DESTROYERS (Military Weapons)

ArleighBurke (DDG 51)

These complex destroyers (28 authorized by the end of FY1994) were designed from the outset to be smaller and less expensive (by 25%) than the Ticonderoga (DDG/CG 47) design. Even so, they represent a significant investment and show an unmatched flexibility in their seakeep-ing and weapons layout. The design’s one weakness is the lack of helicopter capability in the original design, which is being remedied in later ships.
The Burke’s design is unlike previous US destroyer construction, especially in its broad waterplane hull, which is beamier than any other US destroyer design, its phased-array radar, and its Vertical Launching System (VLS). In addition, these are the first US destroyers in 50 years constructed of steel, which provides increased blast, fire, and fragment resistance as well as protection from Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP). The Burke has 130 tons of Kevlar armor plating to protect vital spaces, and for the first time in a US warship design, a Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical (NBC) Collective Protective System (CPS) is fitted from the outset. Each angled bridge face bears a fixed antenna for the Martin Marietta (formerly General Electric/RCA) AN/
SPY-ID Aegis radar. The after corners of the forward superstructure also have SPY-ID antennas. Beginning with TheSul-livans (DDG 68), a Track Initiation Processor (TIP) permits better tracking, especially of slow-moving targets, and reduced clutter. A 29-cell VLS is fitted in the deck forward of the bridge, a 61-cell VLS is well aft.
A helicopter landing deck and limited support capability are provided, but no hangar. Instead of providing a full Light Airborne Multipurpose System (LAMPS III/SH-60B) helicopter capability to these ships, as Congress at one point directed, funding limitations inspired a modest $10-million package that was added to the DDG 52 and later ships while under construction.
Flight II (beginning with DDG 72 Bernard L, Austin), is fitted with the Joint. Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS) command-and-control processor, Tactical Information Exchange System (TADIX), Tactical Data Information Link (TADIL J), Combat Direction Finding, the Aegis Extended-Range Standard SAM, and AN/SLQ-32(V)3 ESM.

Flight IIA (formerly Flight III) ships

(beginning with DDG 79) will have full helicopter facilities including a hangar for two LAMPS III helicopters, blast-hardened transverse bulkheads, and the Kingfisher mine-detection module for the SQS-53C sonar. The Phalanx system will be beached in favor of Evolved Sea Sparrow SAMs fired from VLS cells. To compensate, the Harpoon missiles and SQR-19 towed-array sonar will be removed and less expensive commercial color displays fitted.


Studies for a smaller Aegis ship began in 1979. Planned numbers in the class have ranged from 29 to 63 ships, with at least the minimum certain to be built.
Bath Iron Works of Bath, Maine, is the lead yard, being awarded the contract for the Arleigh Burke in April 1985. The Burke was commissioned on July 4, 1991 and began her first operational deployment in February 1993. Litton’s Ingalls yard in Pascagoula, Mississippi, received its first contract (for the Barry) in May 1987; the Barry commissioned in December 1992. In the shrinking defense budgets of the 1990s, the Burkes were likely to be the only surface combatants funded for several years.


DISPLACEMENT 8,315 tons full load DIMENSIONS
length 504 ft 6 in (153.8m)
overall beam 59 ft (18.0m)
draft 30 ft 7 in (9.3 m)
MACHINERY 4 General Electric LM 2500
gas turbines, 100,000 shp on 2 shafts with controllable-pitch propel-lers=30 + kts, range 4,400 nrn at 20 kts CREW 340
90-cell VLS for Standard-MR/
Tomahawk/Vertical Launch ASROC 8 McDonnell Douglas Harpoon SSM (2 quad canisters Mk 141)
1 5-in (127-mm)/54-cal Mk 45 dual-purpose
2 20-mm Mk 15 Phalanx Catling-type
6 12.75-in (324-mm) Mk 32 torpedo
tubes in triple mounts
HELICOPTERS flight deck aft through DDG 78, hangar for 2 SH-60B LAMPS III in DDG 79 and later
4 SPY-ID multifunction radar antenna SPS-67(V) surface-search radar SPS-64 navigation radar
3 Mk 99 illuminators with SPG-62 radar SQS-53C bow-mounted active sonar SQR-19 TACTAS towed-array sonar SLQ-32(V)2 active/passive EW system SLQr25 Nixie towed torpedo decoy
4 Mk 36 SRBOC 6-barrel chaff/flare

