Summary and Further Reading (Microcontrollers)

In this topic we examined the computer and the instruction in some detail. You should be prepared to study each of the instructions in the 6812 in the following two topics with respect to the details that we introduced for the load instruction in this topic. We will expand the ideas of programming, introduced at the end of this topic, as we progress through the topic. Many questions may remain unanswered, though, after reading this topic. We want you to continue reading the following topics as we discuss the way to use this marvelous tool.
In this topic, we use Motorola’s CPU12RG/D manual to provide essential information needed to write and read machine code for the 6812 in compact and neat form. This manual is a summary of key tables and figures in the manual CPU12RM/AD, which contains complete information on the execution of each instruction. Additionally, there is a manual for the ‘B32, M68HC912B32TS/D, and a
manual for the ‘A4, M68HC812A4TS/D, which describe their I/O systems. Motorola is generous with these manuals and maintains them better than we can in an appendix in this topic, so we recommend that you order the manuals from Motorola that you need to accompany this topic. Finally, if you are already an accomplished assembly language programmer on another computer or microcomputer, you might find this topic too simple and spread out. We might offer topic 1 of the text Single- and Multiple-Chip Microcontroller Interfacing as a condensed summary of much of the material in this text.

Do You Know These Terms?

This is a list of all italicized words in this topic. You should check these terms to he sure that you recognize their meaning before going on to the next topic. These terms also appear in the index, with page numbers for reference, so you can look up those that you do not understand.
von Neumann
computer memory controller data operator input-output (I/O) register
microprocessor microcomputer single-chip
microcontroller MPU byte word line wire bus clock
clock cycle clock rate clock frequency
read/write line
write access
random access
(RAM) read only memory
(ROM) volatile nonvolatile program instruction instruction cycle fetch/execute
cycle fetch
fetch phase recall
execute phase accumulator effective address one-address
computer addressing mode operation code
byte operation code
(op code)
number machine code machine debug assembler source code mnemonic immediate
addressing operand
direct addressing carry bit
(carry) condition code
register half-carry static efficiency dynamic
efficiency clarity
single-chip mode electrically
(EEPROM) serial peripheral
interface (SPI) serial
interface (SCI) timer
AT) converter erasable programmabl
read-only memory
(EPROM) programmable
(PROM) memory map flash memory pulse-width
(PWM) Byte Data Link
Module (BDLC)

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