Image Processing Reference
In-Depth Information
This generic concept is usually divided into two categories, i.e. knowledge, in ref-
erence to classes of objects, and data, which corresponds to cases, facts, or particular
According to the distinction suggested in [DUB 01], information can be comprised
of data, facts, and then involves a particular, well-determined situation ( there is a forest
in that place ). It can relate to existence (or some other property) of an indeterminate
situation ( there are some areas covered by forests ). Comprised of statistical data, pro-
totypes or typical examples, it involves a set of particular situations. Finally, it consists
of classes of situations and take the form of constraints, generic rules, with or without
exceptions, and general knowledge.
The information handled in fusion is most often imperfect. These imperfections
are in fact one of the reasons for fusion. These imperfections manifest themselves
in multiple forms: ambiguity, bias, noise, incompleteness, imprecision, uncertainty,
inconsistency and conflict, etc. We also have to mention the varying and evolving
nature of information that relates to the dynamic world (see Chapters 4 and 11).
We have already mentioned in detail these imperfections in Chapter 1 and then
specified them in Chapters 2 for the information handled in signal processing, 3 in
images and 4 in robotics. To sum up, they are caused by:
- the observed phenomena;
- the limits of the sensors;
- the reconstruction and processing algorithms;
- noise;
- the lack of reliability (often a result of the previous limits);
- the representation mode;
- the knowledge and concepts involved.
What matters in fusion processes is to include these imperfections in the represen-
tations and in the reasoning modes.
The questions related to fusion are similar to those related to information process-
ing in general [DUB 01]. Thus, the objective is to:
- represent the information (in order to express it in a useful form);
- store, retrieve and make the information explicit;
- use the information to decide and act;
- communicate the information.
The difficulty in solving these problems is of course greater because of these
imperfections. There are three ways of reacting to this:
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