Kidd (DDG 993)

Also known colloquially as the Ayatollah class, these fourguided-rnissile destroyers were part of a six-ship order by the Imperial Iranian Navy in the 1970s; they were purchased for the US Navy after the fall of the shah ofIran. Until the commissioning of the Arleigh Burke (DDG 51) in July 1991, these were the most capable destroyers in US service, having excellent Aiitiair Warfare (AAW) and Antisubmarine Warfare (ASW) capabilities. The Kidds are based on the Spruance
(DD 963)-class ASW destroyers, which were designed from the beginning to have a SAM-capable variant (DXG). These ships have a considerably higher displacement than do the Spruances and have more aluminum-alloy and Kevlar armor.
The superstructure is composed of large, unstealthy blocks dominated by heavy lattice fore- and mainmasts and two gas turbine stacks arranged in echelon (the forward stack to port, after stack to starboard). Abaft the after stack are the side-by-side helicopter hangars and landing platform.
The machinery is quiet and has proved to be very reliable, with a Mean Time

Between Overhauls (MTBO) for the LM

2500 of 9,000 hours. These ships are reported to be very quiet during ASW operations, a condition achieved in part through use of the Prairie-Masker bubbler system. Iranian government requirements that these ships be provided with increased air-conditioning capacity and dust separators for their engine air intakes have been welcome by their US Navy operators.
These ships were completed with the Light Airborne Multipurpose System
(LAMPS) I, which uses the SH-2F Sea-
sprite helicopter. Two larger SH-60B LAMPS III helicopters could also be embarked.
All ships have received the New Threat Upgrade (NTU), the foremast being fit-
ted with an additional platform over the SPQ-9A radome for the SPS-49(V)2 two-dimensional search antenna. In addition, command-and-control as well as missile control systems were modernized. The Kidd was fitted with the Naval Mast-Mounted Sight (NMMS) electro-optical surveillance system that has TV, Forward-Looking Infrared (FLIR), and laser designator in a traversable ball.


Six of this design were ordered by the shah’s navy in 197374. Delays in contract signing and rising cost had cut the buy to four, which had barely begun production when the shah’s empire fell. After a congression-ally mandated purchase in July 1979, Lit-ton’s Ingalls yard in Pascagoula, Mississippi, built all four ships, commissioning them between July 1981 and
March 1982.


The Scott was part of the Dwight D. Eisenhowers (CVN 69) carrier battle group that sailed in the Red Sea from August 8 to 24 as part of the initial US response to Iraq’s invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
The Kidd arrived in the Operation Desert Storm theater on February 1, 1991, as part of a regular rotation of ships for the permanently based Middle East Force; she remained until mid-June.


DISPLACEMENT 9,574 tons full load
length 563 ft 8 in (171.8m)
beam 55 ft 1 in (16.8 m)
draft (including sonar dome) 33 ft (10.1m)
MACHINERY 4 General Electric LM 2500 gas turbines, 80,000 shp on 2 shafts with controllable-pitch propellers = 30+ kts, range 6,000 nm at 20 kts, 3,300 nm at 30 kts, electric power 6,000 kW
CREW 339
2 twin Mk 26 Mod 3/4 launchers for Standard SM-2 MR SAM (52 missiles)
8 Harpoon SSM (2 quad canisters Mk 141)
2 5-in (127-mm)/54-cal Mk 45 dual-
purpose guns in single mounts 2 Mk 15 Mod 2 Phalanx Gatling-type CIWS
6 12.75-in (324-mm) torpedo tubes in 2 triple mounts
ASROC ASW missile fired from forward Mk 26 launcher (16 missiles)
SPS-48E 3D air-search radar
SPS-49(V)2 2D air-search radar
SPS-64(4) surface-search radar SPS-55 surface-search radar 2 Mk 74 missile fire control systems with SPG-55D illuminating radars 1 Mk 86 Mod 5 gunfire control system
with SPG-60 and SPQ-9A radars
SQS-53A bow-mounted active sonar NMMS electro-optical surveillance system
SLQ;25 Nixie towed torpedo decoy SLQ-32(V)2 radar intercept and jammer EW system
4 Mk 36 SRBOC 6-barrel chaff/flare

