Tuya (fl. 13th century b.c.e.) To Westcar Papyrus

Royal woman of the Nineteenth Dynasty

She was the consort of seti i (r. 1306-1290 b.c.e.) and the mother of ramesses ii (1290-1224 b.c.e.). A commoner, Tuya was the daughter of a military commander of chariots, raia, and his wife, also named Raia. She married seti i before he came to the throne and bore a son who died young. Tuya was also the mother of Princesses tia (1) and henutmire. She outlived Seti I and was honored by Ramesses ii. statues of Tuya were uncovered at abu simbel, per-ramesses, and at the ramesseum. She died in the 22nd or 23rd regnal year of Ramesses ii.
Her tomb in the valley of the queens in thebes was a great sepulcher with a stairway to subterranean levels. A vestibule, annexes, and a burial chamber compose the structure of the tomb. The sarcophagus in the burial chamber was fashioned out of pink granite.

Twin Souls

They were two deities who were believed to have met in the tuat, or the Underworld. The Twin Souls are re and osiris in their supernatural forms, merging to replenish their life forces. The Twin souls of Re and osiris joined every night while Re was journeying through the Tuat. After a battle with the evil serpent apophis (1), Re was considered renewed by his association with osiris.
Two Companions of the Sacred Heart Divine beings associated with the cosmological traditions and with the cult of the god re, the companions resided on the original primeval mound, the point of creation, and they accompanied Re in that instant. They were depicted with reverence on the walls of the temple at edfu in Upper Egypt. Their names were wa and aa.

Two Dog Palette

It is a Predynastic carving presented to the temple of horus at hierakonpolis, c. 3000 b.c.e. The palette is now in the Ashmolean Museum of oxford.

Two Fingers

This was a cultic symbol depicting the index and medius fingers and used as an amulet for both living and dead. The fingers represent the divine digits of the god horus when he ascended to the heavens on a ladder. Horus aided osiris in the ascent of the ladder by offering him his fingers as support.

Two Ladies

It was the name given to two goddesses of Egypt: nekhebet and wadjet, or buto. Shown as a vulture and a cobra, the goddesses were the patronesses of upper and Lower Egypt.

Twosret (Sitremeritamun) (d. c. 1196 b.c.e.)

Queen-pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty

She ruled from 1198 b.c.e. until her death. The widow of seti ii, having been a secondary wife, and the mother of seti-Merenptah, Twosret served as the regent for the heir, siptah. He disappeared after five or six years, and she ruled in her own right, assisted by her counselor, bay, who was a foreigner who had usurped power. Her reign did not last long, because she had no popular support, and the later Ramessids struck her name from the royal rolls.
Twosret built a handsome tomb in the valley of the kings, but sethnakhte, the founder of the Twentieth Dynasty, usurped it. several reliefs remain, as well as seals of her reign and a sandstone stela. The mummy of Twos-ret was apparently destroyed by sethnakhte when he took her tomb for his own burial. There are no portraits of Twosret. She may have been a daughter of merenptah. She was actually involved in resource sites in the sinai and in Palestine, and she built at heliopolis and at thebes. A small cache of jewels was discovered in her tomb.


Animal it is the name given to the creature called the set Animal in Egypt. The animal was depicted as a recumbent canine with the ears of a donkey and an elongated tail. The Typhonean neck was long and decorated with golden rings. A pectoral found at dashur displayed this creature.


This was the ancient Egyptian name for an amulet made of green stone. The stone itself was called uatcht or wadj. such amulets were believed to be particular repositories of magic and were designed according to the various cults of the land.

Uat-Ur (Wadj-Wer)

This was the Egyptian name for the Mediterranean Sea, translating as the “Great Green.” The Mediterranean was depicted in reliefs and paintings as a man with breasts for nurturing. The skin of the uat-ur figures in such displays was covered in a wave design, representing the vast sea. uat-ur was often portrayed with the nile River, hapi (1). The Mediterranean sea was part of the Egyptian transportation system in early eras. Naval forces were designed for use in the transportation of troops or for the trade expeditions that set out on the Mediterranean from various Delta sites.


This was the Egyptian name of the spiritual bodies deemed responsible for each new dawn on the Nile. They brought the brightness of day, welcoming the rising sun as special agents of light. The dog-faced baboon, the Hedjwereu, “the Great One,” was depicted as greeting the sun in reliefs and paintings. Temples, particularly those dedicated to the god thoth, kept baboons to welcome the dawn and these spiritual beings each day.

Udjaharresnet (fl. sixth century b.c.e.)

Official in the Persian Twenty-seventh Dynasty

Udjaharresnet served cambyses (r. 525-522 b.c.e.) and darius i (r. 521-486 b.c.e.) as chancellor and chief physician. He erected a stela commemorating the arrival of cambyses, the persian conqueror who founded the alien dynasty. udjaharresnet had served Egypt in his youth as a commander of ships and as a physician. During the reign of Darius I, he was directed to refurbish and restore the per-ankh, the research and educational institution of Egypt. This official was buried in a shaft at abusir.

Udjashu (fl. fourth century b.c.e.)

Royal woman of the Thirtieth Dynasty

She was the consort of nectanebo i (r. 380-362 b.c.e.) and probably the mother of teos, the heir.


This was the ancient name for the high priest of ptah in Memphis. The title roughly translated as “the Great Chief of Artificers (of magic).”

Uer-Ma’a (Mer-ma’a)

This was the high priest at heliopolis. This priest was “the Great Seer,” the prophet of the cultic celebrations of re.

Ukh-hotep (fl. 20th century b.c.e.)

Priestly official of the Twelfth Dynasty

Ukh-hotep served senwosret i (r. 1971-1926 b.c.e.) as the hereditary ruler of assiut and as the superintendent of the prophets in the Assiut temples. He was associated with the cult of hathor. The son of another Ukh-hotep and Lady Mersi, Ukh-hotep was buried at meir, near mallawi. His tomb was large and contained elaborate reliefs, as well as a registry of his family, a false door, and a statue niche. A third ukh-hotep also served senwosret i.

