pres. Andrew Johnson assumed the presidency after Pres. Abraham Lincoln’s assassination.

When Pres. James Garfield was shot on 2 Jul 1881, he became incapacitated, raising serious constitutional questions over who should perform the functions of the presidency. For 80 days the president lay ill, and it was generally agreed that in such cases the vice president (Chester Arthur) was empowered by the Constitution to assume the powers and duties of the office of president. But should Arthur be only acting president until Garfield recovered, or would he receive the office itself and thus displace his predecessor? Because of an ambiguity in the Constitution, opinion was divided, and because Congress was not in session, the problem could not be debated there. No further action was taken before the death of the president, the result of slow blood poisoning, on 19 September. This ambiguity over succession was later clarified by the 20th (1933) and 25th (1967) Amendments. Other vice presidents who succeeded upon the death of presidents included Theodore Roosevelt in 1901, Calvin Coolidge in 1923, Harry S. Truman in 1945, and Lyndon B. Johnson in 1963.

US Presidential Cabinets

The cabinet is composed of the heads of executive departments chosen by the president with the consent of the Senate. Cabinet officials do not hold seats in Congress and are not regulated by the US Constitution, which makes no mention of such a body. The existence of the cabinet is a matter of custom dating back to George Washington, who consulted regularly with his department heads as a group. Original dates of service are given for officials appointed midterm and for newly created posts. Interim officials are not listed. Presidencies and new positions are indicated in bold.

George Washington

30 apr 1789-3 march 1793 (term 1)

State

Treasury

War

Attorney General

l

Thomas Jefferson Alexander Hamilton Henry Knox Edmund Randolph

4 mar 1793-3 mar 1797 (term 2)

State

Thomas Jefferson; Edmund Randolph (2 Jan 1794); Timothy Pickering (20 Aug 1795)

Treasury War

Alexander Hamilton; Oliver Wolcott, Jr. (2 Feb 1795) Henry Knox; Timothy Pickering (2 Jan 1795); James McHenry (6 Feb 1796)

Attorney General

Edmund Randolph; William Bradford (29 Jan 1794); Charles Lee (10 Dec 1795)

John Adams

4 mar 1797-3 mar 1801

State Treasury War Navy

Attorney General

Timothy Pickering; John Marshall (6 Jun 1800) Oliver Wolcott, Jr.; Samuel Dexter (1 Jan 1801) James McHenry; Samuel Dexter (12 Jun 1800) Benjamin Stoddert (18 Jun 1798) Charles Lee

Thomas Jefferson

4 mar 1801-3 mar 1805 (term 1)

State Treasury War Navy

Attorney General

James Madison

Samuel Dexter; Albert Gallatin (14 May 1801) Henry Dearborn

Benjamin Stoddert; Robert Smith (27 Jul 1801) Levi Lincoln

Thomas Jefferson

4 mar 1805-3 mar 1809 (term 2)

State

James Madison

Treasury

Albert Gallatin

War

Henry Dearborn

Navy

Robert Smith

Attorney General

John Breckenridge; Caesar Augustus Rodney (20 Jan 1807)

James Madison

4 mar 1809-3 mar 1813 (term 1)

State

Robert Smith

Treasury

Albert Gallatin

War

John Smith; William Eustis (8 Apr 1809); John Armstrong (5 Feb 1813)

Navy

Robert Smith; Paul Hamilton (15 May 1809); William Jones (19 Jan

1813)

Attorney General

Caesar Augustus Rodney; William Pinkney (6 Jan 1812)

4 mar 1813-3 mar 1817 (term 2)

State

James Monroe

Treasury

Albert Gallatin; George Washington Campbell (9 Feb 1814); Alexander

James Dallas (14 Oct 1814); William Harris Crawford (22 Oct 1816)

War

John Armstrong; James Monroe (1 Oct 1814); William Harris Crawford (8

Aug 1815)

Navy

William Jones; Benjamin Williams Crowninshield (16 Jan 1815)

Attorney General

William Pinkney; Richard Rush (11 Feb 1814)

James Monroe

4 mar 1817-3 mar 1821 (term 1)

State

John Quincy Adams

Treasury

William Harris Crawford

War

John C. Calhoun

Navy

Benjamin Williams Crowninshield; Smith Thompson (1 Jan 1819)

Attorney General

Richard Rush; William Wirt (15 Nov 1817)

4 mar 1821-3 mar 1825 (term 2)

State

John Quincy Adams

Treasury

William Harris Crawford

War

John C. Calhoun

Navy

Smith Thompson; Samuel Lewis Southard (16 Sep 1823)

Attorney General

William Wirt

 

John Quincy Adams

4 mar 1825-3 mar 1829

 

State

Henry Clay

Treasury

Richard Rush

War

James Barbour; Peter Buell Porter (21 Jun 1828)

Navy

Samuel Lewis Southard

Attorney General

William Wirt

 

Andrew Jackson

4 mar 1829-3 mar 1833 (term 1)

 

State

Martin Van Buren; Edward Livingston (24 May 1831)

Treasury

Samuel Delucenna Ingham; Louis McLane (8 Aug 1831)

War

John Henry Eaton; Lewis Cass (8 Aug 1831)

Navy

John Branch; Levi Woodbury (23 May 1831)

Attorney General

John Macpherson Berrien; Roger Brooke Taney (20 Jul 1831)

4 mar 1833-3 mar 1837 (term 2)

 

Stat

Edward Livingston; Louis McLane (29 May 1833); John Forsyth (1 Jul

 

1834)

Treasury

Louis McLane; William John Duane (1 Jun 1833); Roger Brooke Taney (23

 

Sep 1833); Levi Woodbury (1 Jul 1834)

War

Lewis Cass

Navy

Levi Woodbury; Mahlon Dickerson (30 Jun 1834)

Attorney General

Roger Brooke Taney; Benjamin Franklin Butler (18 Nov 1833)

 

Martin Van Buren

4 mar 1837-3 mar 1841

 

State

John Forsyth

Treasury

Levi Woodbury

War

Joel Roberts Poinsett

Navy

Mahlon Dickerson; James Kirke Paulding (1 Jul 1838)

Attorney General

Benjamin Franklin Butler; Felix Grundy (1 Sep 1838); Henry Dilworth

 

Gilpin (11 Jan 1840)

 

William Henry Harrison

4 mar 1841-4 apr 1841

 

State

Daniel Webster

Treasury

Thomas Ewing

War

John Bell

Navy

George Edmund Badger

Attorney General

John Jordan Crittenden

 

John Tyler

6 apr 1841-3 mar 1845

 

State

Daniel Webster; Abel Parker Upshur (24 Jul 1843); John C. Calhoun (1

 

Apr 1844)

Treasury

Thomas Ewing; Walter Forward (13 Sep 1841); John Canfield Spencer (8

 

Mar 1843); George Mortimer Bibb (4 Jul 1844)

War

John Bell; John Canfield Spencer (12 Oct 1841); James Madison Porter

 

(8 Mar 1843); William Wilkins (20 Feb 1844)

Navy

George Edmund Badger; Abel Parker Upshur (11 Oct 1841); David Hen-

 

shaw (24 Jul 1843); Thomas Walker Gilmer (19 Feb 1844); John Young

 

Mason (26 Mar 1844)

Attorney General

John Jordan Crittenden; Hugh Swnton Legare (20 Sep 1841); John Nel-

 

son (1 Jul 1843)

 

James K. Polk

4 mar 1845-3 mar 1849

State

James Buchanan

Treasury

Robert James Walker

War

William Learned Marcy

Navy

George Bancroft; John Young Mason (9 Sep 1846)

Attorney General

John Young Mason; Nathan Clifford (17 Oct 1846); Isaac Toucey (29 Jun

 

1848)

 

Zachary Taylor

4 mar 1849-9 jul 1850

State

John Middleton Clayton

Treasury

William Morris Meredith

War

George Washington Crawford

Navy

William Ballard Preston

Attorney General

Reverdy Johnson

Interior

Thomas Ewing (8 Mar 1849)

 

Millard Fillmore

10 jul 1850-3 mar 1853

State

Daniel Webster; Edward Everett (6 Nov 1852)

Treasury

Thomas Corwin

War

George Washington Crawford; Charles Magill Conrad (15 Aug 1850)

Navy

William Alexander Graham; John Pendleton Kennedy (26 Jul 1852)

Attorney General

Reverdy Johnson; John Jordan Crittenden (14 Aug 1850)

Interior

Thomas Ewing; Thomas McKean Thompson McKennan (15 Aug 1850);

Alexander Hugh Holmes Stuart (16 Sep 1850)

Franklin Pierce

4 mar 1853-3 mar 1857

State

William Learned Marcy

Treasury

James Guthrie

War

Jefferson Davis

Navy

James Cochran Dobbin

Attorney General

Caleb Cushing

Interior

Robert McClelland

 

James Buchanan

4 mar 1857-3 mar 1861

 

State

Lewis Cass; Jeremiah Sullivan Black (17 Dec 1860)

Treasury

Howell Cobb; Philip Francis Thomas (12 Dec 1860); John Adams Dix (15

 

Jan 1861)

War

John Buchanan Floyd

Navy

Isaac Toucey

Attorney General

Jeremiah Sullivan Black; Edwin McMasters Stanton (22 Dec 1860)

Interior

Jacob Thompson

 

Abraham Lincoln

4 mar 1861-3 mar 1865 (term 1)

 

State

William Henry Seward

Treasury

Salmon Portland Chase; William Pitt Fessenden (5 Jul 1864)

War

Simon Cameron; Edwin McMasters Stanton (20 Jun 1862)

Navy

Gideon Welles

Attorney General

Edward Bates; James Speed (5 Dec 1864)

Interior

Caleb Blood Smith; John Palmer Usher (8 Jan 1863)

4 mar 1865-15 apr 1865 (term 2)

 

State

William Henry Seward

Treasury

Hugh McCulloch

War

Edwin McMasters Stanton

Navy

Gideon Welles

Attorney General

James Speed

Interior

John Palmer Usher

 

Andrew Johnson

15 apr 1865-3 mar 1869

 

State

William Henry Seward

Treasury

Hugh McCulloch

War

Edwin McMasters Stanton; John McAllister Schofield (1 Jun 1868)

Navy

Gideon Welles

Attorney General

James Speed; Henry Stanbery (23 Jul 1866); William Maxwell Evarts (20

 

Jul 1868)

Interior

John Palmer Usher; James Harlan (15 May 1865); Orville Hickman

 

Browning (1 Sep 1866)

 

Ulysses S. Grant

4 mar 1869-3 mar 1873 (term 1)

 

Stat

Elihu Benjamin Washburne; Hamilton Fish (17 Mar 1869)

Treasury

George Sewall Boutwell

War

John Aaron Rawlins; William Tecumseh Sherman (11 Sep 1869); William

 

Worth Belknap (1 Nov 1869)

Navy

Adolph Edward Borie; George Maxwell Robeson (25 Jun 1869)

Attorney General

Ebenezer Rockwood Hoar; Amos Tappan Akerman (8 Jul 1870); George

 

Henry Williams (10 Jan 1872)

Interior

Jacob Dolson Cox; Columbus Delano (1 Nov 1870)

4 mar 1873-3 mar 1877 (term 2)

 

State

Hamilton Fish

Treasury

William Adams Richardson; Benjamin Helm Bristow (4 Jun 1874); Lot

 

Myrick Morrill (7 Jul 1876)

War

William Worth Belknap; Alphonso Taft (11 Mar 1876); James Donald

 

Cameron (1 Jun 1876)

Navy

George Maxwell Robeson

Attorney General

George Henry Williams; Edward Pierrepont (15 May 1875); Alphonso Taft

 

(1 Jun 1876)

Interior

Columbus Delano; Zachariah Chandler (19 Oct 1875)

 

Rutherford B. Hayes

4 mar 1877-3 mar 1881

 

State

William Maxwell Evarts

Treasury

John Sherman

War

George Washington McCrary; Alexander Ramsey (12 Dec 1879)

Navy

Richard Wigginton Thompson; Nathan Goff, Jr. (6 Jan 1881)

Attorney General

Charles Devens

Interior

Carl Schurz

4 mar 1881-19 sep 1881

James A. Garfield

State

James Gillespie Blaine

Treasury

William Windom

War

Robert Todd Lincoln

Attorney General

(Isaac) Wayne MacVeagh

Navy

William Henry Hunt

Interior

Samuel Jordan Kirkwood

 

