Civil Engineering

The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World

The seven wonders of the ancient world were considered to be the preeminent architectural and sculptural achievements of the Mediterranean and Middle East. The best known are those of the 2nd-century-bc writer Antipater of Sidon. Some early lists included the Walls of Babylon or the Palace of King Cyrus of Persia, but the established list usually contained the following:

Pyramids of Giza. The oldest of the wonders and the only one substantially in existence today, the pyramids of Giza were erected c. 2575-c. 2465 bc on the west bank of the Nile River near Al-Jizah in northern Egypt. The designations of the pyramids—Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure—correspond to the kings for whom they were built. Khufu (also called the Great Pyramid) is the largest of the three, the length of each side at the base averaging 230 m (755 % ft). Its original height was 147 m (481.4 ft); none of the pyramids reach their original heights because they have been almost entirelystripped of theirouter casings of smooth white limestone. According to Herodotus, the Great Pyramid took 20 years to constructand demanded the labor of 100,000 men.

Hanging Gardens of Babylon. A series of landscaped terraces ascribed to either Queen Sammu-ramat (810-783 bc) or King Nebuchadrezzar II (c. 605-c. 561 bc), the gardens were built within the walls of the royal palace at Babylon (in present-day southern Iraq). They did not actually “hang” but were instead “up in the air”—that is, they were roof gardens laid out on a series of ziggurat terraces that were irrigated by pumps from the Euphrates River. Although no traces of the Hanging Gardens have been found, classical authors related that the terraces were roofed with stone balconies on which were layered various materials, such as reeds, bitumen, and lead, so that the irrigation water would not seep through them.

Statue of Zeus. A large, ornate figure of Zeus on his throne, this wonder was made around 430 bc by Phidias of Athens. It was placed in the huge Temple of Zeus at Olympia in western Greece. The statue, almost 12 m (40 ft) high and plated with gold and ivory, represented the god sitting on an elaborate cedar-wood throne ornamented with ebony, ivory, gold, and precious stones. On his outstretched right hand was a statue of Nike (Victory), and in the god’s left hand was a scepter on which an eagle was perched. The statue, which took eight years to construct, may have been destroyed along with the temple in ad 426, or in a fire at Constantinople (Istanbul) about 50 years later.

Temple of Artemis. The great temple was built by Croesus, king of Lydia, in about 550 bc and was rebuilt after being burned by a madman named Hero-stratus in 356 bc. The artemesium was famous not only for its great size (over 110 by 55 m [350 by 80 ft]) but also for the magnificent works of art that adorned it. It was destroyed by invading Goths in ad 262 and was never rebuilt. Little remains of the temple, but excavation has revealed traces of it, and copies survive of the famous statue of Artemis. A mummylike figure, this early representation of the goddess stands stiffly straight, with her hands extended outward. The original statue was made of gold, ebony, silver, and black stone, the legs and hips covered by a garment decorated with reliefs of animals and bees and the head adorned with a high-pillared headdress.

Mausoleum of Halicarnassus. Monumental tomb of Mausolus, the tyrant of Caria in southwestern Asia Minor, the mausoleum was built between about 353 and 351 bc by Mausolus’ sister and widow, Artemisia. The architect was Pythius (Pytheos), and the sculptures that adorned the building were the work of four leading Greek artists. According to the description of Pliny the Elder, the monument was almost square, with a total periphery of 125 m (411 ft). It was bounded by 36 columns, and the top formed a 24-step pyramid surmounted by a four-horse marble chariot. Fragments of the mausoleum’s sculpture are preserved in the British Museum. The mausoleum was probably destroyed by an earthquake between the 11th and 15th century ad, and the stones were reused in local buildings.

Colossus of Rhodes. This huge bronze statue was built at the harbor of Rhodes in ancient Greece in commemoration of the raising of the siege of Rhodes (305-304 bc). The sculptor was Chares of Lyndus, and the statue was made of bronze, reinforced with iron, and weighted with stones. The Colossus was said to be 70 cubits (32 m [105 ft]) high and stood beside Mandrakion harbor. It is technically impossible that the statue could have straddled the harbor entrance, and the popular belief that it did so dates only from the Middle Ages. The Colossus took 12 years to build (c. 294-282 bc) and was toppled by an earthquake about 225 bc. The fallen Colossus was left in place until ad 654, when Arabian forces raided Rhodes and had the statue broken up and the bronze sold for scrap.