Umm el-Ga’ab

It was the necropolis of the city of abydos, called “the Mother of Pots” by modern local residents. This was one of Egypt’s earliest cemeteries, used by the rulers of the First Dynasty (2920-2770 b.c.e.). Second Dynasty (2770-2649 b.c.e.) monuments, associated with peribsen and kha’sekhemwy, were also found on the site, called “Peger” in some records. Some Predynastic graves are also at Umm el-Ga’ab.
The superstructures of the royal tombs have been destroyed over the centuries, exposing the remains of brick-lined burial pits. The rulers deposited stelae and clay sealings in these chambers as well as ivory figurines and mortuary furniture. The tomb of djer, the second ruler of the First Dynasty, was declared the resting place of the deity osiris. As a result, the tomb received many honors and votive offerings, particularly during the New Kingdom Period (1550-1070 b.c.e.). A tomb dating to the Twenty-first Dynasty (1070-945 b.c.e.) was erected for Psusennes, the son of the high priest of amun, menkheperresenb (2), at Umm el-Ga’ab. The tomb has a chapel, burial shaft, and mortuary stela. The site is famous for the sounds made by the finely grained sands of the region. This sand makes aeolian melodies when blown over the ruins and the dunes by the wind. The Egyptians believed the sounds originated in the tombs.

Unis (Weni, Wenis) (d. 2323 b.c.e.)

Ninth ruler of the Fifth Dynasty

Reigning 2356-2323 b.c.e., Unis was possibly a son of izezi (Djedkare), inheriting the throne when the original heir, Remkuy, died. The TURIN canon lists Unis, whose reign was prosperous.
He married Queen nebet and khenut. Unis did not have an heir, but his daughter, iput (1), married teti, who founded the sixth Dynasty. unis conducted trade with byblos, in Phoenicia (modern Lebanon), and nubia (modern Sudan), and he sent an expedition to Nubia that was recorded on the Elephantine island. This expedition returned to Egypt with a giraffe, a rare sight in Egypt at the time. He also fought a battle with the bedouins in the sinai Peninsula.
Queen Nebet, the mother of Prince Unis-ankh, and Queen Khenut were buried in Unis’s mortuary complex in sAQQARA. This pyramidal structure is in the northern part of the saqqara necropolis and was restored centuries later by kha’emweset (1), a son of ramesses ii (r. 1290-1224 b.c.e.). The pyramid had a rubble core and was designed with a long causeway that led to the valley TEMPLE,a mortuary temple, and two boat pits. The pyramid texts serve as reliefs in this tomb and offer vigorous images, including the cannibal hymn. The site has burial shafts and a multichambered chapel. Prince Unis-ankh and Princess Iput were buried there.


He was the hare deity of Egypt called “the springer-up.” The hare was considered a form of the god re and was worshiped at hermopolis. His consort was wenut, a goddess of thebes. Some of the gods and goddesses of the nation were associated with nature and with animal, theophanies, used as symbols of special virtues or strength.


The insignia of the rulers of ancient Egypt, worn on crowns and headdresses to denote rank, the uraeus was composed of symbols of the cobra and the vulture, sometimes the cobra alone. The reptile represented wadjet, the protectoress of Lower Egypt and the vulture was nekhebet, the vulture goddess who served Upper Egypt. Wadjet was always shown with its hood extended, threatening the enemies of Egypt as the serpent threatened the foes of the god re. The cobra was sometimes depicted in the cults of the deities horus and osiris.


It was the instrument traditionally used in mortuary rituals by the attending priest during the ceremony of the opening of the Mouth, the ceremony restoring the human senses of the deceased in the eternal realms, and in other cultic rites. This instrument ensured that the deceased would have control of his or her vital senses beyond the grave. amulets and other funerary pieces included spells that safeguarded the integrity of the human form while undergoing the transformations of death.

Ur-hiya (fl. 13th century b.c.e.)

Military official of the Nineteenth Dynasty

He served seti i (r. 1306-1290 b.c.e.) as a military commander. ur-hiya was apparently a canaanite or Hurrian who had risen through the ranks of the army, probably coming to Seti I’s attention before he took the throne. The presence of aliens in Egypt’s military forces was unique to the New Kingdom Period (1550-1070 b.c.e.), although mercenary units were used in some campaigns in the earliest dynasties. Each foreigner on the Nile was given the opportunity to serve his adopted land by performing military or state duties to prove his worth. such aliens were not treated as mercenaries but considered as citizens of the Nile.


Iit was a site near the second cataract of the Nile in nubia (modern Sudan), where senwosret iii (1878-1841 b.c.e.) erected a fortress to control traffic on the river. uronarti fortress, large, fortified, and garrisoned, was built on an island south of the strategic stronghold of semna. Triangular in design, Uronarti also served amenhotep i (r. 1525-1504 b.c.e.) during the New Kingdom period conquest of Nubia.

Userhet (1) (fl. 15th century b.c.e.)

Official of the Eighteenth Dynasty

He served amenhotep ii (r. 1427-1401 b.c.e.) as a royal scribe. Userhet also carried the rank of a “Child of the Nursery,” belonging to the “kap.” The Kap was a term used to indicate that userhet was raised and educated with the royal children in the palace. userhet’s tomb at khokha on the western shore of the Nile at Thebes has scenes of everyday life. A stela and a statue of Userhet were found in the tomb.

Userhet (2) (fl. 14th century b.c.e.)

Official of the Eighteenth Dynasty

Userhet served amenhotep iii (r. 1391-1353 b.c.e.) as a royal scribe and as a tutor for akhenaten, the heir to the throne. He was buried on the western shore of Thebes, in a small cruciform tomb that carried descriptions of his honors and years of dedicated service to the throne.

Userhet (3) (fl. 13th century b.c.e.)

Temple official of the Nineteenth Dynasty

Userhet served as a high priest of the cult of tuthmosis i during the reign of ramesses ii (1290-1224 b.c.e.). The cult of Tuthmosis I remained popular following his death in 1492 b.c.e. Userhet was one of the many priests who maintained the mortuary rituals and schedules of offerings in the resting place of this great military pharaoh.
The tomb of Userhet at khokha, on the western shore of Thebes, contains scenes of the endless tributes paid daily to the memory of Tuthmosis I. Other scenes depict userhet and his family in their own mortuary ceremonies and in eternal paradises in the tuat, or Underworld.


This was the name of the Egyptian bark presented to karnak by ‘ahmose (r. 1550-1525 b.c.e.) to celebrate Egypt’s expulsion of the hyksos and their allies, and the unification of the Two Kingdoms. The bark was called “Mighty of Brow Is amun.” Such barks of the gods of Egypt were sometimes large enough to be used as true vessels on water. others were designed to be carried in street processions as miniature representations. The bark presented to Karnak by ‘Ahmose started the custom among the pharaohs of commemorating events or favors with such demonstrations of piety and fervor.