Chester A. Arthur

20 sep 1881-3 mar 1885

 

State

James Gillespie Blaine; Frederick Theodore Frelinghuysen (19 Dec 1881)

Treasury

William Windom; Charles James Folger (14 Nov 1881); Walter Quintin

 

Gresham (24 Sep 1884); Hugh McCulloch (31 Oct 1884)

War

Robert Todd Lincoln

Navy

William Henry Hunt; William Eaton Chandler (17 Apr 1882)

Attorney General

(Isaac) Wayne MacVeagh; Benjamin Harris Brewster (3 Jan 1882)

Interior

Samuel Jordan Kirkwood; Henry Moore Teller (17 Apr 1882)

 

Grover Cleveland

4 mar 1885-3 mar 1889

 

State

Thomas Francis Bayard

Treasury

Daniel Manning; Charles Stebbins Fairchild (1 Apr 1887)

War

William Crowninshield Endicott

Navy

William Collins Whitney

Attorney General

Augustus Hill Garland

Interior

Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar; William Freeman Vilas (16 Jan 1888)

Agriculture

Norman Jay Colman (13 Feb 1889)

 

Benjamin Harrison

4 mar 1889-3 mar 1893

 

State

James Gillespie Blaine; John Watson Foster (29 Jun 1892)

Treasury

William Windom; Charles Foster (24 Feb 1891)

War

Redfield Proctor; Stephen Benton Elkins (24 Dec 1891)

Navy

Benjamin Franklin Tracy

Attorney General

William Henry Harrison Miller

Interior

John Willock Noble

Agriculture

Jeremiah McLain Rusk

 

Grover Cleveland

4 mar 1893-3 mar 1897

 

State

Walter Quintin Gresham; Richard Olney(10 Jun 1895)

Treasury

John Griffin Carlisle

War

Daniel Scott Lamont

Navy

Hilary Abner Herbert

Attorney General

Richard Olney; Judson Harmon (11 Jun 1895)

Interior

Hoke Smith; David Rowland Francis (4 Sep 1896)

Agriculture

Julius Sterling Morton

 

William McKinley

4 mar 1897-3 mar 1901 (term 1)

 

State

John Sherman; William Rufus Day (28 Apr 1898); John Hay (30 Sep

 

1898)

Treasury

Lyman Judson

War

Russell Alexander Alger; Elihu Root (1 Aug 1899)

Navy

John Davis Long

Attorney General

Joseph McKenna; John William Griggs (1 Feb 1898)

Interior

Cornelius Newton Bliss; Ethan Allen Hitchcock (20 Feb 1899)

Agriculture

James Wilson

4 mar 1901-14 sep 1901 (term 2)

 

State

John Hay

Treasury

Lyman Judson Gage

War

Elihu Root

Navy

John Davis Long

Attorney General

John William Griggs; Philander Chase Knox (10 Apr 1901)

Interior

Ethan Allen Hitchcock

Agriculture

James Wilson

 

Theodore Roosevelt

14 sep 1901-3 mar 1905 (term 1)

 

State

John Hay

Treasury

Lyman Judson Gage; Leslie Mortier Shaw (1 Feb 1902)

War

Elihu Root; William Howard Taft(1 Feb 1904)

Navy

John Davis Long; William Henry Moody (1 May 1902); Paul Morton (1 Jul

 

1904)

Attorney General

Philander Chase Knox; William Henry Moody (1 Jul 1904)

Interior

Ethan Allen Hitchcock

Agriculture

James Wilson

Commerce and Labor

George Bruce Cortelyou (16 Feb 1903); Victor Howard Metcalf (1 Jul

 

1904)

4 mar 1905-3 mar 1909 (term 2)

 

State

John Hay; Elihu Root (19 Jul 1905); Robert Bacon (27 Jan 1909)

Treasury

Leslie Mortier Shaw; George Bruce Cortelyou (4 Mar 1907)

War

William Howard Taft; Luke Edward Wright (1 Jul 1908)

Navy

Paul Morton; Charles Joseph Bonaparte (1 Jul 1905); Victor Howard Met

 

calf (17 Dec 1906); Truman Handy Newberry (1 Dec 1908)

Attorney General

William Henry Moody; Charles Joseph Bonaparte (17 Dec 1906)

Interior

Ethan Allen Hitchcock; James Rudolph Garfield (4 Mar 1907)

Agriculture

James Wilson

Commerce and Labor

Victor Howard Metcalf; Oscar Solomon Straus (17 Dec 1906)

 

William Howard Taft

4 mar 1909-3 mar 1913

 

State

Philander Chase Knox

Treasury

Franklin MacVeagh

War

Jacob McGavock Dickinson; Henry Lewis Stimson (22 May 1911)

Navy

George von Lengerke Meyer

Attorney General

George Woodward Wickersham

Interior

Richard Achilles Ballinger; Walter Lowrie Fisher (7 Mar 1911)

Agriculture

James Wilson

Commerce and Labor

Charles Nagel

 

Woodrow Wilson

4 mar 1913-3 mar 1917 (term 1)

 

State

William Jennings Bryan; Robert Lansing (23 Jun 1915)

Treasury

William Gibbs McAdoo

War

Lindley Miller Garrison; Newton Diehl Baker (9 Mar 1916)

Navy

Josephus Daniels

Attorney General

James Clark McReynolds; Thomas Watt Gregory (3 Sep 1914)

Interior

Franklin Knight Lane

Agriculture

David Franklin Houston

Commerce

William Cox Redfield (5 Mar 1913)

Labor

William Bauchop Wilson (5 Mar 1913)

4 mar 1917-3 mar 1921 (term 2)

 

State

Robert Lansing; Bainbridge Colby (23 Mar 1920)

Treasury

William Gibbs McAdoo; Carter Glass (16 Dec 1918); David Franklin Hous-

 

ton (2 Feb 1920)

War

Newton Diehl Baker

Navy

Josephus Daniels

Attorney General

Thomas Watt Gregory; Alexander Mitchell Palmer (5 Mar 1919)

Interior

Franklin Knight Lane; John Barton Payne (13 Mar 1920)

Agriculture

David Franklin Houston; Edwin Thomas Meredith (2 Feb 1920)

Commerce

William Cox Redfield; Joshua Willis Alexander (16 Dec 1919)

Labor

William Bauchop Wilson

 

Warren G. Harding

4 mar 1921-2 aug 1923

 

State

Charles Evans Hughes

Treasury

Andrew William Mellon

War

John Wingate Weeks

Navy

Edwin Denby

Attorney General

Harry Micajah Daugherty

 

Warren G. Harding

4 mar 1921-2 aug 1923

Interior

Albert Bacon Fall; Hubert Work (5 Mar 1923)

Agriculture

Henry Cantwell Wallace

Commerce

Herbert Hoover

Labor

James John Davis

\

Calvin Coolidge

3 aug 1923-3 mar 1925 (term 1)

 

State

Charles Evans Hughes

Treasury

Andrew William Mellon

War

John Wingate Weeks

Navy

Edwin Denby; Curtis Dwight Wilbur (18 Mar 1924)

Attorney General

Harry Micajah Daugherty; Harlan Fiske Stone (9 Apr 1924)

Interior

Hubert Work

Agriculture

Henry Cantwell Wallace; Howard Mason Gore (21 Nov 1924)

Commerce

Herbert Hoover

Labor

James John Davis

4 mar 1925-3 mar 1929 (term 2)

 

State

Frank Billings Kellogg

Treasury

Andrew William Mellon

War

John Wingate Weeks; Dwight Filley Davis (14 Oct 1925)

Navy

Curtis Dwight Wilbur

Attorney General

John Garibaldi Sargent

Interior

Hubert Work; Roy Owen West (21 Jan 1929)

Agriculture

William Marion Jardine

Commerce

Herbert Hoover; William Fairfield Whiting (11 Dec 1928)

Labor

James John Davis

 

Herbert Hoover

4 mar 1929-3 mar 1933

 

State

Henry Lewis Stimson

Treasury

Andrew William Mellon; Ogden Livingston Mills (13 Feb 1932)

War

James William Good; Patrick Jay Hurley (9 Dec 1929)

Navy

Charles Francis Adams

Attorney General

William De Witt Mitchell

Interior

Ray Lyman Wilbur

Agriculture

Arthur Mastick Hyde

Commerce

Robert Patterson Lamont; Roy Dikeman Chapin (14 Dec 1932)

Labor

James John Davis; William Nuckles Doak (9 Dec 1930)

 

Franklin D. Roosevelt

4 mar 1933-20 jan 1937 (term 1)

 

State

Cordell Hull

Treasury

William Hartman Woodin; Henry Morgenthau, Jr. (8 Jan 1934)

War

George Henry Dern

Navy

Claude Augustus Swanson

Attorney General

Homer Stille Cummings

Interior

Harold LeClaire Ickes

Agriculture

Henry Agard Wallace

Commerce

Daniel Calhoun Roper

Labor

Frances Perkins

20 jan 1937-20 jan 1941 (term 2)

 

State

Cordell Hull

Treasury

Henry Morgenthau, Jr.

War

Harry Hines Woodring; Henry Lewis Stimson (10 Jul 1940)

Attorney General

Homer Stille Cummings; Frank Murphy (17 Jan 1939); Robert Houghwout

 

Jackson (18 Jan 1940)

Navy

Claude Augustus Swanson; Charles Edison (11 Jan 1940); Frank Knox

 

(10 Jul 1940)

Interior

Harold LeClaire Ickes

Agriculture

Henry Agard Wallace; Claude Raymond Wickard (5 Sep 1940)

Commerce

Daniel Calhoun Roper; Harry Lloyd Hopkins (23 Jan 1939); Jesse Holman

 

Jones (19 Sep 1940)

Labor

Frances Perkins

 

Franklin D. Roosevelt

20 jan 1941-2 jan 1945 (term 3)

 

State

Cordell Hull; Edward Reilly Stettinius (1 Dec 1944)

Treasury

Henry Morgenthau, Jr.

War

Henry Lewis Stimson

Navy

Frank Knox; James Vincent Forrestal (18 May 1944)

Attorney General

Robert Houghwout Jackson; Francis Biddle (5 Sep 1941)

Interior

Harold LeClaire Ickes

Agriculture

Claude Raymond Wickard

Commerce

Jesse Holman Jones

Labor

Frances Perkins

20 jan 1945-12 apr 1945 (term 4)

State

Edward Reilly Stettinius

Treasury

Henry Morgenthau, Jr.

War

Henry Lewis Stimson

Navy

James Vincent Forrestal

Attorney General

Francis Biddle

Interior

Harold LeClaire Ickes

Agriculture

Claude Raymond Wickard

Commerce

Jesse Holman Jones; Henry Agard Wallace (2 Mar 1945)

Labor

Frances Perkins

 

Harry S. Truman

12 apr 1945-20 jan 1949 (term 1)

 

State

Edward Reilly Stettinius; James Francis Byrnes (3 Jul 1945); George

 

Catlett Marshall (21 Jan 1947)

Treasury

Henry Morgenthau, Jr.; Frederick Moore (23 Jul 1945); John Wesley Sny-

 

der (25 Jun 1946)

War

Henry Lewis Stimson; Robert Porter Patterson (27 Sep 1945); Kenneth

 

Clairborne Royall (25 Jul 1947)

Defens

James Vincent Forrestal (17 Sep 1947)

Navy

James Vincent Forrestal

Attorney General

Francis Biddle; Thomas Campbell Clark (1 Jul 1945)

Interior

Harold LeClaire Ickes; Julius Albert Krug (18 Mar 1946)

Agriculture

Claude Raymond Wickard; Clinton Presba Anderson (30 Jun 1945);

 

Charles Franklin Brannan (2 Jun 1948)

Commerce

Henry Agard Wallace; William Averell Harriman (28 Jan 1947); Charles

 

Sawyer (6 May 1948)

Labor

Frances Perkins; Lewis Baxter Schwellenbach (1 Jul 1945)

20 jan 1949-20 jan 1953 (term 2)

 

State

Dean Gooderham Acheson

Treasury

John Wesley Snyder

Defense

James Vincent Forrestal; Louis Arthur Johnson (28 Mar 1949); George

 

Catlett Marshall (21Sep 1950); Robert Abercrombie Lovett(17Sep 1951)

Attorney Genera

Thomas Campbell Clark; James Howard McGrath (24 Aug 1949)

Interior

Julius Albert Krug; Oscar Littleton Chapman (19 Jan 1950)

Agriculture

Charles Franklin Brannan

Commerce

Charles Sawyer

Labor

Maurice Joseph Tobin

 

Dwight D. Eisenhower

20 jan 1953-20 jan 1957 (term 1)

 

State

John Foster Dulles

Treasury

George Magoffin Humphrey

Defense

Charles Erwin Wilson

Attorney General

Herbert Brownell

Interior

Douglas McKay; Frederick Andrew Seaton (8 Jun 1956)

Agriculture

Ezra Taft Benson

Commerce

Sinclair Weeks

Labor

Martin Patrick Durkin; James Paul Mitchell (9 Oct 1953)

Health, Education, and Welfare

Oveta Culp Hobby (11 Apr 1953); Marion Bayard Folson (1 Aug 1955)

20 jan 1957-20 jan 1961 (term 2)

 

State

John Foster Dulles; Christian Archibald Herter (22 Apr 1959)

Treasury

George Magoffin Humphrey; Robert Bernard Anderson (29 Jul 1957)

Richard M. Nixon

20 jan 1973-9 aug 1974 (term 2)

Defense

Elliot L. Richardson; James R. Schlesinger (2 Jul 1973)

Attorney General

Richard G. Kleindienst; Elliot L. Richardson (25 May 1973); William B.

