SONARS (Military Weapons)

ALPS

The Airborne Low-Frequency System (ALFS) is a dipping sonar designed to replace the AN/AQS-13F on the SH-60F
carrier-borne helicopters. It will also be installed on the SH-60B Seahawks that are part of the surface combatant Light missile test flights. Cobra Judy complements the Cobra Dane radar installed on Shemya Island in the Aleutians.
The Cobra Judy radar installation is a 250-ton, mechanicallyrotated, four-story-high structure on the afterdeck of the Observation Island. It has one octagonal radar face that measures 22 ft 6 in (6.86 m) across and contains approximately 12,000 elements. Detection and tracking are controlled by a Control Data Corp. CYBER 175-112 computer.
As originally designed, Cobra Judy operated only in the S (E/F) band. A recent modernization program added a parabolic dish antenna abaft the Observation Island’s funnel. This second radar operates in the X (I/J) band to gather higher-resolution data from the terminal phase of missile tests.

DEVELOPMENT •

The Cobra Judy’s initial operational capability was in 1981. The radar is operated by US Air Force and the ship operated by a civilian crew of the US Navy’s Military Sealift Command (MSC).

SPECIFICATIONS •

MANUFACTURER Raytheon
BAND
phased-array
S
parabolic dish X
Airborne Multipurpose System III (LAMPS III). Its active low-frequency sonar is said to defeat the anechoic coatings that were applied to many submarines in the 1980s.
After a long competition that faced cancellation several times, a Hughes Aircraft Ground Systems/Thomson Sintra entry won in December 1991. The principal elements are the expandable sonar array and reeling winch originally developed by Thomson for their joint venture FLASH (Folding Light Acoustic System). FLASH operates in four low-frequency bands at considerable depths, the array arms extending on long arms at depth and retracting for insertion and retrieval.
The Hughes sonar processing system uses the controversial AT&T AN/UYS-2
Enhanced Modular Signal Processor (EMSP) whose development met delays and concerns that it would be incapable of performing some of the requirements. Congress mandated use of the UYS-2 in 1991 in an attempt to standardize signal processors. ALFS’s UYS-2 variant has an input/output processor, three highspeed arithmetic processors, and two global memories. A 1553B digital databus links the processor to displays similar to those in service as well as a sonobuoy processor. A separate console controls the high-speed reeling mechanism.


DEVELOPMENT •

In response to the rapidly improving Soviet submarine force that deployed in the 1980s, development of the AQS-13F’s successor began in the mid-1980s. In addition to debates about the need within the Navy, the question of whether funding would come from the aviation or surface combatant budgets led Congress to delay funding altogether. When the SH-60B was added to the platforms that would carry the ALPS, future budget requirements grew at the same time that skeptics worried about the impact of the system’s weight on SH-60B performance.
The December 1991 award funds five years of engineering development and has options for up to 50 production systems. At least 343 systems (185 for the
SH-60B and 158 for the SH-60F) are
planned at a cost of more than $1 billion.

AQS-13/AQS-18

The AN/AQS-13 active “dipping” sonar is fitted in the US Navy’s SH-3H Sea King
Antisubmarine Warfare (ASW) helicopters. These aircraft lower the transducer into the water to get below the zones where ship-generated noises are high (e.g., near a carrier battle group), and passive sonar or sonobuoy effectiveness is limited. Data gathered by the sonar includes bathythermal (depth vs. temperature) information, passive acoustic monitoring, and active echo determination of range and bearing.
The AQS-13F used on the SH-60F reaches much greater operating depths (up to 1,450 feet) using a high-speed cable-lowering system.
The AN/AQS-18 developed from the AN/AQS-13 and is a helicopter-borne, long-range, active, dipping sonar. Among the system features is a false-alarm filter to eliminate misleading indicators from the display screen. Target range, bearing, and identification data is provided at. ranges up to 20,000 yards.

DEVELOPMENT •

After development began in the mid-1960s, the AQS-13 came into widespread use on Sea Kings in the US Navy and several other countries. Manufactured by Bendix Oceanics Division of Sylmar, California. AQS-18 is in service in the German Navy.

SPECIFICATIONS •

FREQUENCY 9.23, 10, or 10.77 kHz WEIGHT 30 lb (13.3 kg) sonar only
CABLE LENGTH 1,083 ft (330 m)

AQS-14

The AN/AQS-14 is an active, helicopter-towed mine-hunting sonar, initially developed for retrofit in the RH-53D Sea Stallion helicopter. Searching for mines requires a multibeam, side-looking sonar with electronic beam forming, all-range focusing, and an adaptive processor. The system uses a stabilized underwater vehicle to carry the transducer, an electromechanical tow cable, and an airborne electronic console.
The underwater vehicle cruises at a fixed point above the seafloor or below the surface, and the thin, coaxial cable is armored and nonmagnetic. Sonar data appears on the display as two continuous-moving televisionlike pictures.


DEVELOPMENT •

The AQS-14
achieved its initial operational capability
in 1984 in the RH-53D Sea Stallion. In
production by Westinghouse Electric Corp., Annapolis, Maryland. Westing-
house, together with EDO and ARINC,are developing the AQS-20 to replace the AQS-14.

COMBAT EXPERIENCE •

RH-53Ds first used the AQS-14 to clear mines from the Suez Canal in 1984. It was widely used in the Arabian Gulf to clear mines after the 1991 Operation Desert Storm. In that same year, an RH-53 used an AQS-14 to find four pesticide containers that had fallen off a barge at the mouth of Delaware Bay in stormy weather, the first non-military use of this sonar.

BQQ-5

The AN/BQQ-5 multifunction, active/passive digital sonar system integrates the
AN/BQS-11, -12, or -13 bow-mounted spherical transducer array, the conformal (hull-mounted) array, and the towed array. A computer-driven signal processor selects the hydrophones and steers the beams. Only computer capacity limits the number of beams that can be formed with this method.
The digital BQQ-5 suffers far less from internal noises than the AN/BQQ-2 that it replaced (which has manual switching) . The BQQ5 uses Digital Multibeam
Steering (DIMUS) to enhance the detection of weaker acoustic signals. The BQQ5 digital computer’s processing also allowed a reduction in the number of operators compared to the BQQ-2.
Variants reflect continuing upgrades to the sonars or processing. Among the upgrades are the Steerable Hull-Array Beamformer (SHAB), first deployed in Dallas (SSN 700). bQq-5C sets have Directional Frequency Analysis and Recording (DIFAR) reception using three AN/ UYK-44 computers. First deployment came in the Salt Lake City (SSN 716); -5A and -5B sets in operation were upgraded to the -5C configuration.
Later additions include an integrated long-aperture, thin-line towed array and an improved handling system. All systems are now -5Es with an upgraded TB-12X thin-line array that emphasizes better localization.

DEVELOPMENT •

The system achieved initial operational capability in 1976. The system was built into all Los Angeles (SSN 688)-class submarines through SSN 750
(the SSN 751 and later units being fitted with the AN/BSY-1 combat system that includes the BQQ-5C/D/E). Backfitted
in the Permit (SSN 594) and Sturgeon (SSN 637) classes during overhauls. Manufactured by IBM Federal Systems, Owego, New York.

BQQ-6

The AN/BQQ-6 hull-mounted, passive sonar system was adapted from the AN/ BQQ-5 passive/active sonar system to use in strategic missile submarines ofthe Ohio (SSBN 726) class. Given the Ohio’s low self-noise, this system is likely to be a very effective self-defense sonar. It has 944 hydrophone transducers mounted on a sphere.

DEVELOPMENT *

BQQ6 achieved initial operational capability in 1981 with the commissioning of the Ohio. Manufactured by IBM, Bethesda, Maryland.

BQQ-9

The AN/BQQ-9 is a thin-line, towed-array sonar and signal processing system for Ohio (SSBN 726)-class ballistic missile submarines. The system processes signals received from the AN/BQR-15 passive towed array originally used in Lafayette (SSBN 616)-class submarines.

DEVELOPMENT •

BQQr9 achieved its initial operational capability in 1981 with the commissioning of the Ohio. Manufactured by Rockwell International, Columbus, Ohio.