Userkare (fl. 24th century b.c.e.)

Obscure ruler of the Sixth Dynasty

He was the successor to teti (r. 2323-2291 b.c.e.). userkare’s name was translated as “the ka of Re is powerful.” He was listed in the turin canon and at abydos. possibly a usurper, he ruled only three years. it is conceivable that he was a nominal ruler, overseeing Queen Iput’s regency for the true heir, pepi i. He started a tomb in an area south of assiut, and this construction is documented. His name was also discovered at qaw el-kebir.

Userkhaf (d. 2458 b.c.e.)

Founder of the Fifth Dynasty He reigned from 2465 b.c.e. until his death. Userkhaf was probably the son of Princess neferhetepes (1), the daughter of ra’djedef (r. 2528-2520 b.c.e.) and possibly het-epheres (2). The westcar papyrus foretold his coming, associating him with the legends of Princess khentakawes. His father may have been Sa’khebu, a priest of re. He reigned a comparatively short time but he was a vigorous monarch, stressing the traditions of ma’at. His throne name, Iry-ma’at, meant “He who puts ma’at into practice.” Userkhaf is listed in the turin canon and at abydos.
Userkhaf enlarged a temple of montu at Tod, south of Thebes. He also started trade with the city-state in the Aegean. He married Khentakawes, a daughter of men-kaure, and she was reportedly the mother of sahure, userkhaf’s heir.
His mortuary temple was erected in the northeast corner of the step pyramid in saqqara and was called “pure are the places of userkhaf.” Built of limestone and faced with Tureh stone, the tomb pyramid had a mortuary temple on the southern side. Temple reliefs depict birds, and a pink granite head of userkhaf was uncovered in the courtyard. The site was surrounded by a wall and had a paved causeway and a portico with red granite columns. A queen’s pyramid and a subsidiary pyramid were erected on the western side of the mortuary temple.
Userkhaf also built a solar temple at abu ghurob, made of mud brick and faced with limestone. A wall encloses this monument, and an obelisk with a benben was fashioned on a podium as part of the design. The shrine contained a sun altar and a causeway to the valley temple. Another head of Userkhaf, made of schist, was discovered here. In the southern section, a bark of re was fashioned out of bricks.

Ushanahuru (fl. seventh century b.c.e.)

Prince of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty

He was the son of taharqa (r. 690-664 b.c.e.) and Queen amun-dyek’het and was at Memphis with the queen when the Assyrians, led by essarhaddon, entered the capital. Taharqa fled south to nubia, abandoning his queen and heir. Both Amun-dyek’het and ushanahuru were taken to nineveh and made slaves. They were never seen again in Egypt.


Festival It was a unique celebration held annually on the western shore of thebes, and also called “the Beautiful Feast of the Valley.” The celebration had its origin in the Middle Kingdom Period (2040-1640 b.c.e.) rituals, probably beginning as a festival honoring the goddess hathor. It was normally held in the second month of shomu, the time of harvest on the Nile, corresponding to the modern month of May or june.
The sacred barks of amun, mut, and khons (1), the Theban triad, were taken across the Nile to the necropolis area during the celebration, docking at deir el-bahri. The living Egyptians visited the tombs of their dead, and priests blessed the gravesites. Processions, music, flowers, and incense marked the spirit of the festival. Families spent the night beside the tombs of their ancestors, serenaded while they held picnics and entertained by wandering bands of temple musicians and chanters.

Valley of the Gilded Mummies

This is a Greco-Roman (304 b.c.e.-336 c.e.) necropolis at baharia oasis, containing 100 identified burial sites. several thousand mummies appear to have been buried on the site. The remains being recovered in the graves of the valley have elaborately gilded cartonnage masks and most were buried in groups. some were covered in gold entirely, while other mummies had painted scenes and designs on their plain cartonnage. still others were buried in ceramic anthropoid coffins.
Tombs containing the remains have entrance chambers and separate burial compartments. The entrance chambers were also used as sites for mortuary rituals. Some burial rooms have niches and shafts. These tombs are located near the Temple of Alexander iii the great (r. 332-323 b.c.e.) at Baharia. The necropolis was in use until the fourth century c.e.

Valley of the Kings

It is called Biban el-Muluk in Arabic, the most intriguing burial site in the world, dating to the New Kingdom Period (1550-1070 b.c.e.) of Egypt. The Valley of the Kings is located on the western shore of thebes. The area is a dried river valley that is dominated by a high peak, naturally shaped as a pyramid, and contains the tombs of the most celebrated pharaohs of Egypt.
The Eighteenth Dynasty (1550-1307 b.c.e.), founded after ‘ahmose (r. 1550-1525 b.c.e.) ousted the hyksos, or Asiatics, from the Delta, began to fashion elaborate mortuary complexes on the western shore of Thebes. ‘Ahmose’s heir, amenhotep i (r. 1525-1504 b.c.e.), seeing the extent of robberies and vandalism of royal resting places, separated his burial site from his mortuary temple in order to protect his remains. His successor, tuthmosis i (r. 1504-1492 b.c.e.), following Amenhotep I’s example, was the first ruler to have his royal tomb carved out of the expanse of the Valley of the Kings.
This sacred necropolis was remote and easily guarded as a ravine. it is located at the base of a peak called sheikh abd’ el-qurna, sacred to the goddess meresger (1) and in earlier historical periods associated with the cult of the goddess hathor. The site is composed of two main branches, to the east and to the west. The majority of the tombs are in the eastern valley, called Ta-set-a’at, “the Great Place,” or Wadi Biban el-Muluk. The eastern valley also contains ravines and minor branches that served as natural sites for the royal tombs. The western valley leads to a natural amphitheater surrounded by towering walls, with bays and ravines. Both valleys are separated from Thebes and the Nile by the Theban massif, a dominating mountain range of the region.
The general plan of the royal tombs in the Valley of the Kings developed rather early in that era. Most contained a central passage leading to a series of sloping corridors, halls, shafts, and burial chambers. some were dug straight into the rock, while others angled, probably because of natural barriers. The angle of descent was often quite steep.
In the Nineteenth Dynasty (1307-1196 b.c.e.), the tombs were not as inclined and straighter in design. passages were blocked or sealed, and wooden doors were installed. False burial chambers protected the deeper passages that led to the actual resting places of the pharaohs. By the Twentieth Dynasty (1196-1070 b.c.e.), the tombs were smaller and simpler because of the short reigns of the rulers and the lack of resources.
The decoration of these tombs was normally religious in nature, and sections of the sites were named after the various stages of Re’s journey through the tuat, or underworld. pillars, reliefs, paintings, and statuary graced each chamber and corridor. Magazines or storage rooms were included as well in the designs.
one of the most spectacular tombs is that of tut’ankhamun (r. 1333-1323 b.c.e.), discovered in 1922. Another site that drew world attention is the tomb erected by ramesses ii (r. 1290-1224 b.c.e.) for his royal sons. Named KV5, this massive site has been undergoing recent excavations and contains more than 100 chambers thus far. A hall containing 16 pillars, descending stairways, offering chapels, magnificent reliefs, and passages link the tomb with the actual burial site of Ramesses ii.
The tombs in the Valley of the Kings were built and decorated by artisans living in deir el-medina, a village erected to offer adequate housing and facilities for these trained craftsmen. With the fall of the New Kingdom in 1070 b.c.e., the Valley of the Kings was abandoned as a burial site for the royals.

