(1921-2006), Romanian table tennis player; considered the greatest female table tennis player in history, winning 18 world titles, including six straight singles championships from 1950 to 1955. Born in Bucharest, Romania, Adelstein-Rozeanu was the first Romanian woman to win a world title in any sport. She began playing at the age of nine and won her first title in competitive play at the age of 12. She won the Romanian National Women’s Championship in 1936 at age 15 and won it every year until 1957 excluding the war years. In addition to her run of individual world titles, she picked up seven gold medals in women’s and mixed doubles between 1950 and 1956 and helped Romania win the team championship in 1950, 1951, 1953, 1955, and 1956. Adelstein-Rozeanu served as president of the Romanian Table Tennis Commission from 1950 to 1960, and in 1954 was awarded the Merited Master of Sport, the highest sports distinction in Romania. She also received four Order of Work honors from her government. Adelstein-Rozeanu moved to Israel in 1960, where she won the Maccabiah Games Table Tennis Championship in 1961 and the Israeli national championship in 1960-1962.


Port and city in S.W. Arabia, now part of the Federation of South Arabia, possibly identical with the Eden referred to in Ezekiel 27:23. Aden had a medieval Jewish community of great importance for the history of Jewish letters. It reached its peak during the 12th century. About 150 letters and documents written in, sent to, or concerning Aden were found in the Cairo Genizah. In addition, Yemenite Jews of that period communicated with other Jewish communities via Aden. By the end of the 11th century there was a "representative of the merchants" in Aden, Abu Ali Hasan (Heb. Japheth) ibn Bun-dar (probably a name of Persian origin). He bore the Hebrew title sar ha-kehillot ("chief of the congregations"), which indicates that he was head of the Jewish communities of both Aden and *Yemen. His son, *Madmun, was "nagid of the Land of Yemen."

In addition to business and family ties, there were communal and religious relations between the Jews of Aden and practically all the Jewish communities of the Islamic empire. "Aden and India" formed one juridical diocese: the Jewish merchants and craftsmen of about 20 different ports of India and Ceylon were under the jurisdiction of the rabbinical court of Aden. In Yemen itself the authority of the court of Aden extended as far as Sa’da, the northernmost important Jewish community of the country. In turn, the rabbinical court of Aden regarded itself subordinate to that of the Egyptian capital, which had been instituted by the head of the Palestinian academy. In a letter addressed in 1153 to Old Cairo, the rabbis of Aden describe themselves as authorized by their exilarch and their nagid, but add that they acknowledge their "masters in Egypt" as an authority higher than themselves (see Strauss (Ashtor), in Zion, 4 (1939), 226, 231).

Conflict of Religious Authority

Because of relations with both Iraq and Palestine-Egypt, the Jewish community of Aden was drawn into the rivalry between the respective Jewish authorities. The dissensions of the Old Cairo community were transmitted to Aden, where they erupted in the spring of 1134. On the Sabbath before Passover that year, a scholarly Jew from Sa’da was asked to lead the community in prayer. Following his home custom and the written instructions of the nagid Madmun, he mentioned both the ex-ilarch and the Palestinian gaon in his sermon. However, the Old Cairo opponents of Mazli’ah, who happened to be present, objected; and a cousin of the exilarch, recognized as his representative, forced the scholar from Sa’da to recant his error publicly. After Passover the merchants from North Africa and Egypt who went to Aden – most of them ardent followers of the Palestinian gaon – gathered around Halfon b. Nethanel Dimyati, known in Hebrew literature as an intimate friend of the poet Judah Halevi. The followers of Mazli’ah even threatened to apply to the Fatimid authorities to settle the dispute, but did not carry out the threat.

It is known that at the end of the 11th or the beginning of the 12th century the Jews of Aden contributed regularly to the upkeep of the academies of Iraq (see Goitein, in Tarbiz, 31 (1961/62), 363). Madmun and other well-to-do merchants of Aden also sent regular contributions consisting partly of money and partly of precious Oriental spices and clothes to the gaon and members of the rabbinical court in Old Cairo.

The Jews of Aden and Yemen submitted religious queries to the scholars of Egypt even before the time of Maimonides. For example, Madmun once sent gaon Mazli’ah a set of translucent Chinese porcelain accompanied by the religious query, often repeated in later sources, whether china should be regarded ritually as glass or pottery. Isaac b. Samuel ha-Sephardi, one of the two chief judges of Old Cairo between 1095-1127, sent responsa to Yemen, which, like Maimonides’ letters to Yemen, were certainly sent via Aden. (See the article on * nagid for the later negidim of Aden and Yemen.)

The Aden tradition of contributing to the academies of Iraq and Palestine was extended to that of *Maimonides. A very large donation for it is indicated in a letter sent from Aden. Abraham, Maimonides’ son and successor, answered queries addressed to him by the scholars of Aden.

Adani and Yemenite Jews

The impressive number of chiefs of congregations and negidim of Aden in the 11th and 12th centuries and later may be misleading: these notables did not exercise authority over the Jews of Yemen throughout the whole period. Despite the close connection between the Jews of Aden and those of inner Yemen, there were tangible differences between them, and they were referred to as "Adani" and "Yemeni," respectively, when traveling abroad. In the 12th century Adanis were found in Egypt and as far west as Mamsa in Morocco (cf. dit, no. 109 (= manuscript Cambridge, t.-s., 12. 1905), Yosef al-’Adani al-Mamsawi).

There were also Karaites in Aden. They tried to gain adherents to their beliefs, and the poems of Abraham Yiju in honor of Mad mun b. Japheth credit him with crushing their efforts. Disputations with Karaites are reflected in Yemenite writings of that period.