Saxbe (4 Jan 1974)

Interior

Rogers C.B. Morton

Agriculture

Earl Lauer Butz

Commerce

Frederick B. Dent

Labor

Peter J. Brennan

Health, Education, and Welfare

Caspar W. Weinberger

Housing and Urban Development

James T. Lynn

Transportation

Claude Stout Brinegar

 

Gerald R. Ford

9 aug 1974-20 jan 1977

 

State

Henry Alfred Kissinger

Treasury

William E. Simon

Defense

James R. Schlesinger; Donald H. Rumsfeld (20 Nov 1975)

Attorney General

William B. Saxbe; Edward H. Levi (7 Feb 1975)

Interior

Rogers C.B. Morton, Jr.; Stanley K. Hathaway (13 Jun 1975); Thomas S.

 

Kleppe (17 Oct 1975)

Agriculture

Earl Lauer Butz; John Albert Knebel (4 Nov 1976)

Commerc

Frederick B. Dent; Rogers C.B. Morton, Jr. (1 May 1975); Elliot L. Richard-

 

son (2 Feb 1976)

Labor

Peter J. Brennan; John T. Dunlop (18 Mar 1975); W.J. Usery, Jr. (10 Feb

 

1976)

Health, Education, and Welfare

Caspar W. Weinberger; David Mathews (8 Aug 1975)

Housing and Urban Development

James T. Lynn; Carla A. Hills (10 Mar 1975)

Transportation

Claude Stout Brinegar; William Thaddeus Coleman, Jr. (7 Mar 1975)

 

Jimmy Carter

20 jan 1977-20 jan 1981

 

State

Cyrus Roberts Vance; Edmund Sixtus Muskie (8 May 1980)

Treasury

W. Michael Blumenthal; G. William Miller (6 Aug 1979)

Defense

Harold Brown

Attorney General

Griffin B. Bell; Benjamin R. Civiletti (16 Aug 1979)

Interior

Cecil D. Andrus

Agriculture

Robert Selmer Bergland

Commerce

Juanita M. Kreps; Philip M. Klutznick (9 Jan 1980)

Labor

Ray Marshall

Health, Education, and Welfare

Joseph A. Califano, Jr.; Patricia Roberts Harris (3 Aug 1979)

Health and Human Services

Patricia Roberts Harris (27 Sep 1979)

Housing and Urban Development

Patricia Roberts Harris; Moon Landrieu (24 Sep 1979)

Transportation

Brockman Adams; Neil Edward Goldschmidt (24 Sep 1979)

Energy

James R. Schlesinger (1 Oct 1977); Charles W. Duncan, Jr. (24 Aug 1979)

Education

Shirley M. Hufstedler (6 Dec 1979)

 

Ronald Reagan

20 jan 1981-20 jan 1985 (term 1)

 

State

Alexander Meigs Haig, Jr.; George P. Shultz (16 Jul 1982)

Treasury

Donald T. Regan

Defense

Caspar W. Weinberger

Attorney General

William French Smith

Interior

James G. Watt; William P. Clark (21 Nov 1983)

Agriculture

John Rusling Block

Commerce

Malcolm Baldrige

Labor

Raymond J. Donovan

Health and Human Services

Richard S. Schweiker; Margaret M. Heckler (9 Mar 1983)

Housing and Urban Development

Samuel R. Pierce, Jr.

Transportation

Andrew Lindsay Lewis, Jr.; Elizabeth Hanford Dole (7 Feb 1983)

Energy

James B. Edwards; Donald Paul Hodel (8 Dec 1982)

Education

Terrel H. Bell

20 jan 1985-20 jan 1989 (term 2)

 

State

George P. Shultz

Treasury

Donald T. Regan; James A. Baker III (25 Feb 1985); Nicholas F. Brady (18

 

Aug 1988)

 

Ronald Reagan

20 jan 1985-20 jan 1989 (term 2)

Defense

Caspar W. Weinberger; Frank C. Carlucci (21 Nov 1987)

Attorney General

William French Smith; Edwin Meese III (25 Feb 1985); Richard Thorn-

 

burgh (11 Aug 1988)

Interior

Donald Paul Hodel

Agriculture

John Rusling Block; Richard Edmund Lyng (7 Mar 1986)

Commerce

Malcolm Baldrige; C. William Verity (19 Oct 1987)

Labor

Raymond J. Donovan; William E. Brock (29 Apr 1985); Ann Dore

 

McLaughlin (17 Dec 1987)

Health and H uman Services

Margaret M. Heckler; Otis R. Bowen (13 Dec 1985)

Housing and Urban Development

Samuel R. Pierce, Jr.

Transportation

Elizabeth Hanford Dole; James Horace Burnley IV (3 Dec 1987)

Energy

John S. Herrington

Education

Terrel H. Bell; William J. Bennett (7 Feb 1985); Lauro F. Cavazos, Jr.

 

(20 Sep 1988)

 

George H.W. Bush

20 jan 1989-20 jan 1993

 

State

James A. Baker III; Lawrence Sidney Eagleburger (8 Dec 1992)

Treasury

Nicholas F. Brady

Defense

Richard B. Cheney

Attorney General

Richard Thornburgh; William Barr (20 Nov 1991)

Interior

Manuel Lujan, Jr.

Agriculture

Clayton Keith Yeutter; Edward Rell Madigan (7 Mar 1991)

Commerce

Robert A. Mosbacher; Barbara H. Franklin (27 Feb 1992)

Labor

Elizabeth Hanford Dole; Lynn Morley Martin (7 Feb 1991)

Health and Human Services

Louis W. Sullivan

Housing and Urban Development

Jack F. Kemp

Transportation

Samuel Knox Skinner; Andrew Hill Card, Jr. (22 Jan 1992)

Energy

James D. Watkins

Education

Lauro F. Cavazos, Jr.; Lamar Alexander (14 Mar 1991)

Veterans Affairs

Edward J. Derwinski (15 Mar 1989)

 

William J. Clinton

20 jan 1993-20 jan 1997 (term 1)

 

State

Warren Minor Christopher

Treasury

Lloyd M. Bentsen; Robert E. Rubin (10 Jan 1995)

Defense

Les Aspin; William J. Perry (3 Feb 1994)

Attorney General

Janet Reno

Interior

Bruce Babbitt

Agriculture

Alphonso Michael Espy; Daniel Robert Glickman (30 Mar 1995)

Commerce

Ronald H. Brown; Mickey Kantor (12 Apr 1996)

Labor

Robert B. Reich

Health and Human Services

Donna E. Shalala

Housing and Urban Development

Henry G. Cisneros

Transportation

Federico Fabian Pena

Energy

Hazel R. O’Leary

Education

Richard W. Riley

Veterans Affairs

Jesse Brown

20 jan 1997-20 jan 2001 (term 2)

 

State

Madeleine Korbel Albright

Treasury

Robert E. Rubin; Lawrence H. Summers (2 Jul 1999)

Defense

William S. Cohen

Attorney General

Janet Reno

Interior

Bruce Babbitt

Agriculture

Daniel Robert Glickman

Commerce

William M. Daley; Norman Y. Mineta (21 Jul 2000)

Labor

Alexis Herman

Health and Human Services

Donna E. Shalala

Housing and Urban Development

Andrew M. Cuomo

Transportation

Rodney Earl Slater

Energy

Federico Fabian Pena; Bill Richardson (18 Aug 1998)

Education

Richard W. Riley

Veterans Affairs

Togo D. West, Jr.

 

George W. Bush

20 jan 2001-20 jan 2005 (term 1)

 

State

Colin L Powell

Treasury

Paul H. O’Neill; John W. Snow (7 Feb 2003)

Defense

Donald H. Rumsfeld

Attorney General

John Ashcroft

Interior

Gale A. Norton

Agriculture

Ann M. Veneman

Commerce

Donald L. Evans

Labor

Elaine L. Chao

Health and Human Services

Tommy G. Thompson

Housing and Urban Development

Mel Martinez; Alphonso Jackson (31 Mar 2004)

Transportation

Norman Y. Mineta

Energy

Spencer Abraham

Education

Rod Paige

Veterans Affairs

Anthony J. Principi

Homeland Security

Tom Ridge (8 Oct 2001)

20 jan 2005- (term 2)

 

State

Condoleezza Rice

Treasury

John W. Snow; Henry M. Paulson, Jr. (19 Jun 2006)

Defense

Donald Rumsfeld; Robert M. Gates

 

(18 Dec 2006)

Attorney General

Alberto R. Gonzales; Michael Mukasey(9 Nov 2007)

Interior

Gale A. Norton; Dirk Kempthorne (26 May 2006)

Agriculture

Mike Johanns; Ed Schafer (28 Jan 2008)

Commerce

Carlos M. Gutierrez

Labor

Elaine L. Chao

Health and Human Services

Michael O. Leavitt

Housing and Urban Development

Alphonso Jackson; Steve Preston (5 Jun 2008)

Transportation

Norman Y. Mineta; Mary E. Peters (30 Sep 2006)

Energy

Samuel W. Bodman

Education

Margaret Spellings

Veterans Affairs

R. James Nicholson; James B. Peake (20 Dec 2007)

Homeland Security

Michael Chertoff

Additionally, the White House lists the following as cabinet-rank members: Vice President Richard B. Cheney, Chief of Staff Joshua B. Bolten, Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Stephen Johnson, US Trade Representative Susan Schwab, Office of Management and Budget Director Jim Nussle, and National Drug Control Policy Director John Walters.

Did you know ?

The Great Red Spot, the most conspicuous feature on the planet Jupiter, is an enormous storm system that has been raging for more than 300 years. It is about 26,000 km (16,200 mi) long and 14,000 km (8,700 mi) wide—large enough to engulf two Earth-sized planets side by side.

Impeachment

The American federal impeachment process is rooted in Article II, Section 4, of the US Constitution. Impeachment has rarely been employed, largely because it is such a cumbersome process. It can occupy Congress for a lengthy period of time, fill thousands of pages of testimony, and involve conflict-ingand troublesome political pressures. Repeated attempts in the US Congress to amend the procedure, however, have been unsuccessful, partly because impeachment is regarded as an integral part of the system of checks and balances in the US government.

Andrew Johnson was the first US president ever impeached. In 1868 he was charged with attempting to remove, contrary to statute, the secretary of war, Edwin M. Stanton, with inducing a general of the army to violate an act of Congress, and with contempt of Congress. Johnson was acquitted by a margin of a single vote. In 1974 the Judiciary Committee of the House of Representatives voted three articles of impeachment against Pres. Richard M. Nixon, but he resigned before impeachment proceedings in the full House could begin. In December 1998 the House of Representatives voted to impeach Pres. William J. Clinton, charging him with perjury and obstruction of justice in investigations of his relationship with a White House intern, Monica Lewinsky. In the trial, the Senate voted not guilty on the perjury charge (55-45) and not guilty on the obstruction of justice charge (50-50); since 67 guilty votes are needed for a conviction, President Clinton was acquitted.

Every US state except Oregon provides for the removal of executive and judicial officers by impeachment. Exact procedures vary somewhat from state to state, but they are all similar to federal impeachment.