BQR-15

The AN/BQR-15 passive detection system for submarines includes a towed array and the AN/BQR-23 signal processor. The array cable is 2,640 ft (800 m) long with a diameter of 0.5 in (12 mm) and can be streamed, retrieved, or adjusted through a hydraulic winch while the submarine is submerged.

DEVELOPMENT •

Entered service in Lafayette (SSBN 616)-class submarines in 1974. Manufactured by Western Electric, Winston-Salem, North Carolina. The

BQR-15A is fitted in some Ohio (SSBN 726)-class submarines. BQR-19

The AN/BQR-19 is a mast-mounted active, short-range, rapid-scanning submarine sonar for collision avoidance, navigation, and other special applications, including upward-looking ice detection.

DEVELOPMENT •

First entered service in 1970 in Lafayette (SSBN 616)-class submarines. Manufactured by Raytheon Submarine Signal Division, Portsmouth, Rhode Island.

BQR-21

The AN/BQR-21 is a hull-mounted passive detection and tracking sonar used in the Lafayette (SSBN 616)-class ballistic missile submarines. The transducers are arranged on a hull-mounted conformal array.
The BQR-21 uses DIMUS (Digital Mul-tibeam Steering) in conjunction with the AN/BQR-24 signal processor. The system employs both analog and digital processing techniques and can detect targets at distances up to 87 nm (100 mi; 161 km), tracking as many as five at once.

DEVELOPMENT •

Retrofitted in Lafayette beginning in 1977. No longer in series production. Manufactured by Honeywell, West Covina, California.

BQS-ll/12/13

These are active detection, bow-mounted sonars for the AN/BQQ-5 system; they operate at the relatively low frequency of 3.5 kHz. The BQS-11 and -12 were upgraded as part of the program that retrofitted the BQQ-5 multi-sonar suite into older submarines such as the Sturgeon (SSN 637) class beginning in the mid-1980s. The BQS-13 is the active sonar used in later BQQ-5 variants found in Los Angeles (SSN 688)-class submarines.

DEVELOPMENT •

BQS-11 first deployed in Permit (SSN 594)-class submarines in the mid-1980s. BQS-12 refitted to most Sturgeons, except for the last two, which received BQS-13s. Manufactured by Raytheon Submarine Signal Division, Portsmouth, Rhode Island.

BQS-15

The AN/BQS-15 is an under-ice/mine avoidance, and target detection and tracking sonar developed for the Los
Angeles (SSN 688) class to allow safe navigation in heavily mined waters. It was integrated with the AN/BQQ-5 passive/ active sonar system as a system upgrade.

DEVELOPMENT •

Manufactured by Ametek Straza.
BSY-1
The AN/BSY-1 is an advanced US sonar/
fire control system developed for the Los Angeles (SSN 688)-class submarines beginning with the San Juan (SSN 751). As designed, the system employs advanced computer hardware and software to exploit state-of-the-art acoustic sensors, such as Wide-Aperture Arrays (WAA), to analyze acoustic detection data, identify targets, and make fire control calculations. Altogether, the system software requires 4 million lines of code.
Originally there were to be three versions: the Basic version for SSN 751-759,the B version for SSN 760 (FY1986) and laterLosAngeles-class submarines, and the B-prime for the SSN 21 class. Unfortunately for IBM and the Navy, the planned optical database (using fiberoptic technology) encountered difficulties, prompting a redesign effort to employ more conventional technology. There were subsequent difficulties in producing the multilayer computer circuit boards and other technical problems. The program was also sharply criticized for poor management, including lack of coordination that resulted in the inability to fit the system’s cabling into the San Juan’s already cramped interior.
The BSY-1 employs several sonars: The Submarine Active Detection System (SADS) includes a Medium-Frequency Active Capability (MFAC) spherical-array sonar mounted in the bow and a High-Frequency Active Capability (HFAC) mounted in the sail. The MFAC long-range panoramic sonar has a passive
listening mode. The HFAC provides close-in, high-resolution detection of small targets including mines.
Two passive towed arrays supplement the active arrays: The TB-16 is a heavier array that is stored in a sheath along the submarine’s hull. TB-23 is a thin-line array that can be reeled into the ship’s main ballast tanks.
Beginning with the Columbia (SSN 771), the BSY-1 has the Lockheed Martin
AN/BQG-5 Stand-Alone Wide-Aperture Array (SWAA); this system may also be backfitted into earlier BSY-1 level 688-class boats.
The Raytheon CCS Mk 2 upgrade includes an AN/UVK-43 computer in place of the AN/UYK-7, a Unisys AN/UYK-44
computer and Loral ASPRO high-speed parallel processor for tracking OTH contacts, and a single design for the graphics/display terminals in place of the 30 designs typically found on an SSN 688 boat.

DEVELOPMENT •

The BSY systems were known as Submarine Advanced Combat System (SUBACS) until changed to the BSY series. Early development was plagued by severe technical and management problems, which delayed schedules, increased costs, and reduced the originally planned capability of the system.
In 1985, the Navy restructured the SUBACS program, breaking out the
BSY-1 for the SSN 751 and later Los
Angeles-class submarines. BSY-1 achieved limited initial operational capability in 1988. Several Los Angetes boats were delayed by the configuration problems mentioned above.

BSY-2

The BSY-2 (formerly FY1989 system in the Submarine Advanced Combat System/ SUBACS program) is a more advanced version of the BSY-1 that operates in Los Angeles (SSN 688)-class submarines. It is
being installed in Seawof (SSN 21)-class submarines.
The BSY-2 emphasizes a distributed processing architecture integrating data from several sensors. These sensors include a BQG-5 Wide-Angle Array (WAA), sail-mounted BQS-24 Mine-Detection and Avoidance Sonar (MIDAS) active high-frequency sonar, active Large Spherical Array (LSA) and low-frequency array in the bow dome, and TB-16D and TB-29 towed arrays. Also supporting the system are a tactical situation plotter, 11 libra-scope combat system display consoles, transmit group, and librascope weapon launch system.
A 1989 General Accounting Office (GAO) report contended that developing software for the system would require 900 programmers to generate 3.2 million lines of Ada-language code. In October 1990, the Navy announced that it would purchase commercially developed, Motorola 68000-series microprocessors programmable in Ada as a means of cutting cost.
Like the troubled BSY-1 program, the BSY-2 has had problems. In December 1988, Newport News Shipbuilding complained to the Navy that integration of the BSY-2 into the Seawolfdesign was being hampered by delays in BSY-2 design. Newport News began its work using a generic combat system design until General Electric’s design was selected. GE’s design was significantly different and put the two programs out of phase by more than a year. Newport News also contended that direct interfaces between GE and itself were not permitted, which prevented coordination of design efforts.

DEVELOPMENT •

In January 1988, General Electric/RCA {later Martin Marietta) was awarded a $13.6-million contract to develop and produce the BSY-2. GE/RCA competed with IBM for the contract. In October 1988, GE/RGA was awarded a contract to produce the BSY-2 for the SSN 21. Dramatic cutbacks in the Seawolf program will limit the number of BSY-2s to a handful.

OWE 610

The CWE 610 is an active, long-range, low-frequency, hull-mounted scanning sonar. This US-built sonar was designed for export and was fitted in several classes in the early 1970s.
Searches cover three 120° sectors. Signal processing allows the sonar to overcome the effects of heavy signal reverberation in shallow water. Search and tracking data can be displayed simultaneously, and a passive bearing-time display updates the operator.

DEVELOPMENT •

The system achieved its initial operational capability in 1970. Manufactured by EDO Corp., Government Products Division, College Point, New York. Italian Audace-c\a.$s and Dutch Tromp-cla$s destroyers and Brazilian and Indonesian frigates use this sonar.

