Plug-ins and Resources (LightWave v9) Part 3

Color Temperatures of Light

The color temperature of light is the temperature to which you would have to heat an object (a black body) to produce light of similar spectral characteristics. Low color temperatures produce warmer (yellow/red) light, whereas higher temperatures produce colder (bluer) light.

The color of light is measured in Kelvins. LightWave has a handy Kelvin scale on its color picker, which makes it easy to plug in these values when you want an accurate starting point. For example, if you want to light your gunfight scene from High Noon, you would select a starting temperature of 6000 to 6500 degrees Kelvin (noontime) for your skylight and adjust from there. Table A.4 presents various temperatures and the type of light they represent.

Table A.4 Kelvin Temperatures for Various Light Sources

Temperature

Light Source

1400-1930

Candlelight

2000-2500

Sunrise

2680

40W incandescent lamp

2800-2850

100W household (tungsten) bulb

2950

500W tungsten lamp

2960-3200

Tungsten studio lamp

3000


Fluorescent light (warm white) 200W incandescent lamp

1000W tungsten lamp

3200

Halogen bulb, Nitraphot B

3400

Photoflood (floodlamp) Halogen bulb, Nitraphot A

3800-4000

Clear flashbulb

4000

Moonlight

4400

Sun two hours after rising

5000

Fluorescent light

5000-6000

Daylight sun at midday to noon

5500

Daylight (for photography) Electronic flash tube

5500-6000

Blue flashbulb

6000-7000

Electronic flash

6500

Daylight (sun and sky averaged)

7000

Overcast sky

8000

Cloudy sky, light shade

9000

Hazy sky, light shade

11000

Sky light without direct sun

13000

Blue sky, thin white clouds

16000

Average blue sky, medium shade

18000-19000

Clear blue sky, deep shade

Film Output Resolutions

Table A.5 represents the most common resolutions you are likely to run into when working with film. These numbers are not absolute, however. There are many factors that could change the final output resolution. The second rows under some of the formats represent alternate resolutions asked for by some postproduction facilities. Some facilities may also ask for rendered output resolutions not on this chart. It all depends on the particular needs of the project.

Table A.5 Common Film Resolutions

Film Resolutions

Image Aspect

Pixel Aspect

<1K

1K

1.5K

2K

4K

35mm Full Aperture

1.33

1.00

768 x 576 1024×778

1024×768 1556×1182

1536×1152 2048×1556

2048 x 1536 4096×3112

4096 x 3072

35mm Academy

1.37

1.00

1024 x 747

1556×1134 1536×1119

2048 x 1494 1828×1332

4096 x 2987 3656 x 2664

914 x 666

35mm Academy Projection

1.66

1.00

512×307 914×551

1024×614

1536×921 1556×938

2048 x 1229 1828×1102

4096×2458 3656×2202

35mm 1.75:1

1.75

1.00

560×320

1120×640

1575×900

2048×1170

4096×2340

35mm 1.85:1

1.85

1.00

512×277

1024×554 914 x 494

1536×830 1556×841

2048×1107 1828×988

4096 x 2214 3656 x 1976

35mm 2.35:1

2.35

1.00

512×218

1024 x 436

1536×654

2048 x 871

4096 x 1743

35mm Anamorphic 2.35:1

2.35

2.00

512 x 436

1024×871

1536×1307

2048×1743

4096 x 3486

70mm Panavision

2.20

1.00

880 x 400

1024×465

1536×698

2048 x 931

4096 x 1862

Panavision

2.35

1.00

1536×653

2048 x 871 1828×777

4096 x 1742 3656 x 1555

70mm IMAX

1.36

1.00

512×375

1024×751

1536×1126

2048×1501

4096 x 3003

VistaVision

1.50

1.00

512×341

1024×683

1536×1024

2048×1365 1828×1219

4096 x 2731 3072 x 2048

CinemaScope

1.17

1.00

1024×872

1536×1307

2048×1743 1828×1556

4096 x 3487 3656 x 3112

CinemaScope

2.35

1.00

1536×653

2048 x 871 1828×777

4096 x 1742 3656 x 1555

35mm (24mmx36mm) slide

1.50

1.00

512×341

1024×683

1536×1024

2048×1365

4096 x 2731

6cmx6cm slide

1.00

1.00

512×512

1024×1024

1536×1536

2048 x 2048

4096×4096

4" x 5" or 8" x 10" slide

1.33

1.00

768 x 576

1024×768


1536×1152

2048 x 1536

4096 x 3072

Video Output Resolutions

Table A.6 represents the most common video and computer resolutions for working with video. Although NTSC and PAL are interlaced formats, it is a common practice today to render final output as frames rather than fields. It should also be noted that HDTV formats are still far from being standardized across various industries. Always find out from your clients which format they are using.

Table A.6 Common Video and Computer Resolutions

Video Resolutions

Image Aspect

Pixel Aspect

Resolution

Frames/Sec.

