1. The letters X and V are not transliterated.

An apostrophe (‘) between vowels indnicates that they do not form a diphthong and are to be pronounced separately.

2. Dagesh hazak (forte) is indicated by doubling of the letter, except for the letter tf.

3. Names. Biblical names and biblical place names are rendered according to the Bible translation of the Jewish Publication Society of America. Post-biblical Hebrew names are transliterated; contemporary names are transliterated or rendered as used by the person. Place names are transliterated or rendered by the accepted spelling. Names and some words with an accepted English form are usually not transliterated.



1. Yiddish transliteration rendered according to U. Weinreichs Modern

English-Yiddish Yiddish-English Dictionary.

2. Hebrew words in Yiddish are usually transliterated according to standard Yiddish pronunciation, e.g., DUTn = khazones.


Ladino and Judeo-Spanish words written in Hebrew characters are transliterated phonetically, following the General Rules of Hebrew transliteration (see above) whenever the accepted spelling in Latin characters could not be ascertained.


1. not indicated when initial

2. see note (f)

a) The EJ follows the Columbia Lippincott Gazetteer and the Times Atlas in transliteration of Arabic place names. Sites that appear in neither are transliterated according to the table above, and subject to the following notes.

b)Personal names that do not therein appear are transliterated according to the table above and subject to the following notes (e.g., Ali rather than ‘All, Suleiman rather than Sulayman).

c) The EJ follows the Webster’s Third International Dictionary, Unabridged in transliteration of Arabic terms that have been integrated into the English language.

d) The term "Abu" will thus appear, usually in disregard of inflection.

e) Nunnation (end vowels, tanwin) are dropped in transliteration.

f) Gemination (tashdid) is indicated by the doubling of the geminated letter, unless an end letter, in which case the gemination is dropped.

g) The definitive article al- will always be thus transliterated, unless subject to one of the modifying notes (e.g., El-Arish rather than al-’Arish; modification according to note (a)).

h) The Arabic transliteration disregards the Sun Letters (the antero-palatals (al-Huruf al-Shamsiyya).

i) The td-marbuta (o) is omitted in transliteration, unless in construct-stage (e.g., Khirba but Khirbat Mishmish).

These modifying notes may lead to various inconsistencies in the Arabic transliteration, but this policy has deliberately been adopted to gain smoother reading of Arabic terms and names.


1. Ye at the beginning of a word; after all vowels except M; and after t and b.

2. O after H, W and m.

3. Omitted after M, and in names of people after M.

A. Many first names have an accepted English or quasi-English form which has been preferred to transliteration.

B. Place names have been given according to the Columbia Lippincott Gazeteer.

C. Pre-revolutionary spelling has been ignored.

D. Other languages using the Cyrillic alphabet (e.g., Bulgarian, Ukrainian), inasmuch as they appear, have been phonetically transliterated in conformity with the principles of this table.


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