Spruance (DD 963)

These 31 large destroyers were originally built as specialized Antisubmarine Warfare (ASW) ships with only point-defense missiles for the Antiair Warfare (AAW) role. Although their AAW capability remains limited, the Spruance § surface warfare punch was greatly enhanced by adding Harpoon antiship and Tomahawk land-attack missiles. Their great assets are their considerable size, quietness, and modular weapons layout.
As a class, they are the most numerous Western destroyer class completed since World War II. Moreover, the basic hull and powerplant have been used in four Kidd-c\a$s AAW destroyers and the 27 shipsoftheTiconderoga-classAegismissile cruiser class. (Hayler, the 31st ship, was originally authorized as a helicopter-capable destroyer with enlarged hangar and flight deck, but completed to the Spruance design.)
The ship’s profile has large superstructure blocks dominated by heavy lattice fore- and mainmasts and two stacks arranged in echelon (the forward stack to port, after stack to starboard). Farther aft are side-by-side helicopter hangars and landing platform. Although bulky, the Spruance*$interiorvolumeisconsiderable and her bunkerage gives her a good range at cruising speed.
The four General Electric LM 2500 gas turbines are connected in pairs to shafts that drive controllable-pitch propellers. The quiet machinery has proved to be very reliable, showing a Mean Time Between Overhauls (MTBO) for the LM 2500 of 9,000 hours. Use of the Prairie-
Masker bubbler system decreases the ship’s already low acoustic signature.
Armament includes Harpoon antiship missiles, two 5-in guns, an ASROC “pepperbox” ASW launcher, and Sea Sparrow
SAM launcher. The ASROC launcher is
automatically reloaded from a vertical magazine providing 16 reloads. A total of 24 Sea Sparrow missiles are normally carried.
Seven ships carry two Tomahawk Armored Box Launchers (ABL); these will be replaced by the 61-cell Mk 41 Vertical Launch System (VLS) that is being fitted in the other 24 ships. Merrill was the first Spruance fitted with the ABL in October 1982; Spruance completed the first VLS installation in June 1987. Refitting the other ships (including those with ABLs) will take until the turn of the century.
These ships were completed with the Light Airborne Multipurpose System (LAMPS) I but have been upgraded to
LAMPS III level, which uses the SH-60B


All Spruances are being fitted with the SQQ-89 integrated ASW system, which includes several other systems such as the SQR-19 Tactical Towed-Array Sonar (TACTAS).
Several Spruancts, including Elliott, David R. Ray, O’Brien, and Leftwich, have Hughes Aircraft Naval Mast-Mounted Sight (NMMS) electro-optical surveillance system that has TV, Forward-Looking Infrared (FLIR), and laser designator in a traversable ball.


All 31 ships were built at Litton’s Ingalls yard at Pascagoula, Mississippi. Under the Total Package Procurement policy adopted in the late 1960s, Litton was awarded all 30 ships at once (although funding was spaced out over several years). Far from achieving the hoped-for economies of scale, the program hit rapid cost growth and serious delays. Nevertheless, average construction time was a creditable three years, with the first ship completing in September 1975 and the Fletcher (DD 992) in July 1980. The Hayler, procured separately, was commissioned in March 1983.


Throughout the 1980s, Spruance-class destroyers supported US naval action in Lebanon, Grenada, the Persian Gulfin 1987-88, and in Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm. In most of these deployments, the Spruances, used their 5-in guns against shore targets or oil platforms.
A total of 11 Spruances supported Desert Shield, and five of them launched Tomahawks against Iraqi targets in January 1991; Fife launched 60 (59 successes), Foster sent up 40 (38 successes). Almost exactly two years later, Caron (which had launched two TLAMs in January 1991) and Stump launched Tomahawks against an Iraqi nuclear research facility, followed in June 1993 by the Peterson’s 14-missile contribution to the attack on the headquarters of Iraqi military intelligence.