Pharos of Alexandria. The most famous lighthouse of the ancient world, it was built by Sostratus of Cnidus, perhaps for Ptolemy I Soter, but was finished during the reign of his son, Ptolemy II of Egypt, about 280 bc. The lighthouse stood on the island of Pharos off Alexandria and is said to have been more than 100 m (350 ft) high; the only taller man-made structures at the time would have been the pyramids of Giza. It was a technological triumph and is the archetype of all lighthouses since. According to ancient sources, a broad spiral ramp led to the top, where a fire burned at night. The lighthouse was destroyed by an earthquake in the 1300s. In 1994 a large amount of masonry blocks and statuary was found in the waters off Pharos.

Tallest Buildings in the World

Building height equals the distance from the sidewalk level of the main entrance to the structural top of the building, including spires but not including antennae, signage, or flag poles. Only buildings that have been completed are included here.


 

 

 

YEAR

HEIGHT

 

RANK

BUILDING

CITY

COMPLETED

IN FT/M

STORIES

1

Taipei 101

Taipei, Taiwan

2004

1,670/509

101

2

Petronas Tower 1

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

1998

1,483/452

88

3

Petronas Tower 2

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

1998

1,483/452

88

4

Sears Tower

Chicago IL

1974

1,451/442

110

5

Jin Mao Building

Shanghai, China

1999

1,381/421

88

6

Two International Finance Centre

Hong Kong, China

2003

1,362/415

88

7

CITIC Plaza

Guangzhou, China

1996

1,283/391


80

8

Shun Hing Square

Shenzhen, China

1996

1,260/384

69

9

Empire State Building

New York NY

1931

1,250/381

102

10

Central Plaza

Hong Kong, China

1992

1,227/374

78

11

Bank of China

Hong Kong, China

1989

1,205/367

70

12

Emirates Tower One

Dubai, UAE

1999

1,165/355

54

13

Tuntex Sky Tower

Kaohsiung, Taiwan

1997

1,140/348

85

14

Aon Centre

Chicago IL

1973

1,136/346

83

15

The Center

Hong Kong, China

1998

1,135/346

73

16

John Hancock Center

Chicago IL

1969

1,127/344

100

17

Rose Rotana Tower

Dubai, UAE

2007

1,093/333

72

18

Shimao International Plaza

Shanghai, China

2006

1,093/333

60

19

Minsheng Bank Building

Wuhan, China

2008

1,087/331

68

20

Q1

Gold Coast, QLD, Australia

2005

1,058/323

78

21

Burj Al Arab

Dubai, UAE

1999

1,053/321

60

22

Nina Tower I

Hong Kong, China

2006

1,046/319

80

23

Chrysler Building

New York NY

1930

1,046/319

77

24

New York Times Tower

New York NY

2007

1,046/319

52

25

Bank of America Plaza

Atlanta GA

1993

1,039/317

55

Longest Span Structures in the World by Type

Bridges

SUSPENSION LOCATION

YEAR OF COMPLETION

MAIN SPAN (M)

Akashi Kaikyo Kobe-Awaji Island, Japan part of eastern link between islands of Honshu and Shikoku

1998

1,991

Store Baelt (Great Belt) Zealand-Funen, Denmark

1998

1,624

part of link between Copenhagen and mainland Europe

 

 

Nancha Zhenjiang, China world’s third longest suspension bridge

2005

1,490

Humber near Hull, England

1981

1,410

crosses Humber estuary between Yorkshire and Lincolnshire

 

 

Jiangyin Jiangsu province, China

1999

1,385

crosses Chang Jiang (Yangtze River) near Shanghai

 

 

Tsing Ma Hong Kong, China

1997

1,377

connects Hong Kong city with airport on Landao Island

 

 

Verrazano-Narrows New York NY

1964

1,298

spans New York Harbor between Brooklyn and Staten Island

 