DEI 160

The DE 1160 series of hull-mounted sonars is a commercial version of the US Navy’s AN/SQS-56 hull-mounted sonar. The active/passive, multifunction, digital sonar provides active echo ranging and passive panoramic surveillance (360° azimuth). The active array can search, track, classify, and give target information on several targets while the passive array maintains torpedo surveillance via a Digital Multibeam Steering (DIMUS) surveillance system. Most of the system’s signal processing is accomplished using Navy’s Standard Electronic Module Program (SEMP) components.
Several versions exist of the DE 1160: DE 11 GOB, DE 1160C, DE 11 GOLF, DE 1160LF/VDS, DE 1164, and DE 1167.
The DE 1160B is the standard active/ passive sonar version of the system. It has
a power output of 12 kW. The DE 1160C is identical to the DE 1160B except it is slightly larger and has a power output of 36 kW.

The DE 1160 is known as the DE 1164

when configured as a Variable-Depth Sonar (YDS). As a YDS, the sonar can descend to 656 ft (200 m) and be towed at speeds up to 20 knots.
The DE 1160 is capable of convergence zone performance when equipped with three additional transmitter cabinets (for a total of eight) and a larger, low-frequency transducer array. This configuration, which is fitted to the Italian aircraft carrier Giuseppi Garibaldi, is known as the DE 1160LF. The DE 1160LF/VDS
combines the capabilities of the 1160LF with the VDS ability to adapt to the environment of the DE 1164.
The 1167 is smaller and less expensive. The sonar can be fitted in a hull dome or deployed as a VDS, or as an integrated
hull dome and VDS. The VDS transmits
at 12 kHz and the 36-stave circular, hull-mounted array transmits at either 12 or 7.5 kHz.

DEVELOPMENT •

This system achieved its initial operational capability in 1977, with the 1167 following in 1984. Manufactured by Raytheon Co., Submarine Signal Division, Portsmouth, Rhode Island. In service in several export designs, including Spanish-built Descubierta-cl’&’&s frigates in Spanish service as well as those exported to Morocco.
Italian De La Penne-class destroyers and Maestrale-class frigates use the 1164 VDS. Egyptian El Swa-class frigates have the DE 1167 integrated 7.5-kHz hull-mounted and VDS version. Italian Minervarcfass corvettes have the 7.5-kHz hull-mounted system only.

SPECIFICATIONS •

FREQUENCY 7.5 kHz, exceptDE1160LF and 1160LF/VDS 3.75 kHz, and DE 116712 kHz (some installations)
SYSTEM WEIGHT
DE 1160B: 7,780 Ib (3,536 kg) DE 1160C: 9,037 Ib (4,108 kg) DE 1164: 63,604 Ib (28,911 kg) DE 1160LF: 31,359 ib (14,254 kg) DE 1160LF/VDS: 85,926 Ib
(39,057 kg)

SQQ-14/SQQ-30

The AN/SQQ-14 is an obsolete dual-frequency, mine-detection and classification sonar used by minesweepers in shallow water against bottom mines.
The sonar is lowered from under the hull by a flexible cable that consists of 18-inch sections, connected by universal joints. This cable configuration allows the sonar to flex in any vertical plane, but prevents twisting.
The SQQ-30 is a digital descendant of the SQQ-14 that consists of an egg-shaped vehicle housing two sonars: a search sonar for mine detection and a high-frequency, high-resolution sonar for mine classification (each sonar has its own on-board display console). Because it was too limited to use against modern mines, the SQQ-30 was replaced by the SQQ:32.

DEVELOPMENT •

The SQQ14 was first
deployed in 1960, the SQQ-30 following
in 1983 in the Avenger (MCM 1). Manufactured by General Electric (later Martin Marietta), Syracuse, New York. Manufactured under license in Italy as
the SQQ-14IT.

SPECIFICATIONS •

FREQUENCY 80 and 350 kHz

SQQ-23 PAIR

The AN/SQQ-23 Performance and Integration Retrofit (PAIR) is an upgrade of the AN/SQS-23 active/passive detection with improved passive detection. Each of the system’s 48 staves has a single channel (versus two in the SQS-23).
The baseline SQQ-23A configuration used two sonar domes instead of one, with the second dome housing the passive transducer. All of the ships in this configuration—four Charles F. Adams (DDG 2)-class and two Farragat (DDG 37)-class destroyers—have been retired. The Long Beach (CGN 9), Bainbridge (CGN 25), and ships of the Leahy (CG16) class had the SQQ-23B in a single dome.
A measure of the shrinkage in system weight and volume shows in the replacement of the 21 vacuum-tube cabinets and 10 motor generators of the SQS-23′s transmission system with the three solid-state shipboard cabinets in the SQQ-23.

DEVELOPMENT •

Retrofitted in ships beginning in 1972. Manufactured by Sperry (later Unisys).

SPECIFICATIONS •

FREQUENCY 4.3-5.7 kHz
PEAK POWER Omni-Directional Transmission (ODT) 160 kW for 160 microsec

SQQ-32

The AN/SQQ-32 is a mine-detection and -classification Variable-Depth Sonar (YDS) installed in the Osprey (MHC 51)-and Avenger (MCM l)-class minesweepers. It replaces the less capable AN/SQQ-30 YDS in the Avenger minesweepers.
The SQQ32 has improved discrimination between genuine mines and other objects, displays objects with near-picture quality, and has increased vertical coverage. The system uses a lower operating frequency for increased detection range. Like the earlier sonars, the SQQ-32 consists of two sonars: a search sonar for mine detection and a high-frequency, high-resolution sonar for mine classification. Each sonar has its own on-board display console as well as variable-depth transducers. The consoles can display data from either of the two sonars.
The search sonar detects and displays the location of objects that are potential targets. The detected targets or their sonar shadows are then displayed by the classification sonar. The echo mode, which displays images of the detected target, is more effective for objects that are clear of the bottom. The shadow mode is suitable for objects on the bottom where there is interference from reverberations. A computer is used to help classify the targets, reducing operator workload.

DEVELOPMENT •

Initial development began in 1982. Raytheon won the initial production contract in early 1989. Although originally intended to enter service with the first Osprey, deployment on the Avenger class was accelerated because of the increasing mine threat.
The detection sonar, computer system, and both consoles are manufactured by Raytheon Co., Portsmouth, Rhode Island, which is responsible for the overall system integration. The classification sonar is manufactured by Thomson CSF, Brest Cedex, France. The towed vehicle, cable, and towing winch were designed by Charles Stark Draper Lab, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

COMBAT EXPERIENCE •

SQQ:32s deployed on the Avenger and on older Aggressive (MSO 421) minesweepers in the Persian Gulf during Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm proved quite effective.

SQQ-89(V)

The AN/SQQ-89(V) combines sensors and weapons control systems with sophisticated data processing and display in the first integrated surface-ship ASW system. Known as the Squeak 89, the system correlates and manages acoustic sensor
input from hull-mounted sonar and towed arrays to provide track data to the ship’s combat direction center.
The large, AN/SQS-53B/C hull-mounted sonars in cruisers and destroyers are integrated into the SQQ89. Ticonderoga (CG 47)-class cruisers and Spruance (DD 963)-class destroyers have the SQS-53B, and the Burke (DDG 51)-class destroyers the SQS-53C.
All of the variants have the AN/SQR-19 towed arrays, the AN/SQQ-28 shipboard acoustic processing component of the LAMPS III helicopter system, the Mk 116 ASW weapons control system (Perry-class frigates use their Weapon Alternate
Processors/WAP), AN/UYQ-21 displays, and the AN/UYQ-25 Sonar in Situ Mode
Assessment System (SIMAS), which predicts acoustic environmental noise.
The limited-capability AN/SQS-56 sonar in frigates, however, is not integrated
with the SQQ-89. The SQQ-89(V)2 is being installed in both active and Naval Reserve Force frigates of the Perry (FFG 7) class, the latter with the LAMPS I helicopter system.

The SQQ89{V)6 features integration

of AT&T’s AN/UYS-2 Enhanced Modular Signal Processor (EMSP) and Diagnostic/Retrieval Systems CY-8571 (service designation AN/UYQ-21) Advanced Video Processor (AVP) color, raster-scan display system.
Development of the SQY-1, which began as the SQQ-89 Improvement (Q-89I or SQQ-89 (V) 10) program in 1986, envisaged using UYS-2 ESMP technology. Program slippage amounted to at least six years. Frequent changes in threat analysis, platform definitions, system specifications, and technical problems, particularly with the ESMP, created considerable turbulence, and the program was canceled in 1992.