DISPLACEMENT 8,040 tons full load DIMENSIONS
length 563 ft 4 in (171.8m)
overall beam 55ft (16.8m)
draft 29 ft (8.8 m)
MACHINERY 4 General Electric LM
2500 gas turbines, 80,000 shp on 2
shafts with controllable-pitch pro-pellers=32.5 kts, range 6,000+ nm at
20 kts, 3,300 nm at 30 kts, electric
power 6,000 kW CREW 334 WEAPONS
8 Tomahawk TASM/TLAM (2 quad
ABL Mk 143) in DD 974, 976, 979, 983, 984, 989, 990 61-cell Mk 41 Mod 0 VLS for
Tomahawk/VLA being fitted in other 24 ships 8 Harpoon SSM in 2 quad canisters
1 8-cell NATO Sea Sparrow launcher Mk29
2 5-in (127-mm)/54-cal Mk 45 dual-
purpose in single mounts
2 20-mm Mk 15 Mod 2 or Mod 12 Phalanx Gatling-type CIWS
1 8-cell ASROC launcher Mk 16 (being removed from ships receiving
VLS) (24 missiles)
6 12.75-in (324-mm) Mk 32 torpedo tubes in triple mounts
SPS-40B/C/D 2D air-search radar except SPS-49 in DD 997
SPS-55 surface-search radar
Mk 86 gunfire control system with
SPG-60 and SPQ-9A radars
Mk 91 missile fire control system for
Sea Sparrow Mk 23 antiship missile Target Acquis-
tion System (TAS) SPS-53 or LN-66 navigation radar
SQS-53 series bow-mounted sonar
SQQ-89(V) ASW combat system
NMMS electro-optical surveillance system
SLQ-25 Nixie torpedo decoy
SLQ-32(V)3 active/passive EW system
4 Mk 36 SRBOC 6-barrel chaff/flare
launchers WLR-1 in DD 971, 975


Knox (FF 1052)

These 46 large antisubmarine frigates constituted the most numerous class of surface combatants built in the West since World War II until the advent of the Oliver Hazard Perry (FFG 7) class. When the Knoxes entered service, they were criticized for their relatively low speed, single screw, and light armament. Over their operational lifetime, however, most received new weapons systems and were not notably unreliable.
The superstructure is topped by a distinctive cylindrical “mack” that combines mast and stacks. The hull design proved wet forward, so the Navy fitted bulwarks and bow strakes in the 1970s. The helicopter deck aft, originally intended for Drone Antisubmarine Helicopters (DASH), was strengthened to operate the manned SH-2 Light Airborne Multipurpose System (LAMPS) I.
Evidence of the class’s ASW orientation lies in the emphasis on ASW sensors and weapons and the fitting of such systems as the Prairie-Masker bubbling system that reduces self-generated noise. The ASROC eight-cell box launcher can launch ASROC ASW rockets or Harpoon antiship missiles; a 16-round reload magazine replenishes the system.


The first 26 ships
were ordered in August 1964 from four yards: lead yard Todd Shipyard in Seattle, Washington (six ships), Todd in San Pedro, California (eight ships), Lock-
heed in Seattle (five ships), and Avondale in Westwego, Louisiana (seven ships). This traditional pattern of dividing an order among several yards (a tradition within US naval shipbuilding) was broken with the August 1966 follow-on bulk order of the last 20 ships from Avondale.
All yards suffered delays, strikes, materials shortages, and price inflation, leading to a marked cost and schedule overrun. The first delivery came in April
1969, the last in November 1974.