 

Golden Gate San Francisco CA

1937

1,280

spans entrance to San Francisco Bay

 

 

Hoga Kusten (High Coast) Kramfors, Sweden

1997

1,210

crosses Angerman River on scenic coastal route in northern Sweden

 

 

Mackinac Mackinaw City-St. Ignace MI

spans Mackinac Straits between upper and lower peninsulas of Michigan

1957

1,158

CABLE-STAYED (STEEL)

 

 

Tatara Onomichi-Imabari, Japan

1999

890

part of western link between islands of Honshu and Shikoku

 

 

Normandie near Le Havre, France

1995

856

crosses Seine estuary between upper and lower Normandy

 

 

Nanjing Yangtze Sanqiao Nanjing, China

2005

648

world’s third longest cable-stayed bridge

 

 

Nancha Nanjing, China

2001

628

southern span of Second Nanjing Yangtze Bridge

 

 

Wuhan Baishazhou Hubei province, China

2000

618

provides third crossing of Chang Jiang (Yangtze River) in city of Wuhan

 

 

Rion-Antirion near Patrai, Greece (Gulf of Corinth)

2004

560

world’s second largest cable-stayed bridge

 

 

Millau Viaduct Tarn Gorge, France

2004

342

world’s highest bridge (270 m) and longest cable-stayed bridge (2,460 m)

 

 

ARCH

 

 

steel

 

 

Lupu Shanghai, China

2003

550

crosses Huangpujiang (Huang-p’u River) between central Shanghai and Pudong New District

 

New River Gorge Fayetteville WV

1977

518

provides road link through scenic New River Gorge National River area

 

 

Bayonne Bayonne NJ-New York NY

1931

504

spans the Kill Van Kull between New Jersey and Staten Island

 

 

Sydney Harbour Sydney, NSW, Australia

1932

503

links the City of Sydney with North Sydney

 

 

concrete

 

 

Wanxian Sichuan province, China crosses Chang Jiang (Yangtze River) in Three Gorges area

1997

420

Krk I Krk Island, Croatia

1980

390

links scenic Krk Island with mainland Croatia

 

 

Jiangjiehe Guizhou province, China spans gorge of Wujiang (Wu River)

1995

330

CANTILEVER

 

 

steel truss

 

 

Pont de Quebec Quebec City, QC, Canada

1917

549

provides rail crossing over St. Lawrence River

 

 

Forth Queensferry, Scotland

1890

2 spans,

provides rail crossing over Firth of Forth

 

each 521

Minato Osaka-Amagasaki, Japan

1974

510

carries road traffic across Osaka’s harbor

 

 

Commodore John J. Barry Bridgeport NJ-Chester PA

1974

501

provides road crossing over Delaware River

 

 

Longest Span Structures in the World by Type

CANTILEVER

YEAR OF

MAIN

prestressed concrete LOCATION

COMPLETION

SPAN (M)

Shibanpo-2 Chongqing, China

2006

336

world’s longest prestressed-concrete box girder bridge

 

 

Stolmasundet Austevoll, Norway

1998

301

links islands of Stolmen and Sjelborn south of Bergen

 

 

Raftsundet Lofoten, Norway

1998

298

crosses Raft Sound in arctic Lofoten Islands

 

 

Sund0y Leirfjord, Norway

2003

298

BEAM

steel truss

Ikitsuki Ohashi Nagasaki prefecture, Japan 1991 400 connects islands of Iki and Hirado off northwest Kyushu

Astoria Astoria OR 1966 376

carries Pacific Coast Highway across Columbia River between Oregon and Washington Francis Scott Key Baltimore MD 1977 366

spans Patapsco River at Baltimore Harbor Oshima Yamaguchi prefecture, Japan 1976 325 links Yanai City and Oshima Island

steel plate and box girder

Presidente Costa e Silva Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil 1974 300 crosses Guanabara Bay between Rio de Janeiro and suburb of Niteroi

Neckartalbrucke-1 Weitingen, Germany 1978 263 carries highway across Neckar River Valley

Brankova Belgrade, Serbia 1956 261 provides road crossing of Sava River between Old and New Belgrade