The Importance of Aden for Hebrew Literature

The Jews of Aden were ardent collectors of books. Mad mun b.David in his letter of July 1202 asked to have the medical treatises of Maimonides and other useful books sent to him; he specifically requested copies written on good paper and in a clear hand. The Jews of Aden were such avid bibliophiles that the Egyptian India traveler H alfon b. Nethanel went there for books that he could not get elsewhere (dit, no. 246). Many of the most important literary creations written in Hebrew, such as the poems of Judah Halevi and Moses ibn Ezra, have been preserved in manuscripts found in Yemen. The Midrash ha-Gadol of David *Adani shows that he possessed an exceptionally rich, specialized library, containing works that have not yet been found in their entirety elsewhere.

Most of the letters from Aden, consisting predominantly of business correspondence, are in Arabic, which was in those days the lingua franca of commerce throughout the Islamic world and beyond. However, the often very long Hebrew poems appended to these letters, as well as the personal letters written in Hebrew, prove that their writers were well versed in Hebrew literature and inclined toward the midrashic style and the piyyut.

Jewish Tombstones

A great many tombstones with Hebrew inscriptions were found in Aden. Some are preserved in the British Museum and many more in museums in Aden, but most of them have become known through rubbings and photographs made of tombs still in situ. The oldest inscriptions are from the 12th century; and those referring to persons mentioned also in the genizah documents are of particular interest. There are others from the 13th and 14th centuries and a great number from the 16th through the 18th. The wording in the older inscriptions is extremely modest and concise, while the later ones are occasionally more elaborate. In the tombstones of women, as a rule, the names of their fathers, but not those of their husbands, are indicated, even when the woman concerned was described as an ishah hashuvah ("an important lady"). (The comprehensive study of the subject by H.P. Chajes in the Sitzungsberichte of the Viennese Academy of Sciences, 147 (1904), no. 3, was complemented by additional material published by I. Ben-Zvi, in Tarbiz, 22 (1952/53), 198ff.; E. Subar, in jqr, 49 (1959), 301ff.; S.A. Birnbaum, in jss, 6 (1961), 95ff.; and by the critical survey by S.D. Goitein, in jss, 7 (1962), 81-84.).

Aden remained a busy port and its Jewish community prospered well into the 16th century. Despite a decline in Jewish participation in the India trade, Jewish Mediterranean merchants continued to frequent Aden, and scholars called Adani and known to have lived in Aden made considerable contributions. The replacement of a local dynasty by the Ottoman Turks in 1538 did not adversely affect the fortunes of the Jews of Aden. A Muslim book of legal opinions from the beginning of the Ottoman period gives the number of Jewish male taxpayers as 7,000. Since taxes customarily were paid for boys at the age of nine approximately, this number of taxpayers indicates the existence of about 3,000 Jewish families in Aden. In the 18th century, when the India trade was at its lowest ebb and the tribal sultan of Lahj ruled it, Aden fell into utter decay. rc,,

Modern Period

A new topic in the history of Aden Jewry, as part of the political and economic changes in Aden itself, began with the conquest of the port and city from the Sultan of Lahj by the British captain S.B. Haines in 1839, supposedly in response to the aggressive action of the sultan against a British ship anchored next to Aden. In fact, the conquest of the port was intended to assure a safe place to anchor and fuel for British ships arriving from the Mediterranean basin via the Red Sea and Aden on their way to India. In 1839 the population of Aden was only 600, 250 of them Jewish and 50 Banyans (Indians). Soon after the British had occupied Aden, the governor abrogated the Jews’ status as a protected community (*dhimmt) and restored discriminatory laws in accordance with Islamic tradition (Ghiyar). This was done despite the sultan’s explicit orders. Haines’ reports describe the delighted reaction of the Jews to the British conquest as do the later accounts of the Jewish sources: Y. Sappir, S.D. Karasso, and M. ha-Adani. As a result of the occupation, the economic development of Aden took wing, especially after the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869. As a consequence, a profound transformation occurred in the economic structure of Aden’s Jewry from traditional handcrafts to various kinds of commerce. Particularly prominent was the Moses (Messa) family, whose head, Menahem Moses (d. 1864), was the president of the community. This family became very wealthy, especially as suppliers to the British army and its administration in Aden, which trusted the Jewish merchants more than the Muslim ones. The Moses family continued to be the social and economic leaders of Aden Jewry in the next two generations, particularly Menahem Moses’ son, Banin (d. 1922), who succeeded his father as the head of the family and president of the community.

Because of the equal rights enjoyed by the Jews and the access to the outside world, Aden became attractive to Yemenite Jews. Many Jews emigrated to Aden as refugees escaping Yemen and the deteriorating political situation that particularly affected Jews and merchants. Jewish ship passengers and emissaries stopped at Aden and some decided to settle there. The number of Jews in Aden in 1860 was 1,500 and, by 1945, 4,500 Jews inhabited the city. In this way the Aden community took on a somewhat "international" character somewhat different from that of Yemen Jewry. Aden became the entry port to Yemen. Leaders of the local community, such as Moses Hanoch ha-Levi from the Caucasus and Banin Moses looked out for the well-being of Yemenite Jews and the refugees passing through Aden on their way to Erez Israel. Banin Moses even supported educational and outreach institutions of various Diaspora communities in Jerusalem and many of the emissaries from Erez Israel used to apply to him for contributions.

The profound political and economic changes did not result in social and cultural change. The Moses family, and especially Banin Moses, who held the economic reins of the community, virtually controlled single-handedly the social and religious administration of the community. He stymied all innovation, such as the establishment of modern schools and cooperation with the Zionist movement. As a result, a professional class of Jews did not come into being in Aden. Only after the death in 1924 of Judah Moses, the third family president, did a new family president, Selim (1924-38), another son of Menahem Moses, establish a modern educational system for girls and boys and strengthen the connections with the Zionist movement in Erez Israel. His partner in these activities was Mahalal *Adani. In this way the young generation -women as well as men – acquired a modern Zionist Hebrew education; however, none continued on to higher education. Neither did the small Hebrew printing press established in Aden in 1891 become a milestone in the cultural development of the community, as only a small number of religious books were printed there for the needs of religious life: various liturgical books and rules for ritual slaughter.