10 Xnewclass frigates were deployed to the Persian Gulf in 1990-91′s Operations Desert Shield/Desert Storm as escorts to carrier battle groups or ships assigned to the gulf-based Middle East Force (MEF). They were:
Reasoner (Independence Battle Group/ BG)
Stein (Eisenhower BG) Marvin Shields (MEF) Francis Hammond (Ranger BG)
Vredand (Theodore Roosevelt BG)
Paul (Eisenhower BG)
Elmer Montgomery (John F. Kennedy BG)
Brewton (Independence BG)
Barbey (MEF)

Thomas C. Harl (Saratoga BG)

The class’s high-pressure boilers and steam turbines doomed them to early retirement from a navy that was increasingly powered by gas turbines. Knox-das$ frigates have been leased to the Royal Hellenic (Connote, Vreeland, and Trippe), Taiwanese (Robert E. Peary, Brewton, and Kirk), and Turkish (Capodanno, Fanning, Reasoner, Thomas C. Hart) navies. All ofthe other ships were due to be decommissioned by FY1995. Eight ships, redesig-nated FFT, were to remain active with cadre crews, but they too were moth-balled under the FY1994 budget.


DISPLACEMENT 4,250 tons full load
length 438 ft (133.6 m) overall (439 ft 8 in/134.0 m withbulwarks) beam 46 ft 9 in (14.3m)
draft 24 ft 9 in (7.5m)
MACHINERY 2 Combustion Engineering boilers, 1 Westinghouse steam turbine, 35,000 shp on 1 shaft=27+ kts, range 4,500 nm at 20 kts
Harpoon antiship missiles fired from
ASROC launcher
1 5-in (127-mm)/5Acal Mk 42 dual-
purpose gun 1 20-mm Mk 15 Phalanx Gatling-type
4 fixed 12.75-in (324-mm) Mk 32 torpedo tubes
1 8-tube ASROC launcher Mk 116
HELICOPTER 1 SH-2F Seasprite
SPS-40B air-search radar SPS-58 threat-warning radar in some ships
SPS-67 surface-search radar
1 Mk 68 gunfire control system with
SPG-53A/D/F radar Mk 23 Target Acquisition System
(TAS) in Downes SQS-26CX bow-mounted active sonar SQS-35 variable-depth sonar or
SQR-18A(V)1 TACTAS towed-array
SLQ-32 (V) 1 or SLQ-32 (V) 2 EW system
2 Mk 36 SRBOC 6-barreI chaff/flare launchers

Oliver Hazard Perry (FFG 7)

The 51 ships in this class constitute the most numerous class of major surface warships built in the West since World War II; only the Soviet Skoryy destroyer class was larger. First designed as austere sea control ships with a single screw, relatively low-powered sonar, and little protection in the early 1970s, the Perrys acquired a Surface-to-Air Missile (SAM) launcher at congressional insistence. The Perrys proved versatile and suprisingly hardy ships, their modular construction making repairs from severe combat damage a practical proposition.
Although considered a single class, these ships were built in “flights,” which allowed for upgrades to the design during the run of the program. Many of the updates raised the design’s ASW and long-range surveillance capabilities. Some of the updates were refitted to ships of a given flight during their Post-Shakedown Availability (PSA) periods; ships of the next flight had these upgrades included during construction.
After the lead ship, Flight 1 was the basic production configuration and covered FFG 8 through FFG 18. The first two Flights were equipped with SH-2F Sea-sprite helicopters as part of the Light Airborne Multipurpose System (LAMPS) I.
Flight 2 (FFG 19 to FFG 35) saw the introduction of the SLQ:32(V)2 EW system, the 20-mm Gatling-type Phalanx Close-in Weapons System (CIWS), and the SRBOC chaff/flare launchers.
Flight 3 (FFG 36 to FFG 49) represented a considerable augmentation when the LAMPS III suite with two SH-60B Seahawk helicopters were embarked after a PSA retrofit. Fin stabilizers were fitted after completion, and the Recovery Assist Secure and Traversing (RAST) helicopter handling system was installed on a lengthened flight deck that resulted in a raked stern. Link 11 tactical data transfer system was also fitted during construction.
Flight 4 (FFG 50 to FFG 61) was
equipped with LAMPS III, RAST, and fin
stabilizers during construction (except
FFG 52, which received LAMPS III and RAST during her PSA). AN/SQR-19
TACTAS towed-array sonar was fitted during PSAs for FFG 55-FFG 58; FFG 59-FFG
61 received TACTAS during construction. Only the FFG 61 (Ingraham) received
the Mk 92 Mod 6 CORT (Coherent
Receiver/Transmitter) fire control system that offers improved capabilities in bad weather and improved reliability. 11 other ships (Taylor, Gary, Underwood, Reu-benJames, Vandegrift, Nicholas, Hawes, Ford, Elrod, Kauffman, and Carr) will have received similar upgrades by 1995. In addition, 10 more ships will get a more
modest “CANDO” (Commercially Off-
the-Shelf Affordable Near-Term Deficiency-Correcting Ordalts) upgrades.