DEVELOPMENT •

SQQ89 first deployed in the destroyer Moosbrugger (DD 980) in 1985. Navy plans call for 130 ships to be fitted with the SQQ-89 by 1995.
Manufactured by General Electric (later Lockheed Martin), Syracuse, New York and Westinghouse Electric, Baltimore, Maryland.

SQR-18A

The AN/SQR-18 series began with the SQR-18 Interim Escort Towed-Array Surveillance System (IETASS) that was developed to be a simpler version of the AN/ SQR-14/15 long-range towed arrays for frigates and minesweepers. During tests, the SQR-18 towed array generated excess noise, which contributed to its unreliability in the first convergence zone.
The SQR-18A addressed these problems. It is a low-noise array with an improved tracker and an interference tracker. The (V)l improves on the -18A with use of a noise cancellation feature to remove ship-radiated noise by subtracting measured self-noise of the towing ship from total noise output recorded by the array.
The (V)2 array does not require a VDS sonar fish for towing and is towed from a cable. It has its own towing and handling capability, enabling it to be streamed from ships without a VDS. The (V) 2 array has 32 vibration-isolated hydrophones divided into eight hydrophone sections.
Both the (V) 1 and (V)2 systems can be integrated with the AN/SQS-26 hull-mounled sonar and the AN/SQR-17 sonobuoy processor. They can also use the Advanced Modular Signal Processor (AMSP), which is a programmable system with interactive software.

DEVELOPMENT •

Development on the SQR-18 began in FY1968. A Patterson Experimental Array (PEA) prototype of the SQR-18 was purchased by the US Navy in FY1972. An operational requirement for the system was placed in FY1973. Two lETASSs (SQR-18) were ordered in a contract awarded in August 1974. The Escort Towed-Array Sensor (ETAS) program was established in FY1975 after the IETASS had been tested on Knox-cl&ss frigates and a minesweeper. In turn, the
Tactical Towed-Array Sonar (TACTAS) programs were developed from the ETAS. ETAS program established in FY1975. Production of SQR-18A began in spring 1978 and an improvement program in April 1981.
Developed and produced by EDO, College Point, New York. Also manufactured by Gould Electronics, Cupertino, California. Deployed on Belknap (CG 26)-class cruisers, Spruance (DD 963)-class destroyers, and Oliver Hazard Perry (FFG 7)-and Knox (FF 1052)-class frigates. Also fitted in Japanese destroyers and Indonesian Ahmed i^zm-class frigates.

SQR-19 TACTAS

The Tactical Towed-Array Sonar (TACTAS) was developed as a component subsystem of the AN/SQQ-89 surface antisubmarine warfare combat system. It is also specifically intended for use with the LAMPS III airborne ASW system that features the SH-60B Seahawk helicopter. The towed array or “tail” consists of vibration-isolation modules; a telemetry drive module; heading, depth, and temperature units; and 16 acoustic modules comprising eight Very Low Frequency (VLF), four Low Frequency (LF), two Medium Frequency (MF), and two High Frequency (HF) modules. The modular constt’uction of the array permits individual replacement of hydrophone components that fail or are damaged
The SQR-19 array can be effective at a relatively high ship’s speed and in sea states up to four. Data storage (SQR-19A) and computing capacity (SQR-19B) have been improved.

DEVELOPMENT •

The first production delivery occurred in July 1985, followed by the first SQR-19B in January 1991. In service on some Ticonderoga(CG47)-cIass cruisers, Spruance (DD 963)- and Burke (DDG 51)-class destroyers, and Perry (FFG 7)-class frigates. Installation in Kidd (DDG 993)-class destroyers is being considered,
Also in service in Canada’s upgraded Iroquois-class destroyers and Halifax-class frigates, Japan’s Abukuma-class frigates, and Spain’s PmAdesign Santa Maria class.
Manufactured by Gould Electronics and Lockheed Martin (formerly General Electric).

SQS-23

The AN/SQS-23 is a direct-path, active sonar with a range of some 10,000 yards that was intended to be compatible with the Antisubmarine Rocket (ASROC) weapon. It was fitted to a variety of ship classes, from World War II-era Gearing-class destroyers retrofitted under the 1959-65 Fleet Rehabilitation and Maintenance (FRAM) program to new-construction cruisers and destroyers. Most ships had sonar domes fitted under the hull, but several US destroyers had bow sonar mounts.
To generate a signal, a commutator mechanically scans two transducers on each of 48 staves at 150 cycles per second. Base frequencies can be varied by up to 380 Hz to reduce intership interference. The beam can be depressed electronically when closing a target. In a “lighthouse” Rotationally Directed Transmission (RDT) mode, a 60-kWbeam is transmitted for 4.3 seconds. {This is obviously not a stealthy technique.)
The SQS-23 has been updated often, and a solid-state upgrade is offered for export as the DE 1190/DE 1191. In fact, the solid-state transmitter has been retrofitted into US ships, often in the successful SQQ-23 PAIR configuration.
Upgrades have added pulse variations and reliability improvements including
the installation of assemblies of 1-kW solid-state transmitters, usually grouped in twelves. Designator series have run up to SQS-23H, DE 1190 has been exported in 12-, 24-, 36-, 48-, 72-, and 96-transmitter sizes. DE 1191 includes the DE 1190 SST and a slightly modified DE 1167 Receiver and Display.

DEVELOPMENT •

The first SQS-23 achieved its initial operational capability in 1958. SQS-23 was manufactured by Sangamo and is no longer in production. The DE 1190/DE 1191 series is produced by Raytheon’s Submarine Signal Division in Portsmouth, Rhode Island.
SQS-23 and DE 1190/1191 upgrades are widely deployed on former FRAM-type destroyers still serving in several navies. In addition, several warship classes built in Australia, Italy, Germany, and Japan in the 1960s are still fitted with the SQS-23.

SPECIFICATIONS •

BASE FREQUENCIES
SQS-23: 4.5, 5, and 5.5 kHz PAIR, DE 1190: 4.3-5.7 kHz
PULSE LENGTHS
SQS-23: 2, 30, and 120 millisec (2-millisec pulse later increased to 5)
PEAK POWER
PAIR: 160 kW for 160 millisec in Omni-Directional Transmission
(ODT) mode
DEI 190: 28-56 kW DE 1191: 120 kW

SQS-26

The AN/SQS-26 is a high-power, active/ passive sonar for surface warships and was the first major bow-mounted sonar in US ships. Delays in delivery and technical problems delayed approval for service use until November 1968. These shortcomings carried potentially embarrassing consequences. The more than 20 ships that carried the sonar had no long- range sensor capability until the system was ready.
When solid-state electronics replaced vacuum tubes, the Navy designated the result AN/SQS-5S.

DEVELOPMENT •

Development began in the late 1950s and the first ship (Bron-stein FF 1037) commissioned in 1962. 12 SQS-26AX sets and all examples of the later SQS-26CX were manufactured by General Electric, Syracuse, New York. 18 SQS-26BX sets were manufactured by EDO. Three nuclear-propelled cruisers (Truxtun, California, and South Carolina), eight of nine Belknap-class cruisers, and the Bronstein-, Garcia-, and Knox-class frigates all carried SQS-26s.

SPECIFICATIONS (CX VARIANT) •

FREQUENCY

active mode 3—4 kHz passive mode
1.5kHz
RANGE
directpath 9.9 nm (18.3 km) convergence zone or bottom bounce 34.6 nm (64 km)
PEAK POWER 100 kW
TRANSDUCER WEIGHT 60,000 lb
(27,215 kg)

SQS-38

The AN/SQS-38 is a keel-mounted, high-frequency sonar derived from the AN/SQS-35 Independent Variable-Depth Sonar (IVDS). Using more reliable solid-state technology, the SQS-38 replaced the vacuum-tube AN/SQS-36 keel-mounted sonar in the Hamilton-class Coast Guard cutters. This is the only sonar fitted in US Coast Guard cutters; conversely only the Hamiltons use the SQS-38.
The active/passive sonar operates in three frequencies.