Supreme Court

Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States

Listed under presidents who made appointments (bold). Chief justices’ names appear in italics.

name term of service1

George Washington

 

John Jay

1789-

95

James Wilson

1789-

98

John Rutledge

1790-

91

William Cushing

1790-1810

John Blair

1790-

96

James Iredell

1790-

99

Thomas Johnson

1792-

93

William Paterson

1793-1806

John Rutledge2

1795

Samuel Chase

1796-1811

Oliver Ellsworth

1796-1800

John Adams

 

Bushrod Washington

1799-1829

Alfred Moore

1800-

04

John Marshall

1801-

35

Thomas Jefferson

 

William Johnson

1804-

34

Brockholst Living

1807-

23

ston

 

 

Thomas Todd

1807-

26

James Madison

 

Gabriel Duvall

1811-

35

Joseph Story

1812-

45

James Monroe

Smith Thompson

1823-

43

John Quincy Adams

 

Robert Trimble

1826-

28

Andrew Jackson

 

John McLean

1830-

61

Henry Baldwin

1830-

44

James M. Wayne

1835-

67

Roger Brooke Taney

1836-

64

Philip P. Barbour

1836-

41

Martin Van Buren

 

John Catron

1837-

65

John McKinley

1838-

52

Peter V. Daniel

1842-

60

John Tyler

 

Samuel Nelson

1845-

72

James Polk

 

Levi Woodbury

1845-

51

Robert C. Grier

1846-

70

Millard Fillmore

 

Benjamin R. Curtis

1851-

57

Franklin Pierce

 

John Archibald

1853-

61

Campbell

 

 

James Buchanan

 

Nathan Clifford

1858-

81

Abraham Lincoln

 

Noah H. Swayne

1862-

81

Samuel Freeman

1862-

90

Miller

 

 

David Davis

1862-

77

Stephen Johnson

1863-

97

Field

 

 

Salmon P. Chase

1864-

73

name term of service1 Ulysses S. Grant

William Strong 1870-80 Joseph P. Bradley 1870-92 Ward Hunt 1873-82 Morrison Remick 1874-88 Waite

Rutherford B. Hayes

John Marshall 1877-1911 Harlan

William B. Woods 1881-87

James Garfield Stanley Matthews 1881-89

Chester A. Arthur Horace Gray 1882-1902 Samuel Blatchford 1882-93

Grover Cleveland Lucius Q.C. Lamar 1888-93 MelvilleWeston Fuller 1888-1910

Benjamin Harrison David J. Brewer 1890-1910 Henry B. Brown 1891-1906 George Shiras, Jr. 1892-1903 Howell E. Jackson 1893-95

Grover Cleveland Edward Douglass 1894-1910 White

Rufus Wheeler 1896-1909 Peckham

William McKinley Joseph McKenna 1898-1925

Theodore Roosevelt Oliver Wendell Holmes 1902-32 William R. Day 1903-22 William H. Moody 1906-10

William H. Taft

Horace H. Lurton 1910-14 Charles Evans 1910-16 Hughes

Willis Van Devanter 1911-37 Joseph R. Lamar 1911-16 Edward Douglass White 1910-21 Mahlon Pitney 1912-22

Woodrow Wilson

James C. McReynolds 1914-41 Louis Brandeis 1916-39 John H. Clarke 1916-22

Warren G. Harding William Howard Taft 1921-30 George Sutherland 1922-38 Pierce Butler 1923-39 Edward T. Sanford 1923-30

Calvin Coolidge Harlan Fiske Stone 1925-41

Herbert Hoover Charles Evans 1930-41 Hughes

Owen Roberts 1930-45 Benjamin N. Cardozo 1932-38

name term of service1 Franklin D. Roosevelt

Hugo L. Black 1937-71 Stanley F. Reed 1938-57 Felix Frankfurter 1939-62 William O. Douglas 1939-75 Frank Murphy 1940-49 Harlan Fiske Stone 1941-46 James F. Byrnes 1941-42 Robert H. Jackson 1941-54 Wiley B. Rutledge 1943-49 Harry S. Truman

Harold H. Burton 1945-58 Fred M.Vinson 1946-53 Tom C. Clark 1949-67 Sherman Minton 1949-56

Dwight D. Eisenhower Earl Warren 1953-69 John Marshall 1955-71 Harlan

William J. 1956-90

Brennan, Jr. Charles E. 1957-62 Whittaker Potter Stewart 1958-81

John F. Kennedy Byron R. White 1962-93 Arthur J. Goldberg 1962-65

Lyndon B. Johnson Abe Fortas 1965-69 Thurgood Marshall 1967-91

Richard M. Nixon Warren E. Burger 1969-86 Harry A. Blackmun 1970-94 Lewis F. Powell, Jr. 1972-87 William H. 1972-86 Rehnquist

Gerald Ford

John Paul Stevens 1975-

Ronald Reagan

Sandra Day 1981-2006

O’Connor William H. 1986-2005

Rehnquist Antonin Scalia 1986-Anthony M. 1988-Kennedy

George H.W. Bush David H. Souter 1990-Clarence Thomas 1991-Bill Clinton

Ruth Bader Ginsburg 1993-Stephen G. Breyer 1994-

George W. Bush John G. Roberts 2005-Samuel Anthony 2006-Alito, Jr.

Information includes cases’ short names, citation, year of release, and a short description of the Supreme Court’s findings and importance for US law.

Marbury v. Madison, 5 U.S. 137 (1803): the first instance in which the high court declared an act of Congress (the Judiciary Act of 1789, which in part authorized the court to compel action by the executive branch) to be unconstitutional, thus establishing the doctrine of judicial review.

Martin v. Hunter’s Lessee, 14 U.S. 304 (1816): asserted the US Supreme Court’s power of appellate review of state Supreme Court decisions.

McCulloch v. Maryland, 17 U.S. 316 (1819): affirmed the constitutional doctrine of the “implied powers” of Congress, determining that Congress had not only the powers expressly conferred upon it by the Constitution but also all authority “appropriate” to carry out such powers.

Dred Scott v. Sandford, 60 U.S. 393 (1857): ruled that blacks, free or enslaved, were not citizens under the Constitution, and further determined that only states, and not Congress or territorial governments, had the power to prohibit slavery, thus overturning the Missouri Compromise of 1820 and legalizing slavery in all US territories. The citizenship of all races was affirmed with the ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment in 1868. Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad Co., 118 U.S. 394 (1886): established that corporations are “persons” within the meaning of the Fourteenth Amendment, extending to them the rights of due process and equal protection.

Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896): permitted racial segregation in “separate but equal” public facilities.

Lochnerv. NewYork, 198 U.S. 45 (1905): found that a state labor law limiting the number of hours in the work week violated due process because the “right of contract between the employer and employees” is protected under the Fourteenth Amendment.

Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey et al. v. United States, 221 U.S. 1 (1911): ruled that the activities of the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey, a holding company that through its subsidiaries controlled most of the US petroleum industry, constituted an undue restraint of trade and ordered the company’s dissolution under the Sherman Antitrust Act.

Schenck v. United States, 249 U.S. 47 (1919): found, in the case of an American socialist convicted of espionage for distributing antidraft leaflets during wartime, that First Amendment freedom of expression is limited when there exists a “clear and present danger that [the speech] will bring about the substantive evils that Congress has a right to prevent.”

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 349 U.S. 294 (1954): ruled that racial segregation in public schools violated the Fourteenth Amendment, overturning the doctrine of “separate but equal” facilities reached in Plessy v. Ferguson.

Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643 (1961): found that the Fourth Amendment prohibition of unreasonable search and seizure, and the inadmissibility of evidence obtained in violation of it, applied to state as well as to federal government.

Bakerv. Carr, 369 U.S. 186 (1962): ruled that, under the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, issues relating to the apportionment of congressional districts could be resolved in federal courts.

Gideon v. Wainwright, 372 U.S. 335 (1963): declared that the Sixth Amendment right to counsel applies to defendants in state as well as federal courts.

New York Times Co. v. Sullivan, 376 U.S. 254 (1964): protected the press from the prospects of large damage awards in libel cases by requiring that “actual malice” be demonstrated; public officials who sue for damages must prove that a falsehood had been issued with knowledge that it was false or in reckless disregard of whether it was false or not.

Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States, 379 U.S. 241; Katzenbach v. McClung, 379 U.S. 294 (1964): upheld Title II of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (which prohibits segregation or discrimination in places of public accommodation involved in interstate commerce) in the cases of an Atlanta motel and a Birmingham AL restaurant, both of which discriminated against blacks. The court ruled that both engaged in transactions affecting interstate commerce, and thus were within the purview of congressional regulation, and that the Civil Rights Act itself was constitutional.

Griswold v. Connecticut, 381 U.S. 479 (1965): ruled that a state law prohibiting the use of contraceptives (including providing information, advice, or prescriptions for them) violated “the right of marital privacy” implied within the Bill of Rights.

Miranda v. Arizona, 384 U.S. 436 (1966): ruled that the prosecution may not use statements made by a person in police custody unless minimum procedural safeguards were followed and established guidelines to guarantee arrested persons’ Fifth Amendment right not to be compelled to incriminate themselves. These guidelines included informing arrestees prior to questioning that they have the right to remain silent, that anything they say may be used against them as evidence, and that they have the right to the counsel of an attorney.

Loving v. Virginia, 388 U.S. 1 (1967): declared that antimiscegenation laws (prohibitions of interracial marriage) have no legitimate purpose outside of racial discrimination and thus violate the Fourteenth Amendment.

New York Times Co. v. United States, 403 U.S. 713 (1971): in what was known as the “Pentagon Papers” case, the court vacated a US Justice Department injunction that restrained the New York Times and Washington Post from publishing excerpts of a top-secret report on the Vietnam War, ruling that such prior restraint of the press was subject to a “heavy burden of . . . justification,” which the government failed to meet.

Wisconsin v. Yoder, 406 U.S. 205 (1972): in the case of members of an Old Order Amish community who refused on religious grounds to keep their children in school past the eighth grade, found that the right to free exercise of religion outweighed the state’s interest in universal education.

Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973): held that overly restrictive state regulation of abortion is unconstitutional. In balancing the “compelling state interest[s]” in protecting the health of pregnant women and the potential life of fetuses, the court ruled that regulation of abortion could begin no sooner than about the end of the first trimester, with increasing regulation permissible in the second and third trimesters; the state’s interest in protecting the fetus was found to increase with the fetus’s “capability for meaningful life outside the mother’s womb.”

Gregg v. Georgia, 428 U.S. 153; Proffitt v. Florida, 428 U.S. 242; Jurek v. Texas, 428 U.S. 262 (1976): ruled that the death penalty, in and of itself, does not violate the Eighth Amendment if applied under certain guidelines in first-degree murder cases.

Cruzan by Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Department of Health, 497 U.S. 261 (1990): found that, in the absence of “clear and convincing evidence” of a person’s desire to refuse medical treatment or not to live on life support, a state could require that such treatment continue. When such evidence exists, however, a patient’s wishes must be respected.

Rust v. Sullivan, 500 U.S. 173 (1991): ruled that Congress could prohibit recipients of family-planning funds from providing or discussing abortion as a family planning option. The court held that this did not violate the First Amendment because clinics were still free to provide such counseling as a “financially and physically” separate activity.

Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey, 505 U.S. 833 (1992): softened the ruling in Roe v. Wade by finding that some state regulation of abortion prior to fetal viability, including a 24-hour waiting period, mandatory counseling, and a parental-consent requirement for minors, is permissible as long as the regulations do not place an “undue burden” on the woman.

Romer v. Evans, 517 U.S. 620 (1996): invalidated a Colorado referendum passed by popular vote that prohibited conferral of protected status on the basis of sexual orientation; the court ruled that the referendum was overbroad, bore little relationship to legimate state interests, and violated the Fourteenth Amendment of the US Constitution.

Oncale v. Sundowner Offshore Services, Inc., et al., 523 U.S. 75 (1998): found that Title VII’s prohibition of workplace sexual discrimination applied equally in cases when the harasser and victim are of the same sex.

Boy Scouts of America v. Dale, 530 U.S. 640 (2000): ruled that the Boy Scouts, because it is a private organization, was within its rights when it dismissed a scoutmaster expressly because of his avowed homosexuality. The court reasoned that a state statute banning discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation in places of public accommodation was outweighed by the Scouts’ First Amendment right to freedom of association.

Stenberg v. Carhart, 530 U.S. 914 (2000): ruled that a state law criminalizing the performance of dilation and extraction—or “partial-birth”—abortions violated the Constitution (following the same reasoning as in Roe v. Wade) because it allowed no consideration of the health of the woman in choosing the procedure.