Valley of the Queens

This was the royal necropolis of the New Kingdom Period (1550-1070 b.c.e.), located southwest of medinet habu on the western shore of the Nile at thebes. The site was called Ta-set-neferu, “the place of the Royal children,” in the ancient periods and is now called Biban el-Harim, “the Doors of the Women,” or Biban el-Melikat, “the Doors of the Daughters,” in Arabic. The queens, princes, and princesses of the New Kingdom were buried here. The necropolis is believed to contain 70 tombs. Located in an arid wadi, the site was developed first on the southern hill and then on the northwest side.
The most famous tomb of the Valley of the Queens was built for Queen nefertari- Merymut, the Great Wife of ramesses ii (r. 1290-1224 b.c.e.). This site has columned chambers, stairs, ramps, and an offering hall with shelves and a burial chamber with four pillars and three annexes. Elaborately decorated with polychrome reliefs, the tomb depicts Queen Nefertari-Merymut in the usual funerary scenes but also portrays her in everyday scenes of mortal life. The bennu (phoenix) and the aker lions are also displayed. “The Great Wives” of the New Kingdom all have tombs in this necropolis.
The tombs of the royal sons of the New Kingdom Period include the resting place of amenhirkhopshef (1), the son of ramesses iii (r. 1194-1163 b.c.e.). This tomb has a ramp, three chambers, and two annexes, all painted with scenes and cultic symbols. A vestibule was part of the design.
The tomb of kha’emweset (2), another prince of the dynasty and also a son of ramesses iii, is in the Valley of the Queens as well. This is designed with three chambers, two annexes, and a ramp. The walls are covered with painted reliefs.
Some officials of the Eighteenth Dynasty (1550-1307 b.c.e.) were given the honor of having small pit tombs in the Valley of the Queens. Other princesses and princes were also provided with similar pit tombs.

Valley temples

They were an element of royal mortuary complexes, designed to complement and mirror the pyramid mortuary vestibule. In use in the Old Kingdom Period (2575-2134 b.c.e.), the valley temples were erected on the banks of the Nile, not far from the pyramid sites that were located in the desert. The mortuary temple was normally erected beside the pyramid and was connected to the valley temple by a gigantic causeway, covered and elaborately decorated. Both temples had T-shaped entrance halls.
There is evidence that the valley temple had a specific mortuary function in some reigns. Actual embalming rituals were conducted on the deceased rulers in these temples. special chambers were part of the valley temple design, providing the arenas for the various stages of the preparation and the wrapping of the pharaoh’s human remains. The priests associated with this detailed process took up residence in the valley temple for the duration of the embalming process. When the valley temple was used for mortuary preparation, it was called per-nefer, “the Residence of Beauty,” or wabt, “the Place of purification.”


It was an office of the Egyptian royal government, originally given to hereditary princes and counts of the various nomes or provinces and then bestowed upon commoners who displayed integrity, administrative skills, and loyalty. These officers also governed territories outside of Egypt, such as the domain called Kush, the Egyptian nubia (modern Sudan). The viceroy of Kush was given an honorary title of “the King’s son of Kush,” denoting his rank and favor. ‘ahmose (r. 1550-1525 b.c.e.) established this position as Egypt put down rebellions south of aswan and reopened fortresses and trade centers on the Nile. In the reign of tuthmosis iii (1479-1425 b.c.e.), the viceroy of Kush governed from Mi’am, 140 miles south of the first cataract of the Nile. Many of the viceroys of Nubia had to maintain standing armies and had to possess certain military skills. They were used to halt rebellions or to delay invasions until the regular army units could get to the scene. The viceroy of Nubia served on the elephantine Island at Aswan in many eras. Certain governors of the Northlands were also appointed during the New Kingdom Period (1550-1070 b.c.e.) in order to maintain control of the Egyptian areas in Palestine, Phoenicia, modern Lebanon, and syria during the time of the empire. See also nomarchs; vizier.

Victory Stela

This monument was erected by piankhi (r. 750-712 b.c.e.), the Nubian warrior of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty. Now in the Egyptian Museum in cairo, this stela commemorates Piankhi’s conquest of Egypt and his victory over the native Egyptians who opposed him. These were petty rulers of the Twenty-third (828-712 b.c.e.) and Twenty-fourth (724-712 b.c.e.) Dynasties who had limited domains in sais, herakleopolis, hermopolis, tanis, and thebes. Piankhi’s Nubian armies swept northward, defeating the Egyptians. He celebrated the feast of opet at thebes as a result of his swift campaign. The stela commemorates his victories and contains a reproach concerning the ruler nimlot (4) of the Twenty-third Dynasty at Hermopolis. Nimlot is scolded for mistreating his horses.

Vidaranag (fl. fifth century b.c.e.)

Persian military commander of the Elephantine Island

Vidaranag commanded the Persian troops at aswan in the reign of darius ii (423-405 b.c.e.). The satrap, or provincial governor, of Egypt, arsamis, was away from Egypt when the priests of the god khnum complained to Vidaranag and bribed him to destroy the local Jewish temple. Vidaranag was punished for his misuse of his office.

Vindab Papyrus 3873

This is a document in the Vienna Kunsthistoriche Museum, dating to the second century b.c.e., the Late Period, and Ptolemaic Period of Egyptian history. The papyrus is inscribed in the hieratic and demotic styles and contains a description of a burial of a sacred apis bull in saqqara.


