Global Warming

4.5 billion years ago The Earth, newly formed, had the hottest climate in the planet’s long history. Temperatures were hot enough to liquefy rock. Radioactive elements in Earth’s core generated heat and pressure as they decayed, pushing molten rock toward Earth’s surface. Volcanoes also brought molten rock to the surface, liberating heat. Volcanoes spewed carbon […]

Abrupt Climate Changes (Global Warming)

Throughout recorded history, and in studies of geological and other records from much earlier periods of the Earth’s history, there have been a number of abrupt climate changes. These significant and widespread shifts in climate heavily impacted many parts of the world. Current studies of these changes draw from details revealed from ice core samples, […]

Adaptation (Global Warming)

Adaptation in social, cultural, and economic contexts is also an important component of thinking about societal response to climate change. As such, adaptation is defined in many ways. It can be defined as a process that enables people to minimize the adverse effects of climate on their health and well-being. It also refers to the […]

Aerosols (Global Warming)

Aerosols are solid or liquid particles that are small enough to remain suspended in the atmosphere for hours to days. They are created by both natural and human-caused processes, and are either directly emitted from sources or are formed in the atmosphere from the condensation of gases. Aerosols can perturb climate either directly, by the […]

Afforestation (Global Warming)

Afforestation involves taking action to plant trees in an area that has never been a forest area or to restore a deforested area. The trees may be planted from seeds or from seedlings. Legally, afforestation includes the setting aside of forest land, or land to be reforested by law. Many national forests have been created […]

Afghanistan (Global Warming)

Located in central Asia, with no maritime borders, Afghanistan covers a land area of 251,772 sq. mi. (647,500 sq. km.) and has a population of 31,889,923. It has a population density of 119 people per sq. mi. (46 per sq. km.). About 12 percent of the country is arable land, with 46 percent of the […]

Agriculture (Global Warming)

Farmers produce much of the human food supply; raw inputs such as cotton, leather, and wool for textiles; and an array of fibers, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals that serve myriad manufacturing processes. Agriculture is a complex system of human activity that is intertwined in the economic, environmental, and social processes on the Earth. The importance of […]

Agulhas Current (Global Warming)

The agulhas current is the major western boundary current of the Southern Hemisphere. It completes the anti-cyclonic gyre of the South Indian Ocean, and because the African continent terminates at a relatively modest latitude, it becomes a mechanism for the climatologically important inter-ocean exchange between the Indian and Atlantic Oceans. The south-westward flowing Agulhas Current […]

Air Force, U.S. (Global Warming)

The u.s. air Force began as the Aeronautical Division of the U.S. Army Signal Corps. This division was established on August 1, 1907, to manage air machines, military ballooning, and other military matters of the air. Since then, the Air Force has become an institution independent of the U.S. Army, and with its vast increase […]

Alabama (Global Warming)

Alabama is 52,237 sq. mi. (135,293 sq. km.) wide, with inland water making up 962 sq. mi. (2,491 sq. km.), and coastal water 519 sq. mi. (1,344 sq. km.) Alabama’s average elevation is 500 ft. (152 m.) above sea level, with a range in elevation from sea level on the Gulf of Mexico to 2,405 […]