Bush v. Gore, 531 U.S. 98 (2000): stopped the manual recounts, then under way in certain Florida counties at the demand of Al Gore, of disputed ballots from the November 2000 presidential election on the grounds that inconsistent vote-counting standards among the several counties involved amounted to a violation of the Fourteenth Amendment’s equal protection clause. Because George W. Bush at the time led Al Gore in the number of officially recognized Florida votes, the decision meant that he would win the state and thus the general election, despite having lost the popular vote.

Atkins v. Virginia, 536 U.S. 304 (2002): ruled that the death penalty, when applied to mentally retarded individuals, constitutes a “cruel and unusual punishment” prohibited by the Eighth Amendment.

Eldred v. Ashcroft, 537 U.S. 186 (2003): upheld a 1998 federal statute that granted a 20-year extension to all existing copyrights.

Lockyer v. Andrade, 538 U.S. 63; Ewing v. California, 538 U.S. 11 (2003): upheld a “three-strikes” law that imposes long prison sentences for a third offense, even nonviolent crimes.

State Farm Mutual Auto Insurance Co. v. Campbell, 538 U.S. 408 (2003): placed limits on “irrational and arbitrary” punitive damages and established new guidelines that generally bar consideration of a defendant’s wealth or conduct outside the state’s borders and lower the ratio of punitive to compensatory damages.

Brown v. Legal Foundation of Washington, 538 U.S. 216 (2003): held that channeling interest on short-term deposits by lawyers on accounts held in trust for their clients to legal assistance programs for the poor is not an unconstitutional taking of property.

Nevada Department of Human Resources v. Hibbs, 538 U.S. 721 (2003): held that state governments may be sued by their employees for failing to honor the federally guaranteed right to take time off from work for family emergencies.

United States v. American Library Association, 539 U.S. 194 (2003): upheld the Children’s Internet Protection Act, which conditions access to federal grants and subsidies upon the installation of antipornography filters on all Internet-connected computers.

Grutter v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 306 (2003); Gratz v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 244 (2003): in a pair of decisions addressing affirmative action in admissions at the University of Michigan, the court endorsed Regents of the University of California v. Bakke’s articulation of diversity as a compelling interest, so long as the admissions program’s operation is “holistic” and “individualized,” and upheld Michigan’s law school admissions program. In Gratz, the court struck down Michigan’s undergraduate admissions program because reserving spaces for underrepresented minorities was the “functional equivalent of a quota.”

Georgia v. Ashcroft, 539 U.S. 461 (2003): ruled that race-sensitive redistricting could consider more general minority influence in the political process when drawing particular district lines rather than address-ingonly the actual number of minority voters present.

Lawrence v. Texas, 539 U.S. 558 (2003): explicitly overruling Bowers v. Hardwick, 478 U.S. 186 (1986), the court declared that gay men and lesbians are “entitled to respect for their private lives” under the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment and rendered unconstitutional state statutes outlawing sex between adults of the same gender.

Elk Grove Unified School District v. Newdow, 542 U.S. 1 (2004): sidestepping the question of whether the inclusion of the phrase “under God” was an unconstitutional endorsement by a public school of a religious viewpoint, the court ruled that Michael Newdow, who filed suit on behalf of his daughter, lacked standing to file on her behalf because he was not the custodial parent.

Blakely v. Washington, 542 U.S. 296 (2004): held that the Washington state system permitting judges to make independent findings that increase a convicted defendant’s sentence beyond the ordinary range for the crime violated the Sixth Amendment guarantee of a right to trial by jury and to a higher standard of proof.

Cheney v. US District Court, 542 U.S. 367 (2004): sent the Sierra Club and Judicial Watch back to the lower court in a dispute over the level of executive privilege the vice president’s energy policy task force exercised in the face of discovery orders. The court held that “[s]pecial considerations control when the Executive’s interests in maintaining its autonomy and safeguarding its communications’ confidentiality are implicated.”

Hamdi v. Rumsfeld, 542 U.S. 507; Rasul v. Bush, 542 U.S. 466 (2004): ruled that while Congress may empower the executive branch to detain even US citizens as enemy combatants, any enemy combatant in US custody may challenge detention as illegal in federal court with the assistance of counsel. The court declared that “a state of war is not a blank check for the president when it comes to the rights of the nation’s citizens.”

United States v. Booker and United States v. Fanfan, 543 U.S. 220 (2005): ruled that mandatory federal sentencing guidelines violated defendants’ Sixth Amendment right to jury trials because they require judges to make decisions affecting prison time.

Roper v. Simmons, 543 U.S. 551 (2005): held that the execution of a felon who had committed a capital crime while a juvenile violates the Eighth Amendment prohibition of cruel and unusual punishment, that “the State cannot extinguish [the juvenile defendant's] life and his potential to attain a mature understanding of his own humanity.”

Gonzales v. Raich, 545 U.S. 1 (2005): ruled that doctors may not prescribe marijuana to ease the sym-toms patients and sufferers of other serious illnesses experience. The Court held that the federal Controlled Substances Act, which bars medical use of marijuana, overrides state legislation allowing such use.

Kelo v. City of New London, 545 U.S. 469 (2005): found that governmental entities may exercise the power of eminent domain over private property and cede the property to private developers to promote economic growth, so long as a carefully formulated plan to provide significant benefits to the community provides a rational basis for the taking.

Gonzales v. Oregon, 546 U.S. 243 (2006): ruled that an Oregon law permitting physicians to provide lethal drugs to terminally ill patients did not violate the Controlled Substances Act.

Hamdan v. Rumsfeld, 548 U.S. 557 (2006): ruled that the government’s special military commissions were not lawful courts. The commissions were to have tried some of the prisoners who had been captured in the “global war on terror.”

Gonzales v. Carhart, 550 U.S._(2007): held that a federal law banning “partial-birth” abortion was not unconstitutional.

Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1, 551 U.S. _(2007): held that using a student’s race in determining the availability of a spot at a desired school, even for the purpose of preventing resegregation, violated the 14th Amendment.

Hein v. Freedom from Religion Foundation, 551 U.S. __ (2007): ruled that taxpayers had no standing to challenge the use of federal money to support the Office of Faith-Based and Community Initiatives, despite questions about the separation of church and state.

Federal Election Commission v. Wisconsin Right to Life, 551 U.S._(2007): held that a restriction on union- and corporate-sponsored advertising from a 2002 campaign-finance law threatened free speech.

District of Columbia v. Heller, 554 U.S. ___ (2008): ruled that citizens have the right to bear arms without the need to be in service to a militia. This decision struck down a Washington DC handgun ban and threatened scores of other such bans nationwide.

Boumediene v. Bush, 553 U.S. ___ (2008): ruled that foreign prisoners heldatGuantanamo Bay, Cuba, have the right to challenge their detention in US courts.

United States Congress

The Senate, 110th Congress

According to Article I, Section 3, of the US Constitution, a US senator must be at least 30 years old, must reside in the state he or she represents atthe time of the election, and must have been a citizen of the United States for 9 years. Voters elect two senators from each state; terms are for 6 years and begin on 3 January. Senators originally made US$6.00 per day; each current senator’s salary is US$169,300 per year. The majority and minority leaders and the president pro tempore receive US$181,100 per year.

Senate leadership

 

president:

Richard Cheney

president pro tempore:

Robert C. Byrd

majority leader:

Harry Reid

minority leader:

Mitch McConnell

asst. majority leader (majority whip):

Dick Durbin

asst. minority leader (minority whip):

Jon Kyl

state

name and party

service began

term ends

Alabama

Richard Shelby (R)

1987

2011

 

Jeff Sessions (R)

1997

2009

Alaska

Ted Stevens (R)

19681

2009

 

Lisa Murkowski (R)

2002

2011

Arizona

John McCain (R)

1987

2011

 

Jon Kyl (R)

1995

2013

Arkansas

Blanche Lincoln (D)

1999

2011

 

Mark Pryor (D)

2003

2009

California

Dianne Feinstein (D)

19922

2013

 

Barbara Boxer (D)

1993

2011

Colorado

Wayne Allard (R)

1997

2009

 

Ken Salazar (D)

2005

2011

state

name and party

service began

term ends

Connecticut

Chris Dodd (D)

1981

2011

 

Joe Lieberman (ID)

1989

2013

Delaware

Joseph R. Biden, Jr. (D)

1973

2009

 

Tom Carper (D)

2001

2013

Florida

Bill Nelson (D)

2001

2013

 

Mel Martinez (R)

2005

2011

Georgia

Saxby Chambliss (R)

2003

2009

 

Johnny Isakson (R)

2005

2011

Hawaii

Daniel K. Inouye (D)

1963

2011

 

Daniel Kahikina Akaka (D)

19903

2013

Idaho

Larry Craig (R)

1991

2009

 

Mike Crapo (R)

1999

2011

Illinois

Dick Durbin (D)

1997

2009

 

Barack Obama (D)

2005

2011

Indiana

Richard G. Lugar (R)

1977

2013

 

Evan Bayh (D)

1999

2011

Iowa

Chuck Grassley(R)

1981

2011

 

Tom Harkin (D)

1985

2009

Kansas

Sam Brownback (R)

19964

2011

 

Pat Roberts (R)

1997

2009

Kentucky

Mitch McConnell (R)

1985

2009

 

Jim Bunning (R)

1999

2011

Louisiana

Mary L. Landrieu (D)

1997

2009

 

David Vitter (R)

2005

2011

Maine

Olympia J. Snowe (R)

1995

2013

 

Susan Collins (R)

1997

2009

Maryland

Benjamin L. Cardin (D)

2007

2013

 

Barbara Mikulski (d)

1987

2011

Massachusetts

Edward M. Kennedy (D)

1962

2013

 

John Kerry (D)

1985

2009

Michigan

Carl Levin (D)

1979

2009

 

Debbie Stabenow (D)

2001

2013

Minnesota

Amy Klobuchar (D)

2007

2013

 

Norm Coleman (R)

2003

2009

Mississippi

Thad Cochran (R)

1979

2009

 

Roger Wicker (R)

20075

2009

Missouri

Kit Bond (R)

1987

2011

 

Claire McCaskill (D)

2007

2013

Montan

Max Baucus (D)

1979

2009

 

Jon Tester (D)

2007

2013

Nebraska

Chuck Hagel(R)

1997

2009

 

Ben Nelson (D)

2001

2013

Nevada

Harry Reid (D)

1987

2011

 

John Ensign (R)

2001

2013

New Hapshire

Judd Gregg (R)

1993

2011

 

John E. Sununu (R)

2003

2009

New Jersey

Robert Menendez (D)

20066

2013

Frank R. Lautenberg (D)

2003

2009

New Mexico

Pete V. Domenici (R)

1973

2009

Jeff Bingaman (D)

1983

2013

New York

Charles E. Schumer (D)

1999

2011

Hillary Rodham Clinton (D)

2001

2013

North Carolina

Elizabeth Dole (R)

2003

2009

Richard Burr (R)

2005

2011

North Dakota

Kent Conrad (D)

1987

2013

Byron L. Dorgan (D)

1993

2011

Ohio

Sherrod Brown (D)

2007

2013

George V. Voinovich (R)

1999

2011

Oklahoma

James M. Inhofe (R)

19947

2009

Tom Coburn (R)

2005

2011

Oregon

Ron Wyden (D)

19968

2011

Gordon Smith (R)

1997

2009

Pennsylvania

Arlen Specter (R)

1981

2011

Robert P. Casey (D)

2007

2013

Rhode Island

Jack Reed (D)

1997

2009

Sheldon Whitehouse (D)

2007

2013

South Carolina

Lindsey Graham (R)

2003

2009

Jim DeMint (R)

2005

2011

state

name and party

service began

term ends

South Dakota

Tim Johnson (D)

1997

2009

 

John Thune (R)

2005

2011

Tennessee

Bob Corker (R)

2007

2013

 

Lamar Alexander (R)

2003

2009

Texas

Kay Bailey Hutchison (R)

19939

2013

 

John Cornyn (R)

2002

2009

Utah

Orrin G. Hatch (r)

1977

2013

 

Bob Bennett (R)

1993

2011

Vermont

Patrick Leahy (D)

1975

2011

 

Bernie Sanders (I)

2007

2013

Virgnia

John Warner (R)

1979

2009

 

Jim Webb (D)

2007

2013

Washington

Patty Murray (D)

1993

2011

 

Maria Cantwell (D)

2001

2013

West Virginia

Robert C. Byrd (D)

1959

2013

 

Jay Rockefeller (D)

1985

2009

Wisconsin

Herb Kohl (D)

1989

2013

 

Russ Feingold (D)

1993

2011

Wyoming

John Barrasso (R)

200710

2009

 

Mike Enzi (R)

1997

2009

Republicans: 49; Democrats: 49; Independents: 1; Independent Democrats: 1

1Ted Stevens was appointed in December 1968 to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Edward Lewis (Bob) Bartlett. 2Dianne Feinstein was elected in November 1992 to complete the term of Pete Wilson, who resigned in 1991 to become California’s governor. 3Daniel Kahikina Akaka was appointed in April 1990 after winning a special election to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Spark M. Matsunaga. 4Sam Brownback was elected in November 1996 to complete the term of Bob Dole, who resigned to campaign for the presidency. 5Roger Wicker was appointed in December 2007 to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Trent Lott. 6Robert Menendez was appointed in January 2006 to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Jon S. Corzine. 7James M. Inhofe was elected in November 1994 to complete the term of David Boren, who resigned to become president of the University of Oklahoma. 8Ron Wyden was elected in January 1996 to complete the term of Bob Packwood, who resigned in 1995. 9Kay Bailey Hutchison was elected in June 1993 to complete the term of Lloyd Bentsen, Jr., who resigned to become secretary of the treasury. 10John Barrasso was appointed in June 007 to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Craig Thomas.