This was the highest nonroyal office in ancient Egypt, called a djat or tjat, served as the prime minister of the nation in all periods. In the Old Kingdom Period of Egypt the viziers were normally kinsmen of the ruler, members of the royal clan, and thus trusted with the affairs of the court. An exception to this tradition, however, was the best-known vizier of the old Kingdom, a commoner named imhotep, who was revered as a high priest and as a physician. He built the step pyramid for djoser (r. 2630-2611 b.c.e.) of the Third Dynasty. Gradually the office was divided, with one vizier serving as the director of affairs for Lower Egypt and the other governing the territories of upper Egypt. The vizier of upper Egypt ruled from the elephantine to assiut, and the other governed all the lands above Assiut.
Viziers heard all domestic territorial disputes, maintained a cattle and herd census, controlled the reservoirs and the food supply, supervised industries and conservation programs, and were required to repair all dikes. The biannual census of the population came under their purview, as did the records of rainfall and the varying levels of the Nile during its inundation. All government documents used in ancient Egypt had to have the seal of the vizier in order to be considered authentic and binding. Tax records, storehouse receipts, crop assessments, and other necessary agricultural statistics were kept in the offices of these viziers.
Members of the royal family normally served as assistants to the viziers in every era. The office was considered an excellent training ground for the young princes of each royal line, although many queens and princesses also received extensive training and undertook a period of service with the vizier and his staff. Queen-Pharaoh hatshepsut (r. 1473-1458 b.c.e.) and tiye (1), the consort of amenhotep iii (r. 1391-1353 b.c.e.), are New Kingdom Period examples of royal women involved in the day-to-day administration of the nation.
If the capital was in the south, at thebes, the vizier of upper Egypt lived there and served also as mayor of the city. Normally, the vizier was assisted in his duties by the mayor of the western shore, because the vast necropolis sites and the artisans’ villages there demanded supervision. The viziers of Upper and Lower Egypt saw the ruler on a daily basis or communicated with him frequently. Both served as the chief justices of the Egyptian courts and listened to appeals or decisions from the nome justices. Other state officials, such as the treasurer, chancellor, keeper of the seal, etc., served under the viziers in a tight-knit and efficient bureaucracy. ‘ahmose (r. 1550-1525 b.c.e.) of the Eighteenth Dynasty established the viceroyalty of Nubia in order to maintain order in the rapidly expanding territories below the cataracts. This viceroy was called “the King’s Son of Kush.”
The most famous vizier of the New Kingdom was rekhmire, who served tuthmosis iii (r. 1479-1425 b.c.e.). The able official was buried at Thebes, and on his tomb walls he gave an account of Tuthmosis Ill’s instructions concerning the duties and obligations of a righteous vizier. The commands or instructions are remarkable for their detailed description of the workings of all levels of government. They include a description of the vizier’s palace office, the type of reports deemed necessary to maintain communications with other government bureaus, and 30 separate activities that were part of his position. Again and again stress is placed on service to the oppressed or the weak, a theme that dates back to the sages of the Old Kingdom Period and the eloquent peasant of the Tenth Dynasty. Normally the viziers of Egypt were remarkable men, astute, well-trained, and dedicated to the service of rich and poor alike, in an ideal expression of the spirit of ma’at, the ethical and moral principal guiding the nation. The role of vizier was maintained to some degree in the later historical periods of Egypt.

Votaresses of Karnak

They were a religious group composed of high-ranking Egyptian women in the reign of ‘ahmose (1550-1525 b.c.e.). ‘Ahmose’s queen, ‘ahmose-nefertari, held the rank of “god’s wife of amun” and gathered women to perform temple services. “The harem” of Amun and “the Divine Adoratrices of Amun” were started as a result. The Votaresses of Karnak appear to have served separately for a time, then were absorbed into other religious offices.


The Egyptian variety of this bird was associated with nekhebet, the patroness of Upper Egypt. Named nerau by the Egyptians, the vulture was called “pharaoh’s chicken” (Neophron percnopterus). The bird usually grows to more than two feet long and is white with black flight feathers. it has a slender beak, a bare face, and a cascading mane of feather. The Egyptian vulture ranges in northern and eastern Africa, as well as southern Europe, and in the Middle East, even to Afghanistan and india. other vulture species were present in Egypt, but only this species was associated with Nekhebet.


He was one of the two companions of the divine heart, associated with the cosmogonic traditions of Egypt and with the cult of the god Re. aa was the other companion.


This was the site of embalming, located either in the valley temples of the pyramids in the royal mortuary complexes or in the institutions provided for this essential aspect of the funerary preparations. Also called wabet, the “house of purification,” or per-nefer, “the residence of beauty,” the sites were governed by the rituals of purification and preparation for the actual chemical processes of embalming.


