Materials,Parts and Finishes


The oxide of aluminum is Al2O3. The natural crystalline mineral is called corundum, but the synthetic crystals used for abrasives are designated usually as aluminum oxide or marketed under trade names. For other uses and as a powder it is generally called alumina. It is widely distributed in nature in combination with silica and other […]


True metals include the alkali and alkaline earth metals, beryllium, magnesium, copper, silver, gold, and the transition elements. These metals exhibit those characteristics generally associated with the metallic state. The B subgroups comprise the remaining metallic elements. These elements exhibit complex structures and significant departures from typically metallic properties. Aluminum, although considered under the B […]


Called aluminium in England, aluminum is a white metal with a bluish tinge (symbol Al, atomic weight 26.97), obtained chiefly from bauxite. It is the most widely distributed of the elements next to O2 and silicon, occurring in all common clays. Aluminum metal is produced by first extracting alumina (aluminum oxide) from the bauxite by […]

Aluminum alloys

Alloying aluminum with various elements markedly improves mechanical properties, strength primarily, at only a slight sacrifice in density, thus increasing specific strength, or strength-to-weight ratio. Traditionally, wrought alloys have been produced by thermo mechanically processing cast ingot into mill products such as billet, bar, plate, sheet, extrusions, and wire. For some alloys, however, such mill […]


An amalgam is a combination of a metal with mercury (Hg). The amalgams have the characteristic that when slightly heated they are soft and easily workable, and they become very hard when set. They are used for filling where it is not possible to employ high temperatures. Dental amalgams are prepared by mixing mercury with […]


An amine is a member of a group of organic compounds that can be considered as derived from ammonia by replacement of one or more hydrogens by organic radicals. Generally, amines are bases of widely varying strengths, but a few that are acidic are known. Amines constitute one of the most important classes of organic […]


Melamine and urea are the principal commercial thermosetting polymers called Aminos. The amino resins are formed by an addition reaction of formaldehyde and compounds containing NH2 amino groups. They are supplied as liquid or dry resins and filled molding compounds. Applying heat in the presence of a catalyst converts the materials into strong, hard products. […]

Amorphous metals

Also known as metallic glasses, amorphous metals are produced by rapid quenching of molten metal-metalloid alloys, resulting in a non-crystalline grain-free structure in the form of ribbon or narrow strips. They are extremely strong and hard yet reasonably ductile and quite corrosion resistant. Perhaps of greatest interest is the magnetic performance of several complex iron-base […]

Anodic coatings

Anodic oxidation or anodizing is the common commercial term used to designate the electrolytic treatment of metals in which stable oxide films or coatings are formed on surfaces. Aluminum and magnesium are anodized to the greatest extent on a commercial basis. Some other metals such as zinc, beryllium, titanium, zirconium and thorium can also be […]


Antimony is a bluish-white metal, symbol Sb, with a crystalline scale like structure that exhibits poor electrical and heat conductivity. It is brittle and easily reduced to powder. It is neither malleable nor ductile and is used only in alloys or in its chemical compounds. Like arsenic and bismuth, it is sometimes referred to as […]