Senate Standing Committees

 

 

 

number of

number of

 

 

ranking minority

members

 

subcom-

committee

chairman (party-state)

member (party-state) majority minority

mittees

Agriculture, Nutrition,

Tom Harkin (D-IA)

Saxby Chambliss (R-GA)

11

10

5

and Forestry

 

 

 

 

 

Appropriations

Robert C. Byrd (D-WV)

Thad Cochran (R-MS)

15

14

12

Armed Services

Carl Levin (D-MI)

John McCain (R-AZ)

13

12

6

Banking, Housing, and

Chris Dodd (D-CT)

Richard Shelby (R-AL)

11

10

5

Urban Affairs

 

 

 

 

 

Budget

Kent Conrad (D-ND)

Judd Gregg (R-NH)

121

11

none

Commerce, Science,

Daniel K. Inouye (D-HI)

Ted Stevens (R-AK)

12

11

and Transportation

 

 

 

 

 

Energy and Natural

Jeff Bingaman (D-NM)

Pete V. Domenici (R-NM)

121

11

4

Resources

 

 

 

 

 

Environment and Public

Barbara Boxer (D-CA)

James M. Imhofe (R-OK)

101

9

6

Works

 

 

 

 

 

Finance

Max Baucus (D-MT)

Chuck Grassley (R-IA)

11

10

5

Foreign Relations

Joseph R. Biden, Jr. (D-DE)

Richard G. Lugar (R-IN)

11

10

7

Health, Education,

Edward M. Kennedy (D-MA)

Mike Enzi (R-WY)

111

10

3

Labor, and Pensions

 

 

 

Homeland Security and

Joe Lieberman (ID-CT)

Susan Collins (R-ME)

9

8

3

Governmental Affairs

 

 

 

Judiciary

Patrick Leahy (D-VT)

Arlen Specter (R-PA)

10

9

7

Rules and Administration Dianne Feinstein (D-CA)

Bob Bennett (R-UT)

10

9

none

Small Business and

John Kerry (D-MA)

Olympia J. Snowe (R-ME)

10

9

none

Entrepreneurship

 

 

 

Veterans Affairs

Daniel K. Akaka (D-HI)

Larry Craig (R-ID)

81

7

none

ranking minority

number of members

member (party-state)

majority

minority

Gordon Smith (R-OR)

11

10

John Cornyn (R-TX)

3

3

Lisa Murkowski (R-AK)

8

7

Kit Bond (R-MO)

8

7

Joint Committees of Congress

The joint committees of Congress include members from both the Senate and the House of Representatives. They function as overseeing entities but do not have the power to approve appropriations or legislation. Chairmanship of the Joint Economic Committee is determined by seniority and alternates between the Senate and the House every Congress. The Joint Committee on the Library of Congress is evenly made up of members from the House

Administration Committee and the Senate Rules and Administration Committee. Chairmanship and vice chairmanship of the Joint Committee on Printing alternates between the House and the Senate every Congress. The Joint Committee on Taxation is composed of five members from the Senate Committee on Finance and five members from the House Committee on Ways and Means (three majority a nd two minority members from each).

 

vice

number of members

chairman (party-state)

democrats republicans

Rep. Carolyn B. Maloney (D-NY)

12

8

Rep. Robert A. Brady (D-PA)

6

4

Sen. Dianne Feinstein (D-CA)

6

4

Rep. Charles B. Rangel (D-NY)

6

4

The House of Representatives, 110th Congress

According to Article I, Section 2, of the US Constitution, a US representative must be at least 25 years old, must reside in the state he or she represents at the time of the election, and must have been a citizen of the United States for seven years. Each state is entitled to at least one representative, with additional seats apportioned based on population. Each congressperson originally represented 30,000 people; the range in 2007 was from 522,830 (Wyoming) to 957,861 (Montana) persons per representative. Terms are for 2 years and begin on 3 January (unless otherwise noted). The current representative’s salary is US$169,300 per year. The majority and minority leaders receive US$188,100 per year; the speaker of the House receives US$217,400 per year.

American Samoa, the District of Columbia, Guam, and the Virgin Islands elect delegates; Puerto Rico elects a resident commissioner. Their formal duties are the same, but the resident commissioner serves a four-year term. They may participate in debate and serve on committees but are not permitted to vote.

state

representatives

service began

Alabama

1. Jo Bonner (R)

Jan 2003

 

2. Terry Everett (R)

Jan 1993

 

3. Mike Rogers (R)

Jan 2003

 

4. Robert B. Aderholt (R)

Jan 1997

 

5. Robert E. (Bud) Cramer, Jr. (D) Jan 1991

 

6. Spencer Bachus (R)

Jan 1993

 

7. Artur Davis (D)

Jan 2003

Alaska

Don Young (R)

Mar 1973

Arizona

1. Rick Renzi (R)

Jan 2003

(+2)

2. Trent Franks (R)

Jan 2003

 

3. John B. Shadegg (R)

Jan 1995

 

4. Ed Pastor (D)

Sep 1991

 

5. Harry E. Mitchell (D)

Jan 2007

 

6. Jeff Flake (R)

Jan 2001

Numbers preceding the names refer to districts. Certain states gained (+) or lost (-) districts by reapportionment since the 107th Congress.

US House Web site: <www.house.gov>.

House leadership

 

speaker of the House:

Nancy Pelosi (D-CA)

majority leader:

Steny H. Hoyer (D-MD)

minority leader:

John A. Boehner (R-OH)

majority whip:

James E. Clyburn (D-SC)

minority whip:

Roy Blunt (R-MO)

state

representatives

service began

Arizona

7.

Raul M. Grijalva (D)

Jan 2003

(cont.)

8.

Gabrielle Giffords (D)

Jan 2007

Arkansas

1.

Marion Berry (D)

Jan 1997

 

2.

Vic Snyder (D)

Jan 1997

 

3.

John Boozman (R)1

Nov 2001

 

4.

Mike Ross (D)

Jan 2001

California

1.

Mike Thompson (D)

Jan 1999

(+1)

2.

Wally Herger(R)

Jan 1987

 

3.

Daniel E. Lungren (R)

Jan 2005

 

4.

John T. Doolittle (R)

Jan 1991

 

5.

Doris O. Matsui (D)2

Mar 2005

 

6.

Lynn C. Woolsey (D)

Jan 1993

 

7.

George Miller (D)

Jan 1975

 

8.

Nancy Pelosi (D)

Jun 1987

state

representatives service began

state

representatives service began

California

9.

Barbara Lee (D)

Apr

1998

Florida

4.

Ander Crenshaw (R)

Jan

2001

(cont.)

10.

Ellen O. Tauscher (D)

Jan

1997

(cont.)

5.

Ginny Brown-Waite (R)

Jan

2003

 

11.

Jerry McNerney (D)

Jan

2007

 

6.

Cliff Stearns (R)

Jan

1989

 

12.

Jackie Speier (D)3

Apr

2008

 

7.

John L. Mica (R)

Jan

1993

 

13.

Fortney “Pete” Stark (D)

Jan

1973

 

8.

Ric Keller (R)

Jan

2001

 

14.

Anna G. Eshoo(D)

Jan

1993

 

9.

Gus M. Bilirakis (R)

Jan

2007

 

15.

Michael M. Honda (D)

Jan

2001

 

10.

C.W. Bill Young (R)

Jan

1971

 

16.

Zoe Lofgren (D)

Jan

1995

 

11.

Kathy Castor(d)

Jan

2007

 

17.

Sam Farr(D)

Jun

1993

 

12.

Adam H. Putnam (R)

Jan

2001

 

18.

Dennis A. Cardoza (D)

Jan

2003

 

13.

Vern Buchanan (R)

Jan

2007

 

19.

George Radanovich (R)

Jan

1995

 

14.

Connie Mack (R)

Jan

2005

 

20.

Jim Costa (D)

Jan

2005

 

15.

Dave Weldon (R)

Jan

1995

 

21.

Devin Nunes (R)

Jan

2003

 

16.

Tim Mahoney (D)

Jan

2007

 

22.

Kevin McCarthy (R)

Jan

2007

 

17.

Kendrick B. Meek (D)

Jan

2003

 

23.

Lois Capps (D)

Mar

1998

 

18.

Ileana Ros-Lehtinen (R)

Aug

1989

 

24.

Elton Gallegly (R)

Jan

1987

 

19.

Robert Wexler (D)

Jan

1997

 

25.

Howard P. “Buck”

Jan

1993

 

20.

Debbie Wasserman

Jan

2005

 

 

McKeon (R)

 

 

 

 

Schultz (D)

 

 

\

26.

David Dreier(R)

Jan

1981

 

21.

Lincoln Diaz-Balart (R)

Jan

1993

 

27.

Brad Sherman (D)

Jan

1997

 

22.

Ron Klein (D)

Jan

2007

 

28.

Howard L. Berman (D)

Jan

1983

 

23.

Alcee L. Hastings (D)

Jan

1993

\

29.

Adam B. Schiff(D)

Jan

2001

 

24.

Tom Feeney (R)

Jan

2003

 

30.

Henry A. Waxman (D)

Jan

1975

 

25.

Mario Diaz-Balart (R)

Jan

2003

 

31.

Xavier Becerra (D)

Jan

1993

 

 

 

 

 

 

32.

Hilda L. Solis(D)

Jan

2001

Georgia

1.

Jack Kingston (R)

Jan

1993

\

33.

Diane E. Watson (D)4

Jun

2001

(+2)

2.

Sanford D. Bishop, Jr. (D) Jan

1993

 

34.

Lucille Roybal-Allard (D)

Jan

1993

 

3.

Lynn A. Westmoreland (R) Jan

2005

 

35.

Maxine Waters (D)

Jan

1991

 

4.

Henry C. Johnson (D)

Jan

2007

 

36.

Jane F. Harman (D)5

Jan

1993

 

5.

John Lewis (D)

Jan

1987

 

37.

Laura Richardson (D)6

Sep

2007

 

6.

Tom Price (R)

Feb

2005

 

38.

Grace F. Napolitano (D)

Jan

1999

 

7.

John Linder (R)

Jan

1993

 

39.

Linda T. Sanchez (D)

Jan

2003

 

8.

Jim Marshall (D)

Jan

2003

 

40.

Edward R. Royce (R)

Jan

1993

 

9.

Nathan Deal (R)

Jan

1993

 

41.

Jerry Lewis (R)

Jan

1979

 

10.

Paul Broun (R)10

Jul

2007

 

42.

Gary G. Miller (R)

Jan

1999

 

11.

Phil Gingrey (R)

Jan

2003

 

43.

Joe Baca (D)

Nov

1999

 

12.

John Barrow (D)

Jan

2005

 

44.

Ken Calvert (R)

Jan

1993

 

13.

David Scott (D)

Jan

2003

 

45.

Mary Bono Mack (R)

Apr

1998

 

 

 

 

 

46.

Dana Rohrabacher (R)

Jan

1989

Hawaii

1.