DEVELOPMENT •

14 SQS-38 sets were manufactured for the 12-ship Hamilton
class. The first set achieved initial operational capability in 1967. Manufactured by EDO Corp., College Point, New York.

SPECIFICATIONS •

FREQUENCY 11.9, 13, or 14 kHz

SQS-53

The AN/SQS-53 is a large active/passive submarine-detection sonar for surface warships. It is an improved version of the AN/SQS-26CX sonar and is housed in a bow dome.
The principal difference between the SQS-26CX and SQS-53 is the latter’s digital computer interface with the shipboard Mk 116 Antisubmarine Warfare (ASW) weapons control system. The -53B extends the capability with the AN/ UYS-1 acoustic signal processor, AN/ UYK-44(V) digital computers in addition to the earlier AN/UYK-ls, and digital controls and displays that allow integration into the SQQ89 system. The digital components allow less system degradation due to drift of calibration and alignment compared to analog; the system monitors itself to detect performance decreases. The system features multiple-target capability, automatic target tracking, and a higher systems availability (2,000 hours mean time between failure).
Continuing the line is the SQS-53C, which has shipboard electronics that are 50% smaller and lighter than the SQS-53B. The, transducers have been modified to provide higher power and wider bandwidth, and the AN/UYH-1 mass memory was added.

DEVELOPMENT •

The -53A achieved initial operational capability in 1975. Manufactured by General Electric (later Lockheed Martin) and Hughes.
The SQS-53A is fitted in the early
Ticonderogfrdass cruisers (CG 47 to 55).
The SQS-53B was fitted in the later
Ticonderogordass cruisers (CG 56 and on) as part of the AN/SQQ89 ASW combat system, and is being backfilled in the Spruance-class destroyers. Arleigh Burke-class deslroyers (DDG51) introduced ihe SQS-53C. The firsl engineering development model of the SQS-53C was fitted in the Spruance-class destroyer Stump (DD 978) in late 1986.

SQS-56

The AN/SQS-56 is an active/passive, medium-frequency, hull-mounted submarine-detection sonar with limited capabilities. Its installation in the Oliver-Hazard Perry (FFG 7)-class frigates represents an electronic example of Admiral Elmo Zumwalt’s high-low mix policy of the early 1970s. Like the Perrys, the sonar is far less capable than the AN/SQS-26 and AN/SQS-53 sonars carried in several other classes of cruisers, destroyers, and frigates.
Use of the SQS-56 saved perhaps 600 tons of displacement in the FFG 7 and reduced electrical power requirments by almost half. The cost is effective range, however, with the SQS-56 being capable of detection only on the order of 5 nm (5.75 mi; 9.3 km)—far too little for effective use of ship-based Antisubmarine Warfare (ASW) helicopters. In fact, the Perrys lowed-array sonar and LAMPS III SH-60B Seahawk helicopter will often make the first contact.
The sonar provides active panoramic echo ranging and passive Digital Multi-beam Steering (DIMUS) surveillance. Most of the syslem’s signal processing is accomplished via the Navy’s Standard Electronic Module Program (SEMP). A minicomputer provides system control, timing, and interface communication.
The display system is a single-operator Cathode-Ray Tube (CRT) console with both alphanumeric and symbol display. A remote display and loudspeaker/ inlercom system are optional features.

DEVELOPMENT •

The SQS-56 achieved initial operational capability in 1977. Manufactured by Raytheon’s Submarine Signal Division, Portsmouth Rhode Island. In addition to the 51 US Navy Perry-class ships, the SQS-56 equips locally built Australian, Spanish, and Taiwanese Perry-design ships as well as frigates and corvettes in the Greek, Saudi, and Turkish navies.

SPECIFICATIONS •

FREQUENCY 5.6, 7.5, and 8.4 kHz

UQQ-2 SURTASS

The Surveillance Towed-Array Sonar System (SURTASS) is an area surveillance system towed at slow speeds (about three knots) by civilian-crewed T-AGOS ships. The array is a flexible, tubelike structure about 2,600 feet long containing numerous passive hydrophones at the end of a 6,000-foot-long towing cable. Typical array towing depths are 500 to 1,500 feet.
Data from the hydrophone array is generated at a very high rate, pre-processed on the T-AGOS and sent at Vio the data rate by satellite to shore processors.

DEVELOPMENT •

The first Stalwart-class T-AGOS ship entered service in 1984. The full 18-ship class was active for only a short time before the decline in the submarine threat led to the decommissioning or reassignment of most of the class. Several Victorious class SWATH
(Small Waterplane, Twin Hull) T-AGOS
ships also operate SURTASS.
Japan’s Hibikirclass T-AGOS-type ships have ajapanese array.

sosus

The US Navy operates several seafloor Sound Surveillance Systems (SOSUS) in various parts of the Atlantic and Pacific
oceans, as well as across the Strait of Gibraltar and off the North Cape north of
Norway. (The locations of US SOSUS arrays have been identified in Soviet magazines.)
SOSUS is a series of passive arrays used to detect transiting submarines and, in wartime, would be used to direct air, surface, and submarine ASW forces to suspected submarine contacts.
Initially, a number of Naval Facilities (NAVFAC) were established as the shore terminals for SOSUS, with NAVFACs being located along both US coasts, in the Caribbean, Iceland, and Japan and at other overseas locations. Subsequently, more capable arrays and computers were developed, and NAVFACs in the United States and the Caribbean were consolidated.
SOSUS information is provided at several levels—to tactical as well as theater and national commanders—and for technical evaluation. Acoustic data from the NAVFACs and Regional Evaluation Centers (REG) is provided through the Ocean Surveillance Information System (OSIS) to the Atlantic, Pacific, and European area Fleet Command Centers (FCC), to the Naval Ocean Surveillance Information Center (NOSIC) in Suit-land, Maryland, near Washington, DC, and to the National Command Authorities (NCA).
Published sources cite detection ranges of “hundreds” of miles by SOSUS, with arrays reported in the Atlantic and Pacific areas as well as in some regional seas. Several update programs have been announced, especially related to computer capability that can provide data more rapidly with an improved signal-to-noise ratio.

DEVELOPMENT •

Immediately after World War II, the US Navy began development of deep-ocean arrays. By 1948, arrays were being tested at sea, and by 1951, the first SOSUS arrays were implanted.
Also termed Project Caesar, the first set of operational hydrophones was installed at Sandy Hook, south of Manhattan, followed in 1952 by a deep-water (1,200 feet) installation off Eleuthra in the Bahamas. That year the Chief of Naval Operations directed the establishment of six arrays in the Western Atlantic, all to be ready by the end of 1956. The first arrays in the Pacific were operational in 1958.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union and the related decline in the submarine threat, the Navy began using SOSUS to support civilian scientific research. In one project, a blue whale was tracked for 42 days. In another application, pinpointing the sounds of an erupting undersea volcano led to observations that had never been made before.