Ponte de Vitoria-3 Espirito Santo state, Brazil 1989 260 provides road link to state capital on Vitoria Island

MOVABLE vertical lift

Arthur Kill Elizabeth NJ-New York NY 1959 170 provides rail link between port of Elizabeth and Staten Island

Cape Cod Canal Cape Cod MA 1935 166 provides rail crossing over waterway near Buzzard’s Bay

Delair Delair NJ-Philadelphia PA 1960 165 provides rail link across Delaware River between Philadelphia and South Jersey shore

Marine Parkway-Gil Hodges Memorial New York NY 1937 165 carries road traffic over mouth of Jamaica Bay between Brooklyn and the Rockaways, Queens

swing span

Al-Firdan (El-Ferdan) Suez Canal, Egypt 2001 340 provides road and rail link between Sinai Peninsula and eastern Nile Delta region

Santa Fe Fort Madison IA-Niota IL 1927 160 provides road and rail crossing of Mississippi River

BASCULE

South Capitol Street/Frederick Washington DC 1949 118 Douglass Memorial

carries road traffic over Anacostia River

SaultSainte Marie Sault Sainte Marie MI-Ontario, Canada 1941 102

connects rail systems of United States and Canada Charles Berry Lorain OH 1940 101

carries road traffic over Black River Market Street/Chief John Ross Chattanooga TN 1917 94 carries road traffic over Tennessee River

Causeways (fixed link over water only)

Lake Pontchartrain-2 Metairie-Mandeville LA 1969 38,422 carries northbound road traffic from suburbs of New Orleans to north lakeshore

Lake Pontchartrain-1 Mandeville-Metairie LA 1956 38,352

carries southbound road traffic from north lakeshore to suburbs of New Orleans King Fahd Causeway Bahrain-Saudi Arabia 1986 24,950

carries road traffic across Gulf of Bahrain in Persian Gulf Confederation Bridge Borden-Carleton, PE-Cape Jourimain, NB, 1997 12,900 carries road traffic over Canada Northumberland Strait

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Longest Tunnels in the World

TUNNEL LOCATION LENGTH IN KM (MI) COMPLETED USE

Seikan Japan 53.9 (33.5) 1988 railway passes under the Tsugaru Strait between islands of Honshu and Hokkaido

Channel Tunnel (Eurotunnel) UK-France 50.5(31.4) 1994 railway passes under English Channel between Folkestone (UK) and Sangatte (France)

Lotschberg Base Switzerland 34.6 (21.5) 2007 railway world’s longest land tunnel (under Alps between Frutigen and Raron)

Guadarrama Spain 28.4 (17.6) 2007 railway on high-speed rail line between Madrid and Valladolid

Iwate-Ichinohe Japan 25.8 (15.7) 2002 railway

carries Tohoku high-speed line through mountains between Tokyo and northern Honshu L^rdal Norway 24.5 (15.3) 2000 highway

carries main cross-country highway through mountains in central Norway Dai-Shimizu Japan 22.2 (13.8) 1982 railway

on Joetsu “Bullet” Line across Honshu between Tokyo and Niigata Wushaoling I and II (dual-bore) China 21.0(13.1) 2006 railway between Lanzhou and Wuwei

Simplon I Italy-Switzerland 19.8 (12.3) 1906 railway

Simplon II Italy-Switzerland 19.8 (12.3) 1922 railway rail links under Simplon Pass, traditional divide between northern and southern Europe

Vereina Switzerland 19.1(11.9) 1999 railway rail link under Fluela Pass between upper Rhine and lower Engadin valleys

Shin-Kanmon Japan 18.7 (11.6) 1975 railway carries Sanyo high-speed line under Kanmon Strait between islands of Honshu and Kyushu

Great Apennine Italy 18.5 (11.5) 1934 railway rail link through mountains between Bologna and Florence

Qinling China 18.5 (11.5) 2001 railway

traverses Qinling (Tsinling) Mountains, historic barrier between northern and southern China Zhongnanshan China 18.0 (11.2) 2007 highway

world’s longest double-tube four-lane highway tunnel St. Gotthard Switzerland