The abrogation of the status of the Jews as a protected community led to a deterioration in relations with the Muslim majority, heightened by the conflict with the Arabs in Erez Israel. Even though the Jewish community in Aden grew in numbers, the growth of the Muslim community was incomparably larger. As opposed to their relative size at the start of the British occupation in 1839, when they constituted approximately half the population, at this stage they became just a small religious minority. Apart from individual Muslim attacks against Jews, a large-scale attack on the Jewish quarter occurred in 1932 and continued for a few days. The Jewish stores were pillaged, many Jews were beaten, and the "Farhi" synagogue was desecrated. The British police showed its indifference by doing little to punish the attackers. Following these incidents, Aden Jewry no longer felt safe and immigration to Erez; Israel became an alternative. Simultaneously, the Islamic nationalist movement began to develop in Aden, seeking to end the British occupation. The situation of the Jews further deteriorated after the riots in Erez Israel in 1936-39. However, Yemenite and Aden Jews faced difficulties in immigrating to Israel because of British Mandate policy, which limited the number of certificates to Palestine.

In contrast to the declining political and economic situation, educational and social activities increased among the young generation in Aden thanks to the numerous emissaries arriving from Erez Israel. These emissaries included Yemenite and Aden Jews who had already moved to Israel such as Yosef ben David, Ovadia Tuvia, Binyamin Ratzabi, and Shimon Sha’er (Avizemer). These activities were not approved of by the traditional Jewish religious authorities, which caused tension between them and the younger rebellious generation. But social change was nipped in the bud as Arab violence was stepped up following the UN decision to establish a Jewish state in Palestine. In the new pogroms, which continued for three days with no British intervention, nearly a hundred Jews were killed in Aden and the nearby city of Sheikh ‘Uthman.

Others were injured, two Jewish schools were burned down, and most Jewish stores and small businesses were pillaged. The Jewish community lost all at once its economic underpinning and its faith in the British government. An investigating committee initiated by the British government did little to improve the financial and mental state of the Jews. Most of them preferred to immigrate to Israel with the founding of the Jewish state. Out of a population of 4,500, only 1,100 remained in 1946. In the mid-1950s, 830 lived there, a small minority among the 135,000 members of the Muslim community. The number of Jews diminished further in the course of the following years when their political situation worsened due to the tension between Israel and the Arab states and the radicalism of the Islamic nationalist Arab movement in Aden and its struggle against the British occupation. The 1958 incidents are an example of this trend: Jews were attacked in their synagogues, cars were destroyed, and an attempt was made to burn the Jewish school. With Britain’s departure after the Six-Day War in June 1967, many of the Jews who still lived in Aden left. In the following November an independent state was established in Aden. The remnants of the Jewish community arrived partly in Israel and partly in London, leaving their belongings and institutions behind them. The Jews who immigrated to London as British citizens joined the members of the community who had moved there several years earlier. This strengthened the Aden community in London, which still retains its religious traditions.


The folklore of the Jews of Aden was strongly influenced and dominated by that of the Jews of *Yemen. This was especially evident in their narrative lore. Among the unrelated local customs: The tallit ("mandil") was worn with green silk edges; a goat was slaughtered and placed under the bed of a mother in childbirth; on the first day of the seven-day wedding celebration a heifer was slaughtered. These animal sacrifices were also practiced by neighboring non-Jewish tribes, and it is doubtful whether they stem directly from ancient Jewish traditions.


(1876-1967), first chancellor of the postwar German Federal Republic. Son of a Catholic official in the Cologne law courts, Adenauer was elected in 1906 to the city council of Cologne on behalf of the Center (Catholic) Party, and in 1917 became mayor of the city, a post which he held until he was dismissed by the Nazis in March 1933. Jewish friends helped him financially during the Nazi period. Adenauer was twice arrested by the Gestapo and escaped from a Nazi prison shortly before the Rhineland was occupied by the Allies. In 1949 Adenauer emerged as leader of the new party, the Christian Democratic Union, and was elected chancellor of the Federal Republic. He was instrumental in gaining its full sovereignty in 1955. Prompted not only by political motives but also by his own deep feelings, Adenauer tried to open lines of communication with the Jewish people and the State of Israel. His offer of financial assistance coincided with the initiative of the Israel government and of Jewish organizations which, immediately after the war, demanded restitution and compensation from the Allies and later from both the East and West German governments. In 1952, after the *Reparation Agreements with Israel and the Jewish organizations were signed in Luxembourg, Adenauer proposed to establish full diplomatic relations with Israel, but was refused. Despite the opposition to the financial commitment in reparations and compensation by influential groups both in his own party and outside, Adenauer realized both its moral importance and its political advantage for Germany. In 1960 he met with the Israeli prime minister David *Ben-Gurion in New York and promised to continue financial aid to Israel after the end of the reparation commitment. Later, he declared himself ready to supply arms to Israel. He changed his mind on the establishment of diplomatic relations, however, because he feared that it might result in Arab recognition of East Germany. (See Israel Relations with *Germany.) In 1966, three years after his resignation from the post of chancellor, Adenauer visited Israel as a guest of the Israeli government. He devoted a topic in his memoirs (Er-innerungen, 3 vols., 1965-67; in English Memoirs, 1, 1966) to his relationship with Israel and with world Jewry.