An Arabic term for a gully or dried riverbed, used in the modern designation of sites, the major wadi locations in ancient Egypt include
Wadi Abbad a site east of Edfu in Upper Egypt, where gold mining operations were conducted in the New Kingdom Period (1550-1070 b.c.e.). seti i (r. 1306-1290 b.c.e.) erected residential compounds and wells for workers there, as well as a temple. The gold mine in the site was given to the temple of Abydos in a special decree.
Wadi Abul Suffian a Nagada Predynastic cultural site at hierakonpolis. Black tipped and polished red ware was discovered there, as well as feline pottery masks, straw-tempered vessels, and a cylinder vessel. The skeletal remains of four humans and a cow were buried on the site.
Wadi Alaki a site near quban at the second cataract of the Nile in nubia (modern Sudan), favored for its gold resources. Wadi Alaki underwent repairs and restoration in the reign of ramesses ii (1290-1224 b.c.e.), and other pharaohs of the Nineteenth Dynasty also restored the area. Ramesses ii dug a well on the site to aid the workers. He also reopened shafts of previous mines to further enhance the output.
Wadi es-Sebua a site south of aswan in nubia, which was excavated and moved to save it from rising waters caused by the Aswan High Dam. ramesses ii (r. 1290-1224 b.c.e.) erected a temple there honoring re and his own deified person. An avenue of sphinxes was part of the temple design, as well as rock-cut interiors, courts, vestibules, a sanctuary, engaged statues, and two colossi of Ramesses ii.
Wadi Garawi a site south of holwan, in the southern suburb of modern cairo. The remains of a dam used in quarrying processes for the area’s stone resources were uncovered there. A stonecutter’s settlement ruins were also removed from the site.
Wadi Gasus a site on the coast of the Red sea near koptos, called the area of sewew by the Egyptians. An Eighteenth Dynasty (1550-1307 b.c.e.) stela was found at Wadi Gasus, as well as a text from the Middle Kingdom Period (2040-1640 b.c.e.). This site was used in all historical periods as a starting point for expeditions to punt. The Egyptians lost some officials in the region, victims of hostile attacks, but the wadi and other important sites in the area were kept guarded by Egyptian military units in the New Kingdom period (1550-1070 b.c.e.).
Wadi Halfa a site south of abu simbel, near the second cataract of the Nile in nubia (modern Sudan), considered a strategic defensive position in many eras.
Inscriptions in the area commemorate the Nubian campaigns of senwosret i (r. 1971-1926 b.c.e.). A temple was erected there originally by tuthmosis iii (r. 1479-1425 b.c.e.) and contains later data concerning the reign of siptah (1204-1198 b.c.e.) on its pillars. Another inscription, on a Nineteenth Dynasty (1307-1196 b.c.e.) stela, commemorated the temple, which was dedicated to the god horus.
Wadi Hammamat an important roadway, beginning in koptos, where the Nile swerved closest to the Red Sea, and then stretching to the Red sea operations of Egyptian trade groups. An important quarry was also located near the beginning of the wadi. inscriptions excavated in the region date to the Eleventh Dynasty (2134-1991 b.c.e.) and relate that 3,000 men entered the Wadi Hammamat to transport a sarcophagus lid. Way stations were erected on this roadway and patrols were rotated for safe travel. Greywacke granite was quarried at Wadi Hammamat and Bir Fawakhir and a temple dedicated to min was also found nearby.
Wadi Hawi a site southeast of aswan, noted for the mining of amethyst during the Middle Kingdom Period (2040-1640 b.c.e.). senwosret i (r. 1971-1926 b.c.e.) also mined there.
Wadi Kubbaniya a site near aswan that contained prehistoric artifacts. These objects date to the Late Paleolithic Period 21,000-12,000 b.c.e. Hunter-gatherers assembled where, close to the water source caused by the annual inundation of the Nile.
Wadi Labbab a site near modern Cairo where a petrified forest has stood for centuries.
Wadi Maghara a site in the western sinai Peninsula, near modern Abu zuneima, popular for the mines and natural resources exploited early in Egypt’s history Inscriptions from the Fourth (2575-2465 b.c.e.), Fifth (2465-2323 b.c.e.), and Sixth (2323-2150 b.c.e.) Dynasties were uncovered at Wadi Maghara. Inscriptions dating to the reign of amenemhet iii (1844-1797 b.c.e.) were also discovered on the site. copper, turquoise, and malachite mines were operated there.

Wadi Matuka (Murgassi)

a site on the western side of the Nile in nubia (modern Sudan), located on a rocky cliff high above the river. A defensive bastion was erected there by the Egyptians, and hatshepsut (r. 1473-1458 b.c.e.) also built a temple on the site.
Wadi Mi’ah a site near edfu in Upper Egypt, that leads to gold mines some 35 miles inland from the river, at barramiyeh, Wadi Mi’ah leads as well to Mersa Alam on the Red Sea. seti i (r. 1306-1290 b.c.e.) dug and repaired wells for miners there and erected a rock temple. gebel el-zebara, another gold mine region nearby, also benefited from Seti I’s patronage.
Wadi Nasb an area of the western sinai Peninsula noted for copper, turquoise, and malachite mines. snefru (r. 2575-2551 b.c.e.) left an inscription on the site. These mines were associated with the operations of Wadi Maghara.
Wadi Natrun an oasis on the western edge of the Delta, serving as a main source of natron, the popular substance associated with embalming in Egypt and used on a daily basis as a detergent. “the eloquent peasant,” khunianupu, of the First Intermediate Period (2134-2040 b.c.e.), began his travels and quest in this wadi.
Wadi Qash a site near koptos on the main trade route to the Red Sea. Inscriptions from Predynastic and Early (2920-2575 b.c.e.) Periods were discovered there.
Wadi Qena a road leading from Qena to the Red sea. Close by is a site of ruins called Umm Digal, “the Mother of columns.” Marble columns still stand in the area, dating to the Ptolemaic Period (304-30 b.c.e.) or the later Roman Period.
Wadi Qubannet el-Qirud a site in the libyan desert, near deir el-bahri, called the Valley of the Tombs of the Monkeys. The three Syrian lesser-ranked wives of tuthmosis iii (r. 1479-1425 b.c.e.) were buried there in identical tombs with sumptuous mortuary regalia.
Wadi Sidri a site in the sinai Peninsula near modern Abu Zuneima. The turquoise mines of the area were exploited by the Egyptians in several eras.
Wadi Timulat a fertile depression north of bubastis in the eastern Delta, used by the ancient Egyptians as a path to the Red Sea. The wadi led to the bitter lakes, which in turn opened onto the Red Sea. The route was called the sweet water canal by the Egyptians and was used by the Late Period (712-332 b.c.e.) rulers to open a canal.

Wadjet (Uadjet)

A cobra deity serving as the patron goddess of ancient Egypt, the protectress of the northern territories, Lower Egypt, called Buto in Greek texts, Wadjet was associated at times with the goddess hathor. nekhebet was her sister goddess, the patroness of Upper Egypt. Wadjet was also associated with the osirian cult and was believed to have helped the goddess isis keep watch over the infant deity horus on chemmis in the Delta. Wadjet arranged the reeds and foliage to hide the divine mother and son from all enemies so that Horus could mature to strike down his father’s assassin, set. Wadjet was depicted as a cobra or as a woman. As a woman holding the crown of Lower Egypt, with an entwined papyrus scepter and serpent, she was included in the coronation ceremonies of the rulers. The goddess offered the crown to each new ruler in the rituals, and her image was used in the royal symbol, the uraeus.


The symbol of “the eye of re” or “the eye of horus,” powerful amulets of strength and protection, the wadjet depicted the sun and moon, vital elements in Nile mythology. The wadjet was worn by the living and by the dead in the mummy wrappings of the deceased. The amulet was fashioned out of blue or green faience, sometimes with semiprecious stones in golden settings.

Wadjkare (fl. 22nd century b.c.e.)

Ruler of the brief Eighth Dynasty

He is an obscure ruler, as the only surviving documentation of his reign is a royal exemption decree issued by him. His name was translated as “prosperous is the soul of re.”