TABLE OF SONOBUOYS

DESIGNATION
SSQ-36
MANUFACTURER
Sparton, Plessey
USE
Aircraft-launched expendable Bathythermograph (AXBT). Transmits temperature data from the surface to 1,000 ft (3,048 m) to sonobuoy processors.
SSQ-41B Jezebel Sparton, Magnavox Omnidirectional passive detection. Emits on 31 or 99 VHF RF channels. -41B in service in 1964, -41B production between 1975 and 1982.
880:47 Sparton Active, nondirectional using continuous-wave keying. Short, 30-min life, 12 RF-channel, 6 sonic channel capacity. Production from 1965 to 1982, some later exported.
SSQ-53 Sparton, Magnavox Active Directional Frequency Analysis and Recording (DIFAR). -53A had 31 RF channels, -53B/C have 99. Several hundred thousand produced from 1968 to 1993.
SSQ-57 Sparton Passive, “special purpose” with 31 channels; mechanically similar to the SSQ-41. Production began in 1968; last procured in FY1989.
SSQ-62 Sparton, Magnavox Directional Command-Activated Sonar System (DICASS), passively determines bearing and range. 31 channels. Production began in 1978, last procured in FY1991.
SS(>71 Sparton Air-Transportable Acoustic Communication (ATAC) for aircraft-friendly submarine contact. Replaced by SSQ-86.
SS(V75 Bunker Ramo (for development) Expendable Reliable Acoustic Path Sonobuoy (ERAPS) for deep-depth (down to 16,000 ft) detection. Develop-merit began in 1974, problems delayed deployment.
SS(>77 Sparton, Magnavox, Sippican (one year only) Vertical Line Array DIFAR (VLAD) with 11 omnidirectional, 2 DIFAR hydrophones for bottom-bounce returns; -77B has convergence-zone capability. 99 RF
channels. Production began in 1978, continued into
mid-1990s.
SSQ-86 Sparton One-way communications link to friendly submarine. Coded message of 4 groups of 3 digits.
DESIGNATION MANUFACTURER PLATFORMS NOTES
ALE-45 Tracer F-15 Microprocessor-controlled chaff/flare dispensers used
with ALQ4 35 TEWS.
ALE-47 Tracer, Loral 22 different aircraft Updated ALE-40 with
software-controlled dispensing patterns. Also exported
as TACDS.
ALE-50 Raytheon A-6 Advanced Airborne Expendable Decoy (AAED);
towed jammer streamed from aircraft.
ALQ;99 Eaton-AIL EA-6B, EF-111 Tactical Jamming System (TJS) with processor control, 10 jamming bands in pods (A-6) or converted weapons bay (EF-111).
ALCM08 Magnavox C-2, E-2C, EP-3E, S-3 Pod-mounted IFFjammer.
ALQ-119 Westinghouse A-10, F-lll, F-15 First dual-mode (noise and
deception) jammer. Upgraded several times, last as
ALQ-184.
ALQrl22 Motorola B-52 Power-managed multiple false-target generator.
ALQ-126 Lockheed Sanders A-6, F-14, F/A-18 Threat identification, priority setting, response through variety ofjamming methods.
ALQ-128 Magnavox F-15 H-J-band threat-warning receiver; part of ALQ-135 TEWS.
ALQ-130 Eaton-AIL A-6, EA-6B Tactical communications jammer.
ALCM31 Westinghouse A-10, AC-130, F-4, F-15,
F-16, F-lll
Pod- or internally mounted processor-controlled jammer using threat library, covers B-J radar bands. Exported to several countries.
ALQ-133 Quick Look United
Technologies
OV-1D, RV-1D A-J-band passive locator, identifier of radars; relays information to ground stations.

AIRBORNE ELECTRONIC WARFARE SYSTEMS (continued)

DESIGNATION

MANUFACTURER

PLATFORMS

NOTES

ALQ-135 Northrop F-15 Threat Evaluation and Warning System (TEWS). Receiver and jammer up through J band. Coordinates with ALE-45, ALR-56.
ALQ-136 ITT AH-l,AH-64 Detects, analyzes, and jams SAM radars in I/J band.
ALQ;137 Lockheed Sanders EF-111A Power-managed, E-J-band jammer using several modes. Operates with ALR-62.
ALQ-142 Raytheon SH-60B E-K-band intercept, direction finder of submarine radars.
AIXM44 Lockheed Sanders AH-l,AH-64, SH-2,
SH-60, UH-1,UH-60
Infrared Countermeasures (IRCM) system uses heated ceramic radiator to spoof heat-seaking missiles.
ALQ-147 Lockheed Sanders OV-1, RV-1 Fuel-heated IRCM for aircraft with limited electrical supply.
ALQ-149 Lockheed Sanders EEA-6B Communications, low-band (A/B) radar receiver, analyzer; complements ALQ-99 jammer.
ALQ-150
Cefire Tiger
GTE RU-21 Communications intercept, jammer. Each of 3 bands covered in a different aircraft.
ALQ-151
Quick Fix
ESL, Tracer EH-1, EH-60 Communications intercept
(HF/VHF), VHF direction
finding, VHF jamming.
ALQ-153 Westinghouse B-52 Active pulse-Doppler radar MAWS that detects, classifies threats, automatically launches chaff/flares. Chosen over AIL’s ALQ-154.
ALQ-155 Northrop B-52 Receivers for ALT-28 noise jammer, power manager.
Also links with ALR-46.
DESIGNA

TION

MANUFACTURER

PLATFORMS

NOTES

ALQ-156/-
156A
Lockheed Sanders A-6, CH-47, EH-1, EH-60, OV-l/RV-1, P-3C, RO12, RU-21 Active pulse-Doppler radar MAWS. Automatically triggers ECM and IRCM. Can
be used at high and low altitudes.
alq-157 Loral CH-46, CH-53, C-130 Jams IR-homing missiles; uses 1 of 5 preset routines.
alq-158 Hazeltine P-3C Electronic Support Measures system with phased-array antenna.
ALQ:161 Eaton-AIL B-l A-K-band integrated airborne defensive avionics system. Severely troubled by technical glitches, threat changes; not fully operational.
ALQ-162 Shadowbox Northrop AV-8B,CF-18,Draken,
EH-1, EH-60, EF-18, F-16, OV/RV-1D, RC-12,
RF-4B, RU-21
Continuous-wave jammer developed to counter Soviet-designed SAM systems. Can identify and set threat priorities. Also exported to Canada (CF-18),
Denmark (Draken), and Spain (EF-18).
ALQ-164 Lockheed Sanders AV-8B Pulse and continuous-wave jammer developed from
ALQ-126.
ALQ-165 ASPJ ITT-
Westinghouse
A-6,AV-8B, EA-6B, F-14, F/A-18 Advanced C-J pulsed and CW jammer with microprocessor control. Canceled in 1991-92 but could be revived.
ALQ472 ITT B-52,AC-130U, MO130E/H Combat
Talon
ALQ-117 I/J-bandjammer upgrade with phased-array antennas (in (V)2), power management, software updating.
ALQ-176 Hercules various Pod-mounted C-J-band
jammer for training, combat evaluation.
ALQ-178 Rapport Loral F-16, Mirage III Integrated radar warner and jammer fitted in export aircraft.

TABLE OF SONOBUOYS (continued)

DESIGNATION

MANUFACTURER

USE

SSQ-95 Litton Active Electronic Buoy (AEB) to decoy antiship mis-
siles.
SSQ-102 Air-Deployed Active Receiver Tactical Surveillance So-
nar (ADARTSS). Detects targets illuminated by other
sonars.
SSQ-103 Low-cost sonobuoy. Canceled in early 1990s because of
cost overruns.
SSQ-110 Sparton, Classified program. First contracts to Magnavox (6,000
Magnavox units), Sparton (18,000 units).

TABLE OF ELECTRONIC WARFARE SYSTEMS

AIRBORNE ELECTRONIC WARFARE SYSTEMS
DESIGNATION MANUFACTURER PLATFORMS NOTES
AAR-34 Cincinnati Electronics F-lll Tail-mounted IR sensor to detect air-to-air missiles; interfaces withALR-62.
AAR-44 Cincinnati Electronics C-l 30, MC-130 Combat
Talon, MH-53 Pave Low
Lower-hemisphere IR warner to detect SAMs, trigger chaff or flare response.
AAR-44FX Cincinnati Electronics fighters Entrant in USAF Missile Approach Warning System (MAWS) trials.
AAR-47 Cincinnati Electronics C-130, OV-10,AH-1T, CH-46, CH-53 series, MH-60, SH-2, SH-60, UH-1 Passive MAWS operating in ultraviolet band with 4 staring electro-optical receivers, processor to trigger coun-termeasures.
ALE-29 Loral, Tracor A-6, F-14 2 30-cell chaff/flare/
jammer dispensers, programmer.
ALE-38/41 Tracor pod-mounted Dispensers that cut chaff to length for corridor clearance.
ALE-39 Tracor, Loral A-6, AV-8B, F-14, F/A-18,
CH-46, CH-53, AH-1, SH-2, SH-60, UH-1
Derived from ALE-29 with greater flexibility in pattern and type of counter-measure.
ALE-40 Tracor A-10,AMX, C-l 30, Mirage, F-5E, F-16 Modular chaff/flare dispensers. 30 chaff cells, 15 flare cells per unit.