(1567-1625?), commentator on the Mishnah. In 1571 he immigrated with his father, a hakham in Sana, Yemen, and his family to Safed, where he studied under David Amarillo. In 1577-78 Adeni’s father moved to Jerusalem. After his father’s death (1582) Adeni, then in difficult circumstances, was cared for and supported by R. Moses b. Jacob Alhami. Alhami continued, until his death, to support Solomon, who arranged Adeni’s marriage in 1590. In about 1582 Adeni entered the yeshivah of the kabbalist Hayyim *Vital, but later studied under others as well, among them Bezalel *Ashkenazi, who came to Jerusalem. Studying in seclusion, he wrote annotations in the margins of the Mishnah, and as these increased, he abbreviated them. It was apparently after the death of Bezalel Ashkenazi that Adeni settled in Hebron, where he earned a meager living as a schoolteacher. His wife, daughter, and two sons died in 1600, apparently from a plague. His eight children from a second marriage all died in childhood from epidemics and diseases.

Adeni’s commentary on the Mishnah, Melekhet She-lomo, was intended to encompass the entire Torah, explain the Talmuds, and to concentrate their commentaries and halakhic discussions in one place. The importance of the work is twofold: (1) to determine the clearest text of the Mishnah; and (2) to explain the Mishnah according to primary sources by his own method.

Adeni made use of many manuscripts of the Mishnah and the foremost rabbinic authorities then available in Erez Israel. Adeni’s method is remarkably accurate. He checked his quotations from primary sources. If the original text was not available, he noted from whom he copied his citation. His commentaries are the closest to the literal meaning of the Mishnah. He comments on the biographies of rabbis and he illustrates the orders Zera’im and Tohorot with many illustrations, and corrects the classical mishnaic commentators. He opened his comments with the words "the compiler states" and when he differed with a scholar, he modestly wrote, "And to me, a layman, it seems my humble opinion.."

Because of these attributes his work became an indispensable commentary for study of the Mishnah. In addition, it is an important source for philologists. Yom Tov Heller’s commentary on the Mishnah, Tosafot Yom Tov (Prague, 1585-87) appeared after Adeni had finished his work. However, praising Heller’s work highly, Adeni included selections from it when his book was published. Despite its importance the commentary was printed for the first time only in 1905. Adeni also produced some of Bezalel Ashkenazi’s glosses and commentaries on the Mishnah and the Talmud in a work called Binyan Shelomo le-Hokhmat Bezalel.

Another work equally important, but less famous because it was lost in manuscript, is Divrei Emet, glosses on the Bible. H.J.D. *Azulai saw this manuscript in Jerusalem and used it extensively in his work on the Bible, Homat Anakh.

Little is known about Adeni’s later life. The last information about him dates from 1625.


(Froim Zeilig; 1891-1962), Romanian novelist and journalist. Born in Puiesti (near Vaslui) and educated in Craiova, Aderca made his literary debut with volumes of poetry. The titles of the first two reflect his early preoccupation with feeling and harmony: Motive si simfonii ("Motifs and Symphonies," 1910) and Fragmente si romante ("Fragments and Romances," 1912). Then came the cold, cerebral period of Reverii sculptate ("Sculptured Reveries," 1912) and Prin lentile negre ("Through Black Lenses," 1912), finally emerging into the sensuality of Stihuri venerice ("Erotic Poems," 1915). Eroticism was to become the keynote of Aderca’s first novels. Moar-tea unei republici rosii ("The Death of a Red Republic," 1924) gave expression to his deep humanitarianism and pacificism. The reconstruction of the tragic atmosphere in Romania in World War 1 in 1916 represents not only Aderca’s outstanding work but is regarded as one of the best war books ever written. Two of his novels are distinctly Kafkaesque in form: Aventu-rile domnului Ionel Lacusta Termidor ("The Adventures of Mr. Ionel Lacusta Termidor," 1932) and Revolte. The latter, written in 1938 but only published in 1945, is a series of sketches lampooning legal procedures.

Ebullient and argumentative, Aderca was a prolific journalist. His interviews with men of ideas, collected in Marturia unei generatii ("Testimony of a Generation," 1929), introduced a new genre into Romanian literature. In his youth, Aderca contributed to various Romanian Jewish publications (Ha-Tikvah, Lumea evree, and Adam) and showed some attachment to Judaism and Zionism. He also published hundreds of articles about antisemitism. Aderca translated into Romanian books dealing with Jewish themes, among them the trilogy of Sholem Asch. Aderca believed in the idea of symbiosis between his Judaism and the Romanian language and culture. Persecuted during the Holocaust period (1938-44), he worked as a librarian in the Jewish community of Bucharest. He was unpopular with the Communist regime after World War 11 and from 1947 was allowed to publish virtually nothing but instructional literature for young people. One of his last works was a monograph on Constantin Dobrogeanu-Gherea (1948), the Russian-Jewish refugee literary critic and sociologist who promoted socialist theories in Romania. Some of Aderca’s literary works were republished in the "liberalization" period (after 1965), but most of them were republished only after the collapse of the Communist regime in Romania (1989). Fragments of his works were translated into Hebrew in Israel.


District in the upper Tigris region. During most of the Hellenistic period Adiabene was a vassal kingdom within the Parthian Empire. From 36 to 60 c.E. Adiabene was ruled by Izates, son of King *Monobaz and Queen *Helena. By that time the small kingdom had attained a measure of power and influence within the Parthian Empire, and it was Izates who restored the deposed Parthian king Artabanus 111 to his throne. For this, Izates was granted the extensive territory of Nisibis and its surroundings, and proceeded to play an important part in the dynastic struggles within Parthia after the death of Artabanus 111.