Wadjmose (fl. 15th century b.c.e.)

Prince of the Eighteenth Dynasty

He was the son of tuthmosis i (r. 1504-1492 b.c.e.), and Queen ‘ahmose. A brother of Queen-Pharaoh hatshep-sut, Wadjmose died before he could inherit the throne. Wadjmose was buried on the western shore of thebes, south of the ramesseum. His tomb contained a small chapel and three shrines.

Wall of the Prince

This was a series of fortresses erected by amenemhet i (r. 1991-1962 b.c.e.) to defend the eastern borders of Egypt. A corresponding series of fortresses was placed in strategic locations on the western border as well, and all of these military outposts were heavily garrisoned to stop the encroaching tribes attempting to enter the Delta. The pharaohs of the Twelfth Dynasty (1991-1783 b.c.e.) maintained these fortresses, and the New Kingdom period (1550-1070 b.c.e.) rulers restored them periodically. The Wall of the prince was mentioned by Neferti, or Nefer-rohu, in his prophetic writings honoring amenemhet i (r. 1991-1962 b.c.e.). There are indications that the original series of fortresses were built by montuhotep iii (r. 2010-1998 b.c.e.) and reconstructed by Amenemhet I and his successors.


This was the ancient Egyptian name for the watery abyss from which re rose from the moment of creation. Egyptians feared darkness and chaos as the destroyers of humanity and remembered the cosmological traditions concerning the act of creation. The primeval mound, the life-giving island in the center of waret, remained the symbol of existence in all historical periods.

Waters of Re

This was the branch of the Nile that began at heliopolis and flowed to the northeast to enrich the agricultural area of the Delta. During the Nineteenth Dynasty (1307-1196 b.c.e.), the same branch of the Nile was called the “Waters of Avaris,” as the Ramessids of that royal line erected their great capital on the site of the hyksos capital of avaris. That part of the river became “the Waters of horus” at el-Qantara and then emptied into the Mediterranean Sea near Sinu, the pelusium of the Ptolemaic Period (304-30 b.c.e.).

Waty (fl. 26th century b.c.e.)

Official of the Fourth Dynasty

Waty served khafre (r. 2520-2494 b.c.e.) as a court musician. The mummified remains of Waty were so beautifully embalmed and wrapped that his features were distinguishable beneath the linens. The embalming preserved Waty’s flesh so carefully that a callus is still evident on one foot. His sarcophagus was uncovered in a tomb in saqqara.


This was the area between aswan and the first cataract of the Nile, in Kush or nubia (modern Sudan). The region was continually under military assaults by the Egyptians, as the local inhabitants rebelled and became independent during eras of dynastic weakness. aniba was the capital of Wawat, called Mi’am in some periods. Aniba was well fortified by the Egyptians and contained storage areas for military wares and trade surpluses. The viceroy of Nubia resided in Wawat during some historical periods.The people of Wawat were paying tribute as early as the Sixth Dynasty (2323-2150 b.c.e.), perhaps even earlier.

Wayheset (fl. 10th century b.c.e.)

Official of the Twenty-second Dynasty

Wayheset served shoshenq i (r. 945-924 b.c.e.) as a military emissary. He was sent to the dakhla Oasis, where Egyptians were rebelling against Libyan domination of the land. The revolt was short-lived and confined to the area of the oasis. Wayheset thus freed Shoshenq I to begin his military campaigns in palestine without distractions.

Way of Horus

An ancient Egyptian road of strategic importance, linking the eastern modern border town of El-Qantas to Gaza in southern Palestine and beyond. The road was kept under guard by the Egyptians to protect the caravans that traveled it, and garrisons were built at various locations to repel nomad and bedouin attacks. The road ran directly across the Isthmus of Suez, also secured by a series of fortified wells dug by the Egyptians to accommodate caravans and military forces on the move.

Way of the Sea

A route used by tuthmosis iii (r. 1479-1425 b.c.e.) and amenhotep ii (r. 1427-1401 b.c.e.) along the coastal plains and valleys of Palestine on several of their military campaigns. Amenhotep ii attacked Palestine from this route, going to Sharon Plain, upper Galilee, and jezreel.

Wedjebten (fl. 22nd century b.c.e.)

Royal woman of the Sixth Dynasty

She was a lesser-ranked consort of pepi ii (r. 2246-2152 b.c.e.). Wedjebten was buried in Pepi II’s mortuary complex in southern saqqara. Wedjebten was not the mother of Pepi II’s heir.

Wegaf (Khutawyre) (d. 1779 b.c.e.)

Founder of the Thirteenth Dynasty

Wegaf started an obscure royal line, reigning 1783-1779 b.c.e. He was a disciple of the deity osiris and erected four stelae to form a sacred area, ta djeser, in abydos, around the tomb of djer, believed to be the actual resting place of Osiris. He also built at umm el-ga’ab in Abydos. Little else is known of his reign in a turbulent period of Egyptian history.

weights and measures

They were the official designations used in ancient Egypt for architectural projects and for determining the values of bartered materials. Length was measured in royal cubit, 20 inches; palm-width, 3 inches; and finger-width, 3/4 inch. The khet was the measurement of 110 square cubits or 2/3 of an acre.
The liquid measurements the Egyptians used were the hekat, which were made up of kin or pints and served as the equivalent of just over a modern gallon. The khar measured 17 gallons. Measurements of weights included the deden, equal to two modern pounds and divided into ten gite or twelve shat.
In the construction of the pyramids, the seked was the determined slope of the monument, while the pesu was the measurement of the beer and bread served to the workers from a single unit of grain.

Wenamun (fl. 11th century b.c.e.)

Real or possibly fictitious official of the Twentieth Dynasty

Wenamun was recorded as probably serving in the reign of ramesses xi (r. 1100-1070 b.c.e.). The Report of Wena-mun, credited to him, serves as an important document of that historical period, demonstrating the fallen status of Egypt. Wenamun was sent by the ruler on an expedition to the Mediterranean coast for timber, a vital resource rare in Egypt in that era. on his return home he reported his trials and tribulations to Ramesses XI. The text of the report depicts Egyptian life and the loss of prestige and military power. The nation was no longer a leader in the area, and the ruler was a recluse, kept in ignorance by officials. The report also details customs, traditions, and the political realities of the time. The Report of Wenamun is in the Papyrus Moscow 120.

Wendjebaendjeb (fl. 11th century b.c.e.)