D1 NTSC

1.33

0.90

720X486

30i

D1 NTSC Widescreen

1.78 (16:9)

1.20

720X486

30i

D2 NTSC

1.35

0.86

752X480

30i

D2 NTSC Widescreen

1.87

1.15

752X480

30i

D1 PAL

1.33

1.07

720X576

25i

D1 PAL Widescreen

1.78 (16:9)

1.42

720X576

25i

D2 PAL

1.33

1.02

752X576

25i

HDTV

16:9

1.00

1920X1080

60i,30p,24p

16:9

1.00

1280X720

60p,30p,24p

16:9 (4:3)

1.00

704X480

60p,60i,30p,24p

4:3

1.00

640X480

60p,60i,30p,24p

VGA

1.33

1.00

640X480

SVGA

1.33

1.00

800X600

XGA

1.33

1.00

1024X768

SXGA*

1.25

1.00

1280X1024

SXGA

1.33

1.00

1280X960

UXGA

1.33

1.00

1600X1200

*Note: 1280 X1024 should be avoided, as it is not the correct aspect ratio for video or computer monitors.

More References You Can Use

The tables listed in this topic are tremendous assets when creating the various surfaces and resolutions available to you in LightWave.

Now, we wanted to be the be-all end-all to LightWave learning, but that’s not fair. Not fair to you, that is! There are so many resources out there, it’ll make your head spin. Because of that, we’ve included a comprehensive list of other LightWave learning resources, as well as topics and videos related to the art of 3D modeling and animation.

Reading References

Some might say that topics are becoming a thing of the past, because of the Internet and various learning videos on the market. Not so! In fact, topic production is greater than it ever has been! So here are some great topics that you can use to help learn the art of 3D.

These are just a few topics of interest, and there are more emerging every day. Browse online, read reviews, and check around to see who’s used a topic you’re interested in. Get feedback and see if it’s right for you. Often, one simple tip or idea is worth the price of a topic alone, especially during a project!Often getting your hands on a topic before you buy it gives you the opportunity to review it and see if the info you need is in there.

Audiovisual References

Like most people, you enjoy a good, thick LightWave topic. You can read it on the train, in bed, even while in the bathroom! But sometimes, you want to see something being done. You want to hear the click of the mouse. If that’s the case, there are plenty of visual reference materials out there to help you learn LightWave, as well as many other applications. Below is a list of great learning resources:

•It is a very high-quality, high-impact learning course, with completely different projects than what’s shown in this topic. If you’re a student or teacher looking to learn LightWave from the ground up, the Signature Courseware is for you. Visit the site for free downloads and examples.

• Class On Demand (www.classondemand.net). Class On Demand sells not only LightWave training videos and DVDs, but also Video Toaster, Speed Razor, and many others. If you’re not looking for a course but rather an inexpensive spot tutorial, you’ve come to the right place. Visit the site to check out the full list of topics, and check with your local reseller for pricing.

• Desktop Images (www.desktopimages.com). Desktop Images has been around for years, teaching cool LightWave techniques to students around the globe. Visit the site for updates and information on products.

• Motion Blur Artwork (www.mba-studios.de). MBA sells LightWave training DVDs of excellent quality through Carnera 3D Seminars. Clear and concise, the tutorials are very complete.

• Kurv Studios (www.kurvstudios.com). Kurv sells LightWave training DVDs with specific topics of interest.

Web Resources

Often the best place for information is right on your computer! The Internet is a terrific place where you’ll find not only information on the latest version of LightWave but tutorials as well. While many tutorials need a little figuring out on your part, there are a ton of freebies that can help you pick up a quick tip or technique. Here is a list of just a few LightWave-related Web sites you can check out:

• NewTek, Inc. (www.newtek.com). The home of the makers of LightWave, this is a great place to begin learning with many online tutorials, free of charge.

• LightWave Tutorials on the Web (http://members.shaw.ca/lightwavetutorials/ Main_Menu.htm). Plenty of resources can be found here.

• Flay (www.flay.com). Hands down, this is the single best online reference for LightWave, be it tutorials, plug-ins, and more.

• 3D Links (www.3dlinks.com/tutorials_lightwave.cfm). This is another user-based site that is a great resource.

• LightWave Oz (www.lightwaveoz.org). Our friends from down under set up this killer LightWave resource page.

• 3D Palace (www.3d-palace.com). This site includes information for LightWave and other applications.

• 3D Buzz (www.3dbuzz.com) A leader in free 3D training, 3D Buzz offers LightWave tutorials, links, and references.

• MD Arts (www.md-arts.com). This is simply a great LightWave tutorial page.

• Creative Cow (www.creativecow.net). The Cow has forums set up where you can discuss LightWave and many other related applications. Find links to more information there.

• LightWave Group (www.lwg3d.org). The LightWave Group is a cool site for forums, links, and tutorials.

• Simply LightWave (www.simplylightwave.com). What more can you say? Simply LightWave! Check it out for some great tutorials.

These are just a few sites, but a search on Google.com, Lycos.com, or Yahoo.com yields a plethora of wonderful resources. Some may or may not be helpful in your situation or project, but it doesn’t hurt to check them out. You never know what you can pick up!

Be sure to also cruise the forums, which are great places to view, discuss, and critique 3D work. Try these:

• NewTek Forums (www.newtek.com)

• CG Talk (http://forums.cgsociety.org)

• 3D World (www.3dworldmag.com)

• LightWave Group (www.lwg3d.com)

• SpinQuad Forums (www.spinquad.com)

And there is much more out there. Search, and you shall find. Happy learning!

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