Neil Abercrombie (D)11

Sep

1986

 

47.

Loretta Sanchez (D)

Jan

1997

 

2.

Mazie K. Hirono (D)

Jan

2007

 

48.

John Campbell (R)7

Dec

2005

 

 

 

 

 

 

49.

Darrell E. Issa (R)

Jan

2001

Idaho

1.

Bill Sali (R)

Jan

2007

 

50.

Brian P. Bilbray (R)8

Jan

1995

 

2.

Michael K. Simpson (R)

Jan

1999

 

51.

Bob Filner (D)

Jan

1993

 

 

 

 

 

 

52.

Duncan Hunter (R)

Jan

1981

Illinois

1.

Bobby L. Rush (D)

Jan

1993

 

53.

Susan A. Davis (D)

Jan

2001

(-1)

2.

Jesse L. Jackson, Jr. (D)

Dec

1995

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.

Daniel Lipinski (D)

Jan

2005

Colorado

1.

Diana DeGette (D)

Jan

1997

 

4.

Luis V. Gutierrez (D)

Jan

1993

(+1)

2.

Mark Udall (D)

Jan

1999

 

5.

Rahm Emanuel (D)

Jan

2003

 

3.

John T. Salazar (D)

Jan

2005

 

6.

Peter J. Roskam (R)

Jan

2007

 

4.

Marilyn N. Musgrave (R)

Jan

2003

 

7.

Danny K. Davis (D)

Jan

1997

 

5.

Doug Lamborn (R)

Jan

2007

 

8.

Melissa L. Bean (D)

Jan

2005

 

6.

Thomas G. Tancredo (R)

Jan

1999

 

9.

Janice D. Schakowsky (D)

Jan

1999

 

7.

Ed Perlmutter (D)

Jan

2007

 

10.

Mark Steven Kirk (R)

Jan

2001

 

\

 

 

 

 

11.

Jerry Weller(R)

Jan

1995

Connecticut

1.

John B. Larson (D)

Jan

1999

 

12.

Jerry F. Costello (D)

Aug

1988

(-1)

2.

Joe Courtney (D)

Jan

2007

 

13.

Judy Biggert (R)

Jan

1999

 

3.

Rosa L. DeLauro (D)

Jan

1991

\

14.

Bill Foster (D)12

Mar

2008

 

4.

Christopher Shays (R)

Aug

1987

 

15.

Timothy V. Johnson (R)

Jan

2001

 

5.

Christopher S. Murphy

Jan

2007

 

16.

Donald A. Manzullo (R)

Jan

1993

 

 

(D)

 

 

 

17.

Phil Hare (D)

Jan

2007

 

 

 

 

 

 

18.

Ray LaHood (R)

Jan

1995

Delaware

 

Michael N. Castle (R)

Jan

1993

 

19.

John Shimkus (R)

Jan

1997

Florida

1.

Jeff Miller (R)9

Oct

2001

Indiana

1.

Peter J. Visclosky (D)

Jan

1985

(+2)

2.

Allen Boyd (D)

Jan

1997

(-1)

2.

Joe Donnelly (D)

Jan

2007

 

3.

Corrine Brown (D)

Jan

1993

 

3.

Mark E. Souder (R)

Jan

1995

state

representatives service began

state

representatives service began

New York

3.

Peter T. King (R)

Jan

1993

Oklahoma

1.

John Sullivan (R)24

Feb

2002

(cont.)

4.

Carolyn McCarthy (D)

Jan

1997

(-1)

2.

Dan Boren (D)

Jan

2005

 

5.

Gary L. Ackerman (D)

Mar

1983

 

3.

Frank D. Lucas (R)

May

1994

 

6.

Gregory W. Meeks (D)

Feb

1998

 

4.

Tom Cole (R)

Jan

2003

 

7.

Joseph Crowley (D)

Jan

1999

 

5.

May Fallin (R)

Jan

2007

 

8.

Jerrold Nadler(D)

Nov

1992

 

 

 

 

 

 

9.

Anthony D. Weiner (D)

Jan

1999

Oregon

1.

David Wu (D)

Jan

1999

 

10.

Edolphus Towns (D)

Jan

1983

 

2.

Greg Walden (R)

Jan

1999

 

11.

Yvette D. Clarke (D)

Jan

2007

 

3.

Earl Blumenauer (D)

May

1996

 

12.

Nydia M. Velazquez (D)

Jan

1993

 

4.

Peter A. DeFazio (D)

Jan

1987

 

13.

Vito Fossell (r)

Nov

1997

 

5.

Darlene Hooley (D)

Jan

1997

 

14.

Carolyn B. Malony (D\

Jan

1993

 

 

 

 

 

 

15.

Charles B. Rangel (D)

Jan

1971

Pennsylvania

1.

Robert A. Brady (D)

May

1998

 

16.

Jose E. Serrano (D)

Mar

1990

(-2)

2.

Chaka Fattah (D)

Jan

1995

 

17.

Eliot L. Engel (D)

Jan

1989

 

3.

Phil English (R)

Jan

1995

 

18.

Nita M. Lowey (D)

Jan

1989

 

4.

Jason Altmire (D)

Jan

2007

 

19.

John J. Hall (D)

Jan

2007

 

5.

John E. Peterson (R)

Jan

1997

 

20.

Kirsten E. Gillibrand (D)

Jan

2007

 

6.

Jim Gerlach (R)

Jan

2003

 

21.

Michael R. McNulty(D)

Jan

1989

 

7.

Joe Sestak (D)

Jan

2007

 

22.

Maurice D. Hinchey (D)

Jan

1993

 

8.

Patrick J. Murphy (D)

Jan

2007

 

23.

John M. McHugh (R)

Jan

1993

 

9.

Bill Shuster (R)

May

2001

 

24.

Michael A. Arcuri (d)

Jan

2007

 

10.

Christopher P. Carney

Jan

2007

 

25.

James T. Walsh (R)

Jan

1989

 

 

(D)

 

 

 

26.

Thomas M. Reynolds (R)

Jan

1999

 

11.

Paul E. Kanjorski (D)

Jan

1985

 

 

27.

Brian Higgins (D)

Jan

2005

 

12.

John P. Murtha (D)

Feb

1974

 

28.

Louise Mcintosh

Jan

1987

 

13.

Allyson Y. Schwartz (D)

Jan

2005

 

 

Slaughter (D)

 

 

 

14.

Michael F. Doyle (D)

Jan

1995

 

29.

John R. “Randy”

Jan

2005

 

15.

Charles W. Dent (R)

Jan

2005

 

 

Kuhl, Jr. (R)

 

 

 

16.

Joseph R. Pitts (R)

Jan

1997

 

 

 

 

 

 

17.

Tim Holden (D)

Jan

1993

North Carolina 1.

G.K. Butterfield (D)

Jan

2005

 

18.

Tim Murphy (R)

Jan

2003

(+1)

2.

Bob Etheridge (D)

Jan

1997

 

19.

Todd Russell Platts (R)

Jan

2001

 

3.

Walter B. Jones (R)

Jan

1995

 

 

 

\

 

 

4.

David E. Price (D)

Jan

1997

Rhode Island

1.

Patrick J. Kennedy (D)

Jan

1995

 

5.

Virginia Foxx (R)

Jan

2005

 

2.

James R. Langevin (D)

an

2001

 

6.

Howard Coble (R)

Jan

1985

 

 

 

 

 

 

7.

Mike Mcintyre (D)

Jan

1997

South Carolina 1.

Henry E. Brown, Jr. (R)

Jan

2001

 

8.

Robin Hayes (R)

Jan

1999

 

2.

Joe Wilson (R)25

Dec

2001

 

9.

Sue Wilkins Myrick (R)

Jan

1995

 

3.

J. Gresham Barrett (R)

Jan

2003

 

10.

Patrick T. McHenry (r)

Jan

2005

 

4.

Bob Inglis (R)

Jan

2005

 

11.

Heath Shuler (D)

Jan

2007

 

5.

John M. Spratt, Jr. (D)

Jan

1983

 

12.

Melvin L. Watt(D)

Jan

1993

 

6.

James E. Clyburn (D)

Jan

1993

 

13.

Brad Miller (D)

Jan

2003

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

\

 

 

South Dakota

Stephanie Herseth

Jun

2004

North Dakota

Earl Pomeroy(D)

Jan

1993

 

 

Sandlin (D)26

 

 

Ohio

1.

Steve Chabot (R)

Jan

1995

Tennessee

1.

David Davis (R)

Jan

2007

(-1)

2.

Jean Schmidt (R)

Sep

2005

 

2.

John J. Duncan, Jr., (R)

Nov

1988

 

3.

Michael R. Turner (R)

Jan

2003

 

3.

Zach Wamp (R)

Jan

1995

 

4.

Jim Jordan (R)

Jan

2007

 

4.

Lincoln Davis (D)

Jan

2003

 

5.

Robert E. Latta (R)23

Dec

2007

 

5.

Jim Cooper (D)27

Jan

1983

 

6.

Charles A. Wilson (D)

Jan

2007

 

6.

Bart Gordon (D)

Jan

1985

 

7.

David L. Hobson (R)

Jan

1991

 

7.

Marsha Blackburn (R)

Jan

2003

 

8.

John A. Boehner (R)

Jan

1991

 

8.

John S. Tanner(D)

Jan

1989

 

9.

Marcy Kaptur (D)

Jan

1983

 

9.

Steve Cohen (D)

Jan

2007

 

10.

Dennis J. Kucinich (D)

Jan

1997

 

 

 

 

 

 

11.

Stephanie Tubbs

Jan

1999

Texas

1.

Louie Gohmert (R)

Jan

2005

 

 

Jones (D)

 

 

(+2)

2.

Ted Poe (R)

Jan

2005

 

12.

Patrick J. Tiberi (R)

Jan

2001

 

3.

Sam Johnson (R)

May

1991

 

13.

Betty Sutton (D)

Jan

2007

 

4.

Ralph M. Hall (R)28

Jan

1981

 

14.

Steven C. LaTourette

Jan

1995

 

5.

Jeb Hensarling (R)

Jan

2003

 

 

(R)

 

 

 

6.

Joe Barton (R)

Jan

1985

 

15.

Deborah Pryce (R)

Jan

1993

 

7.

John Abney Culberson

Jan

2001

 

16.

Ralph Regula (R)

Jan

1973

 

 

()

 

 

 

17.

Tim Ryan (D)

Jan

203

 

8.

Kevin Brady (R)

Jan

1997

 

18.

Zachary T. Space (D)

Jan

2007

 

9.

Al Green (D)

Jan

2005

 

 

 

 

 

 

10.

Michael T. McCaul (R)

Jan

2005

 

 

 

 

 

 

11.

K. Michael Conaway (R)

Jan

2005

jurisdiction

representatives

service began

American Samoa

(Delegate) Eni F.H. Faleomavaega (D)

Jan 1989

District of Columbia

(Delegate) Eleanor Holmes Norton (D)

Jan 1991

Guam

(Delegate) Madeleine Bordallo (D)

Jan 2003

Puerto Rico

(Resident Commissioner) Luis G. Fortuno (R)

Jan 2005

US Virgin Islands

(Delegate) Donna M. Christensen (D)

Jan 1997

 

 

 

 

 

number of

 

chairman

ranking minority number of members

subcom-

committee

(party-state)

member (party-state) majority

minority

mittees

Agriculture

Collin C. Peterson (D-MN)

Bob Goodlatte (R-VA)

25

20

6

Appropriations

David R. Obey (D-WI)

Jerry Lewis (R-CA)

37

29

12

Armed Services

Ike Skelton (D-MO)

Duncan Hunter (R-CA)

34

28

7

Budget

John M. Spratt, Jr. (D-SC)

Paul Ryan (R-WI)

22

17

none

Education and Labor

George Miller (D-A)

Howard P. “Buck” McKeon

27

22

5

 

(R-CA)

 

 

 

Energy and Commerce

John D. Dingell (D-MI)

Joe Barton (R-TX)

31

26

6

Financial Services

Barney Frank (D-MA)

Spencer Bachus (R-AL)

37

33

5

Foreign Affairs

Howard L. Berman (D-CA)

Ileana Ros-Lehtinen (R-FL)

27

23

7

Homeland Security

Bennie G. Thompson (D-MS)

Peter T. King (R-NY)

19

15

6

House Administration

Robert A. Brady (D-PA)

Vernon J. Ehlers (R-MI)

6

3

2

Judiciary

John Conyers, Jr. (D-MI)

Lamar S. Smith (R-TX)

23

17

5

Natural Resources

Nick J. Rahall II (D-WV)

Don Young (R-AK)

27

22

5

Oversight and

Henry A. Waxman (D-CA)

Tom Davis (R-VA)

23

18

5

Government Reform

 

 

 

 

 

Rules

Louise McIntosh

David Dreier (R-CA)

9

4

2

 

Slaughter (D-NY)

 

 

 

 

Science and Technology

Bart Gordon (D-TN)

Ralph M. Hall (R-TX)

24

20

5

Small Business

Nydia M. Velazquez (D-NY)

Steve Chabot (R-OH)

18

15

5

Standards of Official

Stephanie Tubbs Jones

Doc Hastings (R-WA)

5

5

none

Conduct

(D-OH)

 

 

 

 

Transportation and

James L. Oberstar (D-MN)

John L. Mica (R-FL)

41

34

6

Infrasructure

 

 

 

 

 

Veterans’ Affairs

Bob Filner (D-CA)

Steve Buyer (R-IN)

16

13

4

Ways and Means

Charles B. Rangel (D-NY)

Jim McCrery (R-LA)

24

17

6

Permanent Select Com-

Silvestre Reyes (D-TX)

Peter Hoekstra (R-MI)

12

9

4

mittee on Intelligence

 

 

 

 

 

Select Committee on

Edward J. Markey (D-MA)

F. James Sensenbrenner, Jr.

9

6

none

Energy Independence

 

(R-WI)

 

 

 

and Global Warming

 

 

 

 

 

Did you know ?