Before he became king, both Izates and his mother Helena had been converted to Judaism. As a youth, Izates had been sent to Charax Spasinu (capital of the kingdom of Cha-rakene, between the Tigris and the Euphrates) and it was there that he came under the influence of a Jewish merchant named *Ananias. At the same time, Helena had been converted by another Jew, and when Izates returned to Adiabene he was determined to complete his own conversion by undergoing circumcision. Against the wishes of Helena and Ananias the rite was performed, for Izates had been convinced by another Jew, a Galilean named Eleazar, that failure to do so would be considered "the greatest offense against the law and thereby against God." This story, as it appears in Josephus (Ant., 20:34ff.), bears an interesting resemblance to the account given in the Midrash (Gen. R. 46:11). Monobaz and Izates were sitting and reading the book of Genesis; when they came to the verse "ye shall be circumcised," they began to weep, and secretly had themselves circumcised. "When their mother learned of this she went and told their father: ‘A sore has broken out on our sons’ flesh, and the physician has ordered circumcision.’" The king then gave his consent to what had already been performed.

After their conversion the Adiabenian rulers were quick to establish strong ties with the Jews of Palestine. Appreciation of their generosity toward the population and the Temple is expressed in a variety of talmudic sources. "King Monobaz (older brother and successor to Izates) made of gold all the handles for the vessels used on the Day of Atonement. His mother Helena set a golden candlestick over the door of the Sanctuary. He also donated a golden tablet on which the paragraph of the Suspected Adulteress was written" (Yoma 3:10; cf. Tosef. ibid. 2:3; tj ibid. 3:8, 41a; tb ibid. 37a-b). Josephus reports that when Queen Helena visited Jerusalem (c. 46 c.E.) the journey greatly benefited the inhabitants, who were suffering from severe famine. Helena sent her attendants to Alexandria and Cyprus to procure grain and dried figs, which were distributed forthwith to the needy. "She left a very great name that will be famous forever among all our people for her benefaction. When her son Izates learned of the famine, he likewise sent a great sum of money to leaders of the Jeru-salemites" (Jos., Ant., 20:49 ff.). The Mishnah (Naz. 3:6) connects Helena’s pilgrimage to Palestine with a Nazarite vow she took. With regard to the famine, the Talmud relates that King Monobaz dissipated all his treasures and those of his ancestors in years of scarcity. When reproached by members of the court for squandering his money, Monobaz replied: "My fathers stored up below and I am storing up above," i.e., in heaven (bb 11a; see also Tosef. Pe’ah 4:18; tj ibid. 1:1, 15b). This piety is praised in other sources as well. Although there is no need to affix a mezuzah to a temporary abode, "the house of King Monobaz used to do so when staying at a hostel, merely in remembrance of the mezuzah" (Tosef. Meg. 4:30; Men. 32b). While in Judea, Helena erected a large sukkah in Lydda for the Feast of Tabernacles, and it was frequented by the rabbis (Tosef. Suk. 1:1).

The allegiance of the Adiabenians to the Jewish State was again proved during the Roman War of 66-70 in which the royal family took an active part. Josephus comments that "in the Jewish ranks the most distinguished for valor were Monobaz and Cenedaeus, kinsmen of Monobaz, king of Adiabene" (Jos., Wars, 2:520).

By the late second century c.E., Judaism must have been firmly established in Adiabene. Christianity, which usually spread in existing Jewish communities, was accepted in Adiabene without difficulty.


Family in Constantinople. Some members held important positions at the court of Ottoman sultans in the 18th and early 19th centuries. Some Adjimans were purveyors and treasurers of the Janissaries and therefore were called by the titles Ocak Bazergani ("Merchant to the Corps") or Ocak Sar-rafi ("Banker to the Corps"). The bazergans must have ranked among the most prominent figures in the Istanbul markets, conducting large-scale transactions. They were also known as philanthropists.

Baruch adjiman was the first rich man of the family in Istanbul. He settled in Jerusalem and died there in 1744. His two sons, Yeshaya Adjiman (d. 1751-2) and Eliya Adjiman, remained in Istanbul. His daughter was married to David Zonana.

Eliya adjiman was one of the wealthiest persons in the Jewish community and a philanthropist who helped Rabbi Ezra *Malkhi during his visit to Istanbul in 1755. His sons were Baruch, Abraham, and David Adjiman. He was ocak bazergani in 1770.

Yeshaya adjiman died in 1751 or 1752 and like his brother was one of the wealthiest Jews in Istanbul. His sons were Baruch (first mentioned in 1755 and last information from 1791/2 or 1803) and Jacob, who is mentioned in the years 1755 and 1769/70.

Baruch adjiman was ocak bazergani from 1766-68 to 1782. It is not clear if he was the son of Eliya or of Yeshaya, as each had sons named Baruch. He was a wealthy man and a philanthropist in Istanbul. Jewish and Ottoman sources tell about his financial difficulties during the war between the Ottoman Empire and Russia (1768-74) and also in 1777. He left many debts. There is also a document from the year 1791/2 in which Baruch, son of Yeshaya Adjiman, signed his name as Pakid Erez Israel in Istanbul.

Another yeshaya adjiman signed his name as Pakid Yerushalayim in Istanbul. There are documents which deal with his assistance in 1820 in building a hotel in Jaffa for pilgrims to the Jewish festivals. He was the last Jewish ocak ba-zergani, serving from c. 1820 until he was executed with Bek-hor Isaac *Carmona in 1826. An elegy was written in their memory.

Abraham adjiman was appointed a member of parliament in Istanbul in 1877-78. He served as the head of the Jewish community in Istanbul in 1880 but, following a dispute in which he was involved, he ceased to occupy his office. The dispute was between Adjiman and Nissim bar Nathan, who declared that Adjiman had wished to do harm to the rabbis, wishing to control the meat tax, which the rabbis opposed. In response Adjiman did not pay the chief rabbi his salary.