AIRBORNE ELECTRONIC WARFARE SYSTEMS (continued)

DESIGNATION MANUFACTURER PLATFORMS NOTES
ALQ-184 Raytheon A-10, F-lll, F-4G, F-15, Repeater, transponder,
F-16 noiseAjammer upgrade of
ALQ-119. Uses Rotman
lens antennas for receiving,
jamming.
ALQ;187 Raytheon F-16 Active jamming pod for ex-
port.
ALQ-191 Perkin-Elmer development Laser warning receiver; 8-
12-micron wavelength.
ALQ-192 Cartwright proposed for F/A-18 Threat Missile Detection
System (TMDS) MAWS.
ALQ-199 Loral trials Active pulse-Doppler
MAWS based on Israeli EL/
M-2160 system.
ALR-45/-45F Litton US Navy aircraft Radar-WarningReceiver
(RWR) with crystal-video
receivers,software-
programmable ATAC pro-
cessor.
ALR-46 Litton A-10, B-52;C-130, RF-4 E-J-band RWR that identi-
fies up to 16 emitters
(including frequency-agile)
simultaneously.
ALR-52 Argo Systems EP-3E C-J-band Instantaneous
Frequency Measurement
(IFM) receiver, emitter
analysis by digital com-
puter.
ALR-53 Litton Long-range homing re-
ceiver.
ALR-56A Loral F-15A RWR with low-, high-band
receivers; part of TEWS.
ALR-56C Loral F-15C Upgrade of-56A; E-J-band,
dual-conversion, wideband,
agile scanning, super-
heterodyne RWR.
ALR-56M Loral, Litton F-16C ALR-56C reduced by 40%;
replaces ALR-69 in earlier
F-16s, to be fitted in B-1B.
ALR-58 Lockheed P-3B Electronic Support Mea-
Sanders sures (ESM) set.
ALR-59(V) Litton E-2C C-J-band, 4-antenna radar
receiver; replaced by
ALR-73.

DESIGNATION

MANUFACTURER

PLATFORMS

NOTES

ALR-60 GTE/Sylvania EP-3E Communications intercept
Deep Well and analysis to track war-
ships. 7 sets delivered.
ALR-62(V) Litton F-lll RWR that “looks through”
own-aircraft jammers to de-
tect emitters; ALR-62I
proposed for F-lll, B-1B
upgrades.
ALR-64 Dal mo-Vic tor/ A-10, F-16 Compass Sail C/D-band
Litton RWR.
ALR-66(V) Litton P-3, SH-2, SH-3, O130K, E-J ((V)1),C-J (others)
VC10, Tristar band RWR with 4 antennas,
large threat memory. Vari-
ants expand band coverage,
sensitivity.
ALR-67 Litton A-6,AV-8B, F-14,F/A-18 D-J-band RWR; ALR45F
crystal-video receivers with
a superheterodyne receiver,
low-band receiver, and
ATAC-16M processor. (V)3
is Advanced Special Re-
ceiver (ASR) upgrade.
ALR-68 Litton German F-4 ICE Updated ALR-46 digital
Threat-Warning Receiver
(TWS) for retrofit.
ALR-69 Litton A-l 0,C-130, F-4, F-16 ALR-46 with ALR-64 and
Frequency-Selective Re-
ceiver System (FSRS) for
continuous-wave DF and
pulsed emitter analysis. Ex-
ported to several countries.
ALR-73 Litton E-2C Passive Detection System
(PDS) upgrade of ALR-59;
4-band frequency range
through step-sweep, 4 re-
ceivers.
ALR-74 Litton F-16 ALR-67/-69 update; lost
competition to ALR-56M.
ALR-75 Scientific NKC-135, EO24A Surveillance receiver an-
Communica- alyzing A-J bands
tions simultaneously; 8 tuners,
ALR-76 IBM S-3B, EP-3 RWR with extended fre-
quency range, auto
classification and location;
replaced ALR-47.
DESIGNATION MANUFACTURER PLATFORMS NOTES
APR-46(V) Watkins-
Johnson
Special-operations aircraft Wideband microwave receiver (30 MHz to 18 GHz) applicable to special-operations forces aircraft.
APR-50 IBM B-2 ESM/Threat Warning suite using Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) and Gallium
Arsenide (GaAs) circuitry.
ASS-2 UH-1 Infrared (IR) surveillance system.
ASS-24 OV-1 IR surveillance system.
ATRJ ITT development Advanced Threat Radar Jammer suite for the
AH-64.
ATIRCM Lockheed
Sanders, Loral, Northrop
development (Advanced Tactical Infrared Countermeasures) Directed IRCM system using laser to jam IR seekers. Sanders uses coherent laser, Loral noncoherent, Northrop both.
AVR-2 transports Laser-warning system.
P-MAWS 2000 Westinghouse development 3rd-generation ultraviolet-band Missile Attack Warning System.
USA-4 OV-1 IR surveillance system.

GROUND-BASED ELECTRONIC WARFARE SYSTEMS

DESIGNATION MANUFACTURER PLATFORMS NOTES
GLQ-3 Fairchild Weston truck VHF (20-230 MHz) tactical voice and data communications intercept and ECM system.
MLQ-33 GTE Jams ground-to-air VHF/ UHF communications.
MLQ-34 Tacjam GTE, AEL M1015 tracked carrier Jams most types of modulated signals in A-C bands; can direct 2,000 watts at each of 3 emitters simultaneously. Often deployed withTSQ:112.

GROUND-BASED ELECTRONIC WARFARE SYSTEMS (continued)

DESIGNATION MANUFACTURER PLATFORMS NOTES
MSQ-103 Teampack Emerson truck (-103B) orM1015 (-103A/C) Detects and provides Line of Bearing (LOB) on radars
in C-K bands (0.5-40 GHz). Colocated with TSQ-114 COMINT system.
PRO-10 LAV MEWSS SIGINT system.
PRD-12 LMRDFS Watkins-Johnson truck Intercept, DF of hostile
HF/VHF/UHF communications.
TLQ-15 AEL various 2,000-watt jammer and “look-through” communications system.
TLQ17
Traffic Jam Quickfix
Loral Fairchild truck (-17A), EH-1,
EH-160 Quickfix helo
Jamming/monitoring of HF/VHF systems. Can operate on up to 255 preset frequencies simultaneously. Sandcrab jammer developed for Operation Desert Storm.
TRQ-30 manpack HF/VHF intercept and
LOB. Known as Turkey 30.
TRQ32
Teammate
truck HF/VHF intercept and LOB. Known as Turkey 32. Replaced by TSQ-112.
TSC-109
Agtclis
Bunker Ramo truck C-J-band SIGINT DF (Direction Finding) system using 3 remote, 1 control stations; 1° RMS accuracy at 16 nm (30km).
TSQ112
Tacelis
GTE truck HF/VHF COMINT DF system; 2 remote master, 4 remote slave stations; deployed with MLQ-34.
TSQ-114 Trailblazer ESL M1015 HF/VHF/UHF search, intercept, and report sytern. Interopcrates with Quickfix forDFin20-80MHz.
TSQ152
Trackwolf
tracked HF COMINT and auto DF,
collection, processing.