General and military commander of the Twenty-first Dynasty He served psusennes i (r. 1040-992 b.c.e.), also holding several religious offices in the royal court in tanis.A tomb was prepared for Wendjebaendjeb in Psusennes I’s own mortuary complex near the temple of amun in Tanis. He was buried in a granite sarcophagus from the Nineteenth Dynasty (1307-1196 b.c.e.), usurped for his use. it has also been reported that the sarcophagus belonged originally to Queen mutnodjmet (1), the consort of horemhab (r. 1319-1307 b.c.e.) of the Eighteenth Dynasty.

Weneg (Wadjnes) (fl. 27th century b.c.e.)

Obscure ruler of the Second Dynasty

He was reportedly the successor to ninetjer. At abydos and saqqara he was called Wadjnes. Vases bearing his seals were found in the pyramid complex of djoser (r. 2630-2611 b.c.e.) in Saqqara. No tomb has been identified for Weneg.

Weni (Unis, Wenis) (fl. 23rd century b.c.e.)

Military official serving Pepi I

Weni was a commander and expedition leader for pepi i (r. 2289-2255 b.c.e.). An innovative, energetic individual, Weni used mercenary troops to further Egypt’s domains. His tomb in abydos contained a limestone stela that provided biographical details and insights into this Old Kingdom Period. Weni was an aristocrat who assumed court offices after serving apprentice roles in the reign of Pepi’s father, teti (2323-2291 b.c.e.). Fulfilling duties as the warden or governor of various royal sites, Weni was also asked to investigate a harem conspiracy led by a minor consort, Queen weret-imtes (2). The fate of the royal lady was not disclosed on the stela.
Weni then led a large army of Egyptians and Nubian mercenaries (the first ever recorded in Egyptian texts) to battle against “Asiatic Sand-dwellers,” obviously bedouins of the sinai. He speaks of a site called “Gazelle’s head,” unknown today. Weni, however, moved half of his troops by ship and half of them by land, thus catching the enemy between two separate forces. The ferried units landed behind the enemy position.
This commander also led expeditions to nubia (modern sudan), where he dug canals at the northern cataracts of the Nile and built naval vessels out of acacia wood. The ships and barges carried granite blocks for pepi’s pyramid. Weni’s tomb also contained a song about the army returning in safety after defeating Egypt’s enemies.
Wenut she was a rabbit or hare goddess of Egypt, serving as a patroness of thebes. She was the consort of unu, the hare god, and she was depicted in the totems of the Theban nome and as part of the Was scepter.

Wepemnofret (fl. 26th century b.c.e.)

Royal prince of the Fourth Dynasty

Wepemnofret was the son of khufu (Cheops; r. 2551-2528 b.c.e.) and an unnamed queen. He was not the heir. A stela belonging to Wepemnofret was found in a mastaba of the Great Western Cemetery near the Great pyramid at giza. The stela was set into the walls of the tomb.

Wepwawet (Wapuat)

The wolf deity of Egypt, depicted as well as a jackal, he became part of the cult of anubis but remained popular in some nomes. Wepwawet was a friend of osiris and was revered as “the Opener of the Ways,” a reference to the roads of the tuat, or the realms beyond the grave. In some traditions Wepwawet piloted the sun boat of the god re as it traveled through the chambers of the night. He also aided the dead on their journeys to paradise. The cult centers for Wepwawet were at assiut and in some nomes. The gods horus and set joined Wepwawet at Assiut, where the three roamed the hills as wolves.

Wereret (Weret) (fl. 19th century b.c.e.)

Royal woman of the Twelfth Dynasty

The consort of senwosret ii (r. 1897-1878 b.c.e.), Wereret was the daughter of amenemhet ii and probably the mother of senwosret iii. She is mentioned in the kahun papyrus, and a fragment of her statue was discovered on elephantine Island. Wereret was buried near the pyramid of Senwosret III at dashur in a limestone mastaba containing a red granite sarcophagus. An intact jewelry cache was found in a tomb wall, and 50 large pieces and 7,000 beads were uncovered intact. This large collection of pieces included rings, bracelets, amulets, scarabs, and two god lions. A portion of Wereret’s mummified remains that were vandalized by tomb robbers was recovered.

Weret (Wer)

An ancient Egyptian god of the sky, referred to as “the Great One” in hymns and litanies, he was identified with the cults of thoth and horus in various regions. The sun and the moon were traditionally held to be his eyes, and on moonless nights he was thought to be blind. In this blinded state Weret was the protector of priest-physicians who treated diseases of the eyes and the patron of blind musicians. in some reliefs he was depicted as a harp-playing god.

Weret-Imtes (1) (Weretyamtes) (fl. 24th century b.c.e.)

Royal woman of the Sixth Dynasty She was a lesser-ranked wife of teti (r. 2323-2291 b.c.e.) and probably the mother of weret-imtes (2).

Weret-Imtes (2) (fl. 23rd century b.c.e.)

Royal woman of the Sixth Dynasty

She was a lesser-ranked consort of pepi i (r. 2289-2255 b.c.e.) who was charged with a harem revolt on behalf of her son. she appears to have conspired to eliminate pepi i from the throne, by exiling him or murdering him. An official named weni, a military genius of that historical period, was called upon to investigate the accused royal woman alone. Weret-Imtes was obviously punished, along with her son, but no record was given as to the exact requirements of fulfilling justice in this matter. penalties for those who attacked the sacred person of the pharaoh normally included death, disfigurement, and/or exile into the desert wastes.

Wersu (Worsu) (fl. 15th century b.c.e.)

Mining official of the Eighteenth Dynasty

Wersu served in the reign of amenhotep ii (1427-1401 b.c.e.) as the superintendent of the gold-mining operations in the southern domains and may have served as viceroy of nubia as well. Statues of him and his wife were discovered in koptos.

Westcar Papyrus

This is a document treasured for historical details about the Fourth Dynasty, particularly the reign of khufu (Cheops; 2551-2528 b.c.e.), the builder of the Great pyramid. The tale of khufu and the magicians and a prophecy concerning sahure (r. 2458-2446 b.c.e.), kakai (Neferirkare; r. 2446-2426 b.c.e.), and userkhaf (r. 2465-2458 b.c.e.) are contained in this papyrus. The papyrus is now in Berlin, Germany Western Waters (Western River) This was a term used to denote the canopic branch of the Nile in the Delta. The Western Waters irrigated an area noted for vineyards and fine wines. In some historical periods the rulers of Egypt built residences in this lush region.

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