Family originally from *Frankfurt. There are different theories as to the origin of the family name. According to one, the early members of the family lived in a house bearing the sign of an eagle (Ger. Adler). The main branch, whose members were kohanim, i.e., of priestly stock, traced its descent to Simeon Kayyara (see *Halakhot Gedolot), the presumed author of the Yalkut Shimoni. The first outstanding member of the family was the kabbalist Nathan B. Simeon *Adler (1741-1800), whose pedigree may be traced back to an earlier Nathan Adler of the beginning of the 18th century. marcus (mor-dechai; d. 1843), served as dayyan in Frankfurt and subsequently for 25 years as rabbi of Hanover. He had six children, most noted of whom was Nathan Marcus *Adler (1803-1890) who became the chief rabbi of the Ashkenazi congregations of Great Britain in 1848. He was succeeded by his second son, Hermann Naphtali *Adler (1839-1911). Nathan Marcus’ eldest son, marcus nathan adler (1837-1911), mathematician and educator, was active in England in Jewish communal life and published a critical edition and translation of the Travels of Benjamin of Tudela (1907, reprinted 1964); a half-brother Elkan Nathan *Adler (1861-1946), Nathan’s youngest son, was an outstanding Hebrew bibliophile. Marcus Nathan’s son Herbert marcus (b. 1876), a lawyer, was director of Jewish education in London. Hermann’s daughter nettie (1869-1950), a social worker and educator, wrote articles on child welfare.

A second Adler family, unconnected with the Frankfurt family (above), originated in Worms. The first known, isaac adler (d. 1823), served as rabbi in Worms from 1810. One of his sons, Samuel *Adler (1809-1891), was rabbi in New York. Samuel’s son, Felix *Adler (1851-1933), was founder of the *Ethical Culture movement.


U.S. theatrical family. The founder was jacob adler (1855-1926), one of the leading Jewish actor-managers of his time, and a reformer of the early Yiddish theater. Born in Odessa, he first acted with amateurs, and in 1879 joined one of Abraham *Goldfaden’s touring companies. Good looks assured him early success in young-lover roles and he continued touring until the Czarist prohibition of Yiddish theater in 1883 forced him to leave Russia. In London, he appeared with his second wife, Dinah Lipna, in melodramas and in Gutzkow’s Uriel Acosta. Success brought him invitations from New York, but he remained in London until disaster struck the Jewish Theater at the Prince’s Club in January 1887 when a false cry of "Fire" caused a stampede and the death of 17 people. Arriving in the U.S., he found himself crowded out of New York and he could play only in Chicago. He returned to Europe on a tour which included Warsaw, Lodz, Lemberg, and London, and which made his reputation as a dynamic actor of striking personality. Returning to New York in 1890, he opened at Poole’s Theater with a play that failed, but he quickly followed it with Moshele Soldat ("Soldier Moshele") which was an immediate success and made him an idol of the Yiddish theater.

As an actor, Adler was often criticized as stagy, but he could always captivate an audience and he displayed remarkable power in heroic roles. He was dissatisfied with the melodramas and operettas then in vogue, and looked for plays that gave him dramatic scope. He found them in the work of Jacob *Gordin, a serious writer whose plays other actors had rejected. The two produced Gordin’s Siberia (1891) and inaugurated what has been called the "golden epoch" of the Yiddish theater. They followed this success with Gordin’s The Great Socialist, Der Yidisher King Lear, and Der Vilder Mensh. In these productions, Adler achieved a triumph which was capped by his appearance as Shylock in Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice, 1893, playing in Yiddish while the rest of the cast played in English.


In ensuing years, Adler controlled various theaters such as The People’s and the Grand, where his children often performed with him. He interspersed serious plays with melodramas. After World War 1, now almost a legendary figure, he went on brief tours, appeared in the film Michael Strogoff, and was portrayed in a Broadway play, Cafe Crown, which satirized his flamboyant way of life and his large family. Illness made his later appearances infrequent, but he never lost his glamour for the Jewish public. His memoirs, serialized in Yiddish in Die Varheit, mostly between 1916 and 1919, appeared for the first time in English in 1999 as A Life on the Stage. In it he describes his tempestuous actor’s life in the Ukraine and the pogroms he barely escaped.

Sara adler (levitsky; c. 1858-1953), Adler’s third wife, played opposite her husband and became associated with his pioneering work. She appeared in hundreds of plays, most notably as Katusha Maslova in Gordin’s adaptation of Leo Tolstoy’s Resurrection, which established her reputation as a great star of the Yiddish stage. Her autobiography, My Life, was serialized in the Yiddish daily Forward (New York, 1937-39).

Celia (1889-1979), daughter of Jacob Adler and Dinah Lipna, appeared at the age of nine with her father in Der Yidisher King Lear. In 1919 she joined Maurice *Schwartz’s Yiddish Art Theater, directed her own repertory company, 1925-1926, with Samuel Goldenberg, and in 1937 appeared in the Yiddish film, Vu iz Mayn Kind? Of the children of Jacob and Sara Adler, Frances (1892-1964) toured America in Yiddish repertory. julia (1899-1995) played Jessica to her father’s Shylock, following this with roles in Jacob Gordin’s plays. Stella *Adler (1902-1992) acted on the English-speaking stage and became a founding member of the New York Group Theater and a renowned acting teacher. luther (1903-1985) was a noted actor on the New York and London stage and in motion pictures. His successes included Ben Hecht’s drama of Israel A Flag is Born, Clifford Odets’ Golden Boy, and Arthur Miller’s A View From the Bridge. He also played Tevye in Fiddler on the Roof, the musical based on stories by *Sha-lom Aleichem.