Perry was built as a prototype by Bath Iron Works, being commissioned in December 1977. The 50 that followed were built by three yards:
Bath (23 ships), Todd’s San Pedro, California, yard (18 ships), and Todd’s Seattle yard (nine ships). The last ship commissioned in August 1989.
Todd Seattle constructed four more ships of the same design for the Royal Australian Navy (RAN) as the Adelaide class. Two more Australian, six Spanish, and at least eight Taiwanese Navy Perry-design ships have been built in those respective countries.
Most of the Flight I and II Perrys have been shifted to the Naval Reserve Force (NRF).


Two ships-Stark (FFG 31) and Samuel P. Roberts (FFG 58)-were severely damaged by hostile action in the Persian Gulf. Starkwas hit by
Exocet antiship missiles in May 1987; Roberts triggered a mine in April 1988. Both were nearly lost, but both rejoined the fleet after repairs. (The Roberts repair involved modular hull replacement for the first time.)
13 US, three Australian, and two Spanish Perry-class ships were deployed to the Persian Gulf region at some time during Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm in 1990-91. They conducted maritime sanction patrols and operated light US Army helicopters as well as their Sea-hawks. Most often cited in dispatches was the Nicholas, which raided Iraqi oil platforms on January 18, taking 23 Iraqis prisoners; she later escorted first the Missouri (BB 63), then the Wisconsin (BB 64), to their bombardment missions off Kuwait.


DISPLACEMENT 3,658 tons full load (FFG 7, FFG 9-FFG 35); 3,900-4,100
tons full load (FFG 8, FFG 36, and
length 445 ft (135.6 m) overall except 453 ft (138.2m) overall for ships with
modification beam 45ft (13.7m)
draft 24 ft 6 in (7.5 m)
MACHINERY 2 General Electric LM
2500 gas turbines, 40,000 shp on 1
shaft with controllable-pitch pro-peller=28+ kts sustained, 4,500 nm at 20 kts (2 electrically driven APU; 650 hp for restricted area maneuvering), electric power 3,000 kW CREW 206 in active ships, 114 active + 76 reservists in NRF ships
1 Mk 13 Mod 4 single launcher for Standard SM-1 MR SAM and RGM-84 Harpoon antiship missiles (40 with typical missile loadout of 36 SM-1 MR and 4 Harpoon)
1 76-mm/62-cal AA Mk 75 gun
1 20-mm Mk 15 Phalanx Gatling-type
6 12.75-in (324-mm) Mk 32 torpedo tubes in triple mounts for Mk 46 torpedoes (14 torpedoes) HELICOPTER 1 or 2 SH-2F LAMPS I ASW in NRF ships, 2 SH-60B LAMPS III Seahawk ASW in active ships
SPS-49(V)2 2D air-search radar (-49(V)5inFFG61)
SPS-55 surface-search radar Mk 92 Mod 4 weapons fire control system (Mod6inFFG61)
STIR targeting radar SQR-18A towed array in NRF ships SQR-19 towed array in active ships SQS-56 keel-mounted sonar Naval Mast-Mounted Sight (NMMS) electro-optical system in 19 ships SLQ-32 (V) 2 EW system 2 Mk 36 chaff/flare launchers

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