AIRBORNE ELECTRONIC WARFARE SYSTEMS (continued)

DESIGNATION MANUFACTURER PLATFORMS NOTES
ALR-77 Eaton-AIL P-3C ESM with IFM, DF, narrowband analysis; replaced ALQ-78.
ALR-80(V) Litton C-101 Aviojet, F-5E, CN-235 Export-oriented digital, fully programmable ALR-66(V)3 upgrade.
ALR-85(V) Litton C-130, L-1011 Modular RWR for transports.
ALR-91 Litton F-16 Replacement RWR for ALR-46 ({V)3),ALR-69 ((V) 4) with 32-bit processor, all-band “staring” surveillance.
ALR-93 Litton export 32-bit processor, superheterodyne, IFM receivers can be added.
APR-38 McDonnell Douglas F-4G Emitter Location System (ELS) with 52 antennas. Planned upgrade to APR-47 canceled because of receiver problems, but much improved Weasel Attack
Signal Processor (WASP) added to basic APR-38.
APR-39 E-Systems, Loral OV-/RV-1D, most US
helicopters, Lynx, Gazelle, BO-105, patrol
craft
E-I-band RWR for helicopters with signal sorting, emitter identification, bearing computation.
APR-39A Litton C-l 30, OV-10, SEMA aircraft, AH-l,AH-64, UH-60, Hirundo Expands APR-39 coverage to millimeter-wave bands (L, M). (V) 3 adds crystal-video receivers for continuous coverage. Also serves as controller for AVR-2 laser warner, AAR-47.
APR-43 Loral, AEL US Navy RWR for C/D pulse, CW missile systems. Works with ALR-45/67, ALCM26/-162.
APR-44 AEL OH-58, UH-1N Lightweight RWR that detects (in (V)3 version) H-J-band CW signals.

DESIGNATION

MANUFACTURER

PLATFORMS

NOTES

TSQ-IEWCS Electrospace M2 tracked carrier, HM- Intelligence and Electronic
WWV5/4-tontruck Warfare Common Sensor
(COMINT/ECM/EUNT/
ESM functions combined)
to detect single channel
and Low Probability of In-
tercept signals. Fielded in
GBCS-Heavy (M2) and
GBCS-Light variants. Re-
places MLQ;34, MSCM03,
TLQ-17, TRQ-32, TS(>114.
ULQ-19 Racal mobile, helicopter 16-channel 100-watt com-
munications jammer
covering 20-80 MHz.
USD-9 ESL RC-12 Airborne SIGINT system;
with ELINT added, be-
comes Guardrail common
sensor, works with TSQ-112.
NAVAL ELECTRONIC WARFARE SYSTEMS
DESIGNATION MANUFACTURER PLATFORMS NOTES
BLD-1 Litton/Amecon submarines (SSN Passive intercept and pre-
SSN21) cise Direction Finding (DF)
using phase interferometer.
BLQ-3 GE submarines Low-Frequency (LF) acous-
tic jammer.
BLQr4 GE submarines High-Frequency (HF)
acoustic jammer.
BLCW GE submarines LF acoustic repeater.
BLQ:6 GE submarines HF acoustic repeater.
BLQ-8 Bendix, Aerojet submarines Acoustic Countermeasures
(CM).
BLR 1-10 several submarines Radar-Warning Receivers
(RWR).
BLR-13 Kollmorgen submarines ECM receiver.
BLR-14 Unisys submarines Basic Submarine Acoustic
Warfare System (BSAWS)
against torpedoes. Warns,
analyzes, and launches CM.
BLR-15 Kollmorgen submarines Electronic Support Mea-
sures {ESM) receiver.
BRD-6/7 Lockheed submarines RDF, SIGINT receiver.
Sanders
DESIGNATION MANUFACTURER PLATFORMS NOTES
SLQ-49 Irvin surface ships or aircraft “Rubber duck” inflatable
radar decoy. Developed in
Great Britain.
SLQ-50 E-Systems surface ship with aircraft Batde Group Passive Hori-
BGPHES zon Extension System
(pronounced “bigfeez”)-
Intercept antenna are air-
borne, info data-linked to
shipboard processors.
SLR-16 Lockheed surface ships HF SIGINT using SRD-19
Sanders antennas. Part of SLQr34/
88(A72 Classic Outboard
systems.
SLR-21 E-Systems PHM 1 hydrofoils E-J-band radar intercept
and DF.
SLR-22 aircraft carriers Deception system.
SLR-23 surface ships J-band radar intercept, DF;
used with WLR-1, SLQ-32,
SLR-24 surface ships On-board processor uses
towed torpedo-detection
array.
SLT-5, 8 surface ships Communications jammers.
SRD-19 surface ships SIGINT in LF/MF/VHF
Diamond bands; uses several types of
antennas. Part of SSQ-72
Classic Outboard.
SRS-1 surface ships Antiship missile radar de-
tection emphasizing lower
cost. Cost overruns re-
ported.
SSQ-72/-74 ITT surface ships DF suite; -74 on 1 ship, -108
/-108 Classic is most elaborate; uses
Outboard SLR-16, SRD-19.
SSQ:82 Mute surface ships Emission control monitor.
ULQ-6 General destroyers, frigates Deception repeater jammer
Instrument in older ships.
URD-9(V) surface ships A-B-band radar DF.
URD-27 surface ships B-J-band SIGINT DF.
WLQ4 Sea GTE submarines (SSN 637) ESM detector/analyzer of
Nymph radar, communications sig-
nals; -4(V) 1 for use in
Seawolf.
WLR-1H ST Research surface ships HF to low-J-band RWR in
early variants; 1H in H-
J-band, has threat library,
control of CM.

NAVAL ELECTRONIC WARFARE SYSTEMS (continued)

DESIGNATION MANUFACTURER PLATFORMS NOTES
Mk36 Loral Hycor surface ships 6-barrel chaff/flare
SRBOC launcher deployed on ships
in groups of 2 or 4.
Mk 70 MOSS submarines (SSBN 726) Tube-Launched Mobile
Submarine Simulator.
SLQ-17 Hughes aircraft carriers ECM system that tracks, de-
tects, and uses deception
jamming against missile ra-
dars. Not regarded as a
success.
SLQ-25
Nixie Aerojet surface combatants Towed, electroacoustic tor-
pedo decoy.
SLQ:29 aircraft carriers Combines SLQ-17 with
WLR-1/-8/-11 radar-
warning/SIGINT systems
SLQ-32(V)1 Raytheon auxiliary, amphibious Series uses Rotman lens
warfare ships technology for instan-
taneous bearing
information. (V) 1 passive
H-J-band radar detection.
Many installations up-
graded to (V)2.
SLQ-32(V)2 Raytheon destroyers, frigates Expands passive detection
to D-J-band spectrum.
Many (V)2s also fitted with
“Sidekick” jammer ECM,
then designated (V)5.
SLQ-32(V)3 Raytheon cruisers, destroyers, (V)2 with ECM. Jammer
large amphibious, can jam 75 pulsed and Con-
auxiliaries tinuous Wave (CW)
emitters at once.
SLQ-32(V)4 Raytheon aircraft carriers (V) 3 that replaces SLQ4 7.
SLQ-54 in development to
replace SLQ-32 series.
SLQ-33 surface ships Towed acoustic decoy.
SLQ-34 28 surface ships Intelligence collection sys-
Outboard tem using SLR-16 and
SRD-19 SIGINT.
SLQ:36 surface ships Detects, decoys acoustic-/
wake-homing torpedoes
with variety of systems.
SLQ-39/-41
to-47 Chaff-dispensing (-39) / ex-
pendable active EW buoys.

NAVAL ELECTRONIC WARFARE SYSTEMS (continued)


DESIGNATION MANUFACTURER PLATFORMS NOTES
WLR-3 Jetonics surface ships, submarines RWR, SIGINT system.
WLR-4 surface ships, submarines ESM receiver.
WLR-5 surface ships, submarines Acoustic intercept receiver.
WLR-6 Waterboy surface ships, submarines Signal collection for reconnaissance.
WLR-8(V) GTE aircraft carriers, submarines HF to J-band (except (V)2
C-J-band) signal surveillance and analysis with 7 superheterodyne tuners and 2 digital computers.
WLR-9 Norden submarines Acoustic Intercept Receiver (AIR); has 2 hydrophones, receiver processor for sonar intercept and analysis.
WLR-11 ARGO aircraft carriers H-J-band Instantaneous
Frequency Measurement (IFM) to detect antiship missile radars. Used with WLR-1,
WLR-12 Norden submarines AIR with extended frequency coverage.
WLR-13 surface ships Infrared, electro-optical
warning receiver.
WLR-17 Norden submarines AIR derived from WLR-9.

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