(1950- ), French historian and journalist. After completing his studies in history, he specialized in the former Soviet Union and the Middle East and quickly became one of the most eminent French experts in geopolitics. A professor in higher military education on behalf of the French Ministry of Defense, Adler is mainly known for his contributions to newspapers, news magazines, and radio and television. He was the editorial director of the weekly Cour-rier International and a regular columnist for the conservative daily Le Figaro. In addition, he helped found Proche-Orient Info, a website devoted to Middle East affairs and committed to the fight against new forms of racism and antisemitism, and was appointed adviser to the chairman of the Representative Council of Jewish Institutions of France (crif). Adler published several books, among them Jai vu finir le monde ancien (2002), an essay on the consequences of the terror attacks on the World Trade Center, and L’Odyssee Americaine (2004), a reflection on the evolution of American behavior in international affairs.


(1870-1937), Austrian psychiatrist. He was the founder of individual psychology, a theory of personality and method of psychotherapy based on the concepts of unity, self-determination, and future-orientation of man. His views were opposed to the elementaristic and mechanistic views of man which prevailed at that time. Born in Vienna, Adler qualified at the university there in 1895. After his marriage he adopted Protestantism, a small minority denomination in Austria at that time, considering it the most liberal religion. Adler’s theories were set forth in such a manner as to be understandable and useful to a wide audience, including especially teachers and counselors. He himself established many child-guidance clinics. In 1902 Freud invited Adler to participate in his discussion group which had weekly meetings in Vienna. In 1910 Adler was elected the president of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society, which grew out of the informal discussion group. In 1911 he resigned from the society as a consequence of his new theoretical views and established his own society and journal. From 1926 on Adler visited the United States regularly and eventually settled in New York where he was professor of medical psychology at the Long Island Medical College. He died while on a lecture tour in Scotland.

Primary in Adler’s system is the conception that the organism, growing from a single cell, remains biologically and psychologically a unit. All partial processes such as drives, perception, memory, and dreaming are subordinated to the whole. Adler called this unitary process the individual’s style of life. A unitary concept of man requires one overall motivating force. For Adler it is a striving to overcome and compensate for inferiorities directed toward a goal of superiority or success, which the individual creates quite uniquely. Though the goal may take on strange forms, it always includes maintenance of self-esteem. The individual, however, cannot be considered apart from society. The three important life problems, occupational, social, and sexual, are all actually social and require a well developed "social interest" for a successful solution. Thus the individual’s goals will include social usefulness corresponding to the ideals of the community. Neurotic, psychotic, sociopathic, addictive, suicidal, and sexually deviant personalities are all failures in life because of an underdeveloped social interest and strong inferiority feelings. The role of the psychotherapist is to raise the patient’s self-esteem through encouragement, illuminate his mistakes in lifestyle, and strengthen his social interest. In this way a cognitive reorganization is produced and the patient directed toward more socially useful behavior. Birth order (among siblings), dreams, and early recollections are used by the therapist in diagnosing the patient’s lifestyle.

Interest in Adler’s psychology increased with the gain in the humanistic conception of man, which he pioneered. Ad-lerian societies exist in numerous European countries, in the United States, where the Journal of Individual Psychology is published, and in Israel. A government supported Adlerian institute was established in Tel Aviv to train school psychologists, counselors, and teachers.


(1899-1980), U.S engineer and inventor. A life-long resident of Baltimore, Maryland, Adler began his career as an inventor at 14, receiving a patent on an electric automotive brake. After attending Johns Hopkins University, he served briefly in the army during World War 1 and in 1919 became associated with the Maryland and Pennsylvania Railroad. In 1928 he developed and installed the first traffic-actuated signal light (actuated by the sound of a car horn). In 1937 he became a consultant to the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, continuing to invent safety and signal devices for automobiles, trains, and aircraft. He was granted over 60 U.S. patents for devices in general use. He was a member of the Maryland Traffic Safety Commission from 1952 until his death.


(1863-1940), U.S. Jewish scholar and public worker. Adler was born in Van Buren, Arkansas, son of a cotton planter. In 1867, upon his father’s death, Adler and his family moved to Philadelphia, where they lived with Mrs. Adler’s brother, David Sulzberger. They were members of the Sephardi Congregation Mikveh Israel, and its atmosphere, together with the influence of Adler’s uncle and his cousin, Mayer ^Sulzberger, did much to shape Cyrus Adler’s religious traditionalism and devotion to scholarship. Graduating from the University of Pennsylvania in 1883, Adler thereafter studied Assyriology under Paul *Haupt at Johns Hopkins University. He taught Semitics at the university, becoming assistant professor in 1890. Meanwhile, he had joined the Smithsonian Institution, and became librarian there in 1892. Two years before, he had been sent to the Orient as special commissioner of the Columbian Exposition.

Adler took part in the founding of the *Jewish Publication Society of America (1888), serving as chairman of its various committees throughout his life. He was responsible for the establishment of the Society’s Hebrew press. Adler was also a founder of the ^American Jewish Historical Society (1892), and its president for more than 20 years. He edited the first seven volumes of the American Jewish Yearbook (1899-1905; the last two vols. with H. Szold).

Adler played an active role in reorganizing the *Jewish Theological Seminary of America under the presidency of Solomon *Schechter. He was president of the Board of Trustees from 1902 to 1905, dividing his time between the Seminary and the Smithsonian. When Schechter died, he became acting president (1915), taking office permanently in 1924. Adler maintained the academic standards set by Schechter, and was responsible for erecting the Seminary’s new buildings. He was one of the founders of the *United Synagogue of America (1913) and served as its president. In 1908 Adler was elected president of *Dropsie College, conducting its affairs and those of the Seminary simultaneously. Together with Schechter he had taken over the editorship of the *Jewish Quarterly Review (1910) on behalf of Dropsie College, and after Schechter’s death served as sole editor (1916-40).