Henri Matisse’s painting Le Bateau (The Boat) was accidentally hung upside down in New York’s Museum of Modern Art for 47 days in 1961. During that time 116,000 visitors saw it, but it wasn’t until stockbroker Genevieve Habert called the New York Times about the mistake that the director of exhibitions was notified and the work was rehung properly.

Electoral Votes by State

state

representatives service began

Virginia

5. Virgil H. Goode, Jr. (R)

Jan 1997

(cont.)

6. Bob Goodlatte (R)

Jan 1993

 

7. Eric Cantor (R)

Jan 2001

 

8. James P. Moran (D)

Jan 1991

 

9. Rick Boucher (D)

Jan 1983

 

10. Frank R. Wolf (R)

Jan 1981

 

11. Tom Davis (R)

Jan 1995

Washington

1. Jay Inslee (D)34

Jan 1993

 

2. Rick Larsen (d)

Jan 2001

 

3. Brian Baird (D)

Jan 1999

 

4. Doc Hastings (r)

Jan 1995

 

5. Cathy McMorris

Jan 2005

 

Rodgers (R)

 

 

6. Norman D. Dicks (D)

Jan 1977

 

7. Jim McDermott (D)

Jan 1989

 

8. David G. Reichert(R)

Jan 2005

 

9. Adam Smith (D)

Jan 1997

West Virginia

1. Alan B. Mollohan (D)

Jan 1983

 

2. Shelley Moore Capito

Jan 2001

 

(R)

 

 

3. Nick J. Rahall II (D)

Jan 1977

Wisconsin

1. Paul Ryan (R)

Jan 1999

(-1)

2. Tammy Baldwin (D)

Jan 1999

 

3. Ron Kind (D)

Jan 1997

 

4. Gwen Moore (D)

Jan 2005

 

5. F. James Sensen-

Jan 1979

 

brenner, Jr. (R)

 

 

6. Thomas E. Petri (R)

Apr 1979

 

7. David R. Obey (D)

Apr 1969

 

8. Steve Kagen (D)

Jan 2007

Wyoming

Barbara Cubin (R)

Jan 1995

state

representatives service began

Texas

12. Kay Granger (R)

Jan 1997

(cont.)

13. Mac Thornberry (R)

Jan 1995

 

14. Ron Paul (R)

Jan 1997

 

15. Ruben Hinojosa (D)

Jan 1997

 

16. Silvestre Reyes (D)

Jan 1997

 

17. Chet Edwards (D)

Jan 2005

 

18. Sheila Jackson-Lee (D)

Jan 1995

 

19. Randy Neugebauer

Jun 2003

 

(R)29

 

 

20. Charles A. Gonzalez

Jan 1999

 

(D)

 

\

21. Lamar S. Smith (R)

Jan 1987

 

22. Nick Lampson (D)30

Jan 1997

 

23. Ciro D. Rodriguez (D)31

Apr 1997

 

24. Kenny Marchant (D)

Jan 2005

 

25. Lloyd Doggett (D)

Jan 2005

 

26. Michael C. Burgess (R)

Jan 2003

 

27. Solomon P. Ortiz (D)

Jan 1983

 

28. Henry Cuellar (D)

Jan 2005

 

29. Gene Green (D)

Jan 1993

 

30. Eddie Bernice

Jan 1993

 

Johnson (D)

 

 

31. John R. Carter (R)

Jan 2003

 

32. Pete Sessions (R)

Jan 1997

Utah

1. Rob Bishop (R)

Jan 2003

 

2. Jim Matheson (D)

Jan 2001

 

3. Chris Cannon (R)

Jan 1997

Vermont

Peter Welch (D)

Jan 2007

Virginia

1. Robert J. Wittman (R)32

Dec 2007

 

2. Thelma D. Drake (R)

Jan 2005

 

3. Robert C. Scott (D)

Jan 1993

 

4. J. Randy Forbes (R)33

Jun 2001

Each state receives one electoral vote for each of its representatives and one for each of its two senators, ensuring at least three votes for each state, as the Constitution guarantees at least one representative regardless of population. Allocations are based on the 2000 census and are applicable for subsequent elections.

Total: 538; Majority needed to elect president and vice president: 270

state number of votes

state

Alabama

9

Kentucky

Alaska

3

Louisiana

Arizona

10

Maine

Arkansas

6

Maryland

California

55

Massachusetts

Colorado

9

Michigan

Connecticut

7

Minnesota

Delaware

3

Mississippi

District of Columbia

3

Missouri

Florida

27

Montana

Georgia

15

Nebraska

Hawaii

4

Nevada

Idaho

4

New Hampshire

Illinois

21

New Jersey

Indiana

11

New Mexico

Iowa

7

New York

Kansas

6

North Carolina

number of votes

state

number of votes

8

North Dakota

3

9

Ohio

20

4

Oklahoma

7

10

Oregon

7

12

Pennsylvania

21

17

Rhode Island

4

10

South Carolina

8

6

South Dakota

3

11

Tennessee

11

3

Texas

34

5

Utah

5

5

Vermont

3

4

Virginia

13

15

Washington

11

5

West Virginia

5

31

Wisconsin

10

15

Wyoming

3

Congressional Apportionment

The US Constitution requires a decennial census to determine the apportionment of representatives for each state in the House of Representatives. There was no reapportionment based on 1920 census figures.

 

 

 

 

 

representatives

 

 

 

 

STATE

1790

1800

1810

1820

1830

1840

1850

1860

1870

1880

1890

Alabama

NA

NA

11

3

5

7

7

6

8

8

9

Alaska

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

Arizona

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

Arkansas

NA

NA

NA

NA

11

1

2

3

4

5

6

California

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

21

2

3

4

6

7

Colorado

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

11

1

2

Connecticut

7

7

7

6

6

4

4

4

4

4

4

Delaware

1

1

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Florida

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

11

1

1

2

2

2

Georgia

2

4

6

7

9

8

8

7

9

10

11

Hawaii

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

Idaho

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

11

1

Illinois

NA

NA

11

1

3

7

9

14

19

20

22

Indiana

NA

NA

11

3

7

10

11

11

13

13

13

Iowa

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

21

2

6

9

11

11

Kansas

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

1

3

7

8

Kentucky

2

6

10

12

13

10

10

9

10

11

11

Louisiana

NA

NA

11

3

3

4

4

5

6

6

6

Maine

NA

NA

NA

7

8

7

6

5

5

4

4

Maryland

8

9

9

9

8

6

6

5

6

6

6

Massachusetts

14

17

20

13

12

10

11

10

11

12

13

Michigan

NA

NA

NA

NA

11

3

4

6

9

11

12

Minnesota

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

21

2

3

5

7

Mississippi

NA

NA

11

1

2

4

5

5

6

7

7

Missouri

NA

NA

NA

1

2

5

7

9

13

14

15

Montana

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

11

1

Nebraska

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

11

1

3

6

Nevada

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

11

1

1

1

New Hampshire

4

5

6

6

5

4

3

3

3

2

2

New Jersey

5

6

6

6

6

5

5

5

7

7

8

New Mexico

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

New York

10

17

27

34

40

34

33

31

33

34

34

North Carolina

10

12

13

13

13

9

8

7

8

9

9

North Dakota

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

11

1

Ohio

NA

11

6

14

19

21

21

19

20

21

21

Oklahoma

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

Oregon

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

11

1

1

1

2

Pennsylvania

13

18

23

26

28

24

25

24

27

28

30

Rhode Island

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

South Carolina

6

8

9

9

9

7

6

4

5

7

7

South Dakota

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

21

2

Tennessee

11

3

6

9

13

11

10

8

10

10

10

Texas

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

21

2

4

6

11

13

Utah

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

11

Vermont

2

4

6

5

5

4

3

3

3

2

2

Virginia

19

22

23

22

21

15

13

11

9

10

10

Washington

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

11

2

West Virginia

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

3

4

4

Wisconsin

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

21

3

6

8

9

10

Wyoming

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

11

1

Total

106

142

186

213

242

232

237

243

293

332

357

 

 

 

 

 

representatives

 

 

 

 

STATE

1900

1910

1930

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

Alabama

9

10

9

9

9

8

7

7

7

7

Alaska

NA

NA

NA

NA

11

1

1

1

1

1

Arizona

NA

12

1

2

2

3

4

5

6

8

Arkansas

7

7

7

7

6

4

4

4

4

4

California

8

11

20

23

30

38

43

45

52

53

Colorado

3

4

4

4

4

4

5

6

6

7

Connecticut

5

5

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

5

Delaware

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Florida

3

4

5

6

8

12

15

19

23

25

Georgia

11

12

10

10

10

10

10

10

11

13

Hawaii

NA

NA

NA

NA

11

2

2

2

2

2

Idaho

1

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

Illinois

25

27

27

26

25

24

24

22

20

19

Indiana

13

13

12

11

11

11

11

10

10

9

Iowa

11

11

9

8

8

7

6

6

5

5

Kansas

8

8

7

6

6

5

5

5

4

4

Kentucky

11

11

9

9

8

7

7

7

6

6

Louisiana

7

8

8

8

8

8

8

8

7

7

Maine

4

4

3

3

3

2

2

2

2

2

Maryland

6

6

6

6

7

8

8

8

8

8

Massachusetts

14

16

15

14

14

12

12

11

10

10

Michigan

12

13

17

17

18

19

19

18

16

15

Minnesota

9

10

9

9

9

8

8

8

8

8

Mississippi

8

8

7

7

6

5

5

5

5

4

Missouri

16

16

13

13

11

10

10

9

9

9

Montana

1

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

1

1

Nebraska

6

6

5

4

4

3

3

3

3

3

Nevada

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

2

3

New Hampshire

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

New Jersey

10

12

14

14

14

15

15

14

13

13

New Mexico

NA

12

1

2

2

2

2

3

3

3

New York

37

43

45

45

43

41

39

34

31

29

North Carolina

10

10

11

12

12

11

11

11

12

13

North Dakota

2

3

2

2

2

2

1

1

1

1

Ohio

21

22

24

23

23

24

23

21

19

18

Oklahoma

51

8

9

8

6

6

6

6

6

5

Oregon

2

3

3

4

4

4

4

5

5

5

Pennsylvania

32

36

34

33

30

27

25

23

21

19

Rhode Island

2

3

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

South Carolina

7

7

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

South Dakota

2

3

2

2

2

2

2

1

1

1

Tennessee

10

10

9

10

9

9

8

9

9

9

Texas

16

18

21

21

22

23

24

27

30

32

Utah

1

2

2

2

2

2

2

3

3

3

Vermont

2

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Virginia

10

10

9

9

10

10

10

10

11

11

Washington

3

5

6

6

7

7

7

8

9

9

West Virginia

5

6

6

6

6

5

4

4

3

3

Wisconsin

11

11

10

10

10

10

9

9

9

8

Wyoming

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Total

391

435

435

435

437

435

435

435

435

435

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