Adler was one of the founders of the ^American Jewish Committee (1906). He became chairman of its executive board in 1915 and in 1919 represented the Committee at the Paris Peace Conference. Appointed president of the Committee in 1929, Adler, by then aging, had to face the bitterness of the economic depression, followed by the rise of Nazism. Adler frequently found himself in opposition to the leaders of American Zionism, but he took part in the *Jewish Agency for Palestine.

Adler’s success lay in his ability to bridge worlds which early in the 20th century had little common ground. An observant Jew, knowledgeable in the field of Jewish scholarship, he was also familiar and respected in the world of American government and scholarship. Adler was a tireless worker and a scrupulous and constructive administrator. He was able to interpret the needs of traditional-minded Jews to the men of wealth in American Jewry. His style allowed little scope for public display of emotion, and this, combined with his aloofness from Zionism, limited his relations to those with whom he was closest in his observance of Judaism.

He wrote a Descriptive Catalogue of a Collection of Objects of Jewish Ceremonial Deposited in the U.S. National Museum by Hadji Ephraim Benguiat (1901), with index, I Have Considered the Days (1941), and Lectures, Selected Papers, Addresses (1933), which contains a bibliography of his writings and addresses.


(1844-1900), U.S. architect and engineer. Adler was born in Stadtlengsfeld, Germany, the son of Rabbi Liebmann Adler (1812-1892). He was taken to the U.S. at an early age and was trained at American universities. During the Civil War he practiced as an engineer and later built up a successful architectural practice in Chicago. In 1879 Louis Sullivan (1856-1924) joined the firm and in 1881 became a partner. Adler and Sullivan are credited with introducing a completely new concept of office architecture and this found its expression in the steel-framed skyscraper. Their first framed building (Chicago, 1887) was a commercial building called the Auditorium and was later acquired by Roosevelt University. Together they designed more than a hundred structures, including the transportation building at the Chicago Columbian Exposition in 1893, and two impressive skyscrapers: the Wain-wright Building in St. Louis, Missouri, and the Prudential

Building in Buffalo, New York. They were responsible for the Kehillath Anshe Maariv in Chicago, where Adler’s father had become rabbi in 1861. Here, too, they broke with tradition. Believing that form follows function, they made the facade of this synagogue secondary to the tall roof that covered the main body of the hall. The Adler-Sullivan partnership was dissolved in 1895 and neither architect did any distinguished work after that. It was in their office that Frank Lloyd Wright (1869-1959), one of America’s greatest architects, was trained.


(1826-1878), Danish banker and politician. The banking firm of D.B. Adler and Co., which Adler founded in 1850, promoted the establishment of an independent modern credit system in Denmark. He was among the founders of the Privatbank (1857), remaining a director until 1866, and helped to launch the Kjobenhavns Handels-bank in 1873. He negotiated foreign loans on behalf of the government, and was a founder member of the Copenhagen Chamber of Commerce. Adler entered politics as a Liberal and Free Trader, and became a member of parliament, city councilor, and member of the Board of Representatives (Re-praesentantskabet) of the Jewish community. He encouraged Danish art and industry, and gave generously to charity. One of his daughters was the educationalist Hanna Adler, and another, Ellen, was the mother of Niels *Bohr.


(1861-1946), Anglo-Jewish bibliophile, collector, and author. Adler, the son of Chief Rabbi Nathan Marcus *Adler, was a lawyer by profession and had unusual opportunities to travel under favorable conditions and to build up a remarkable library. He was among the first persons to realize the importance of the Cairo Genizah. He visited Egypt in 1888 and 1895-96 and brought back approximately 25,000 fragments from the Genizah. His library ultimately included about 4,500 manuscripts of which he published a summary Catalogue of Hebrew Manuscripts in the Collection of E.N. Adler (1921). He also had a collection of some 30,000 printed books in Judaica and in general fields. In order to make good the embezzlements of a business associate he sold his library in 1923 to the Jewish Theological Seminary of America in New York and the duplicates of the printed books (including many incunabula) to the Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati, thus helping to raise both of these libraries to positions of significance. By an agreement made at that time, the manuscripts that he subsequently collected passed after his death to the Jewish Theological Seminary. Adler’s published writings were mainly based on his travels and on materials in his own collection. Among them are About Hebrew Manuscripts (1905), a collection of bibliographical essays; A Gazetteer of Hebrew Printing (1917); Jews in Many Lands (1905); Auto de Fe and Jew (1908); History of the Jews of London (1930); Jewish Travellers (1930, repr. 1966); and articles on the Samaritans and on the Egyptian and Persian Jews. Adler played an active role in English-Jewish communal affairs, especially as regards educational and overseas matters, and was an early member of the Hovevei Zion in England. His personal archives are at the library of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America.


(1884-1962).In 1922 Adler established Pynson Printers in New York City and began to produce books noted for excellent design and craftsmanship. A cofounder of Random House, he printed its first publication, a limited edition of Voltaire’s Candide with illustrations by Rockwell Kent.

From 1930 to World War 11, he published and edited the Colophon, a quarterly in book form for bibliophiles. A few issues appeared in 1948 as the New Colophon.

In 1940 Adler dissolved the Pynson Printers, presented his magnificent library of printing and printing history to Princeton University, joined its library staff, and organized a department of graphic arts. He retired from Princeton in 1952 and moved to San Juan, Puerto Rico. Here he built up another outstanding printing arts library and museum for the university.


(1872-1949).He began his career in Iowa and rose to be president of Lee Syndicate Newspapers, controlling ten dailies in Iowa, Illinois, Nebraska, Missouri, and Wisconsin. He founded the Tri-City Federated Jewish Charities in 1921 and organized the Jewish Community Office to act for Jewish organizations in Davenport, Des Moines, and Sioux City, Iowa.

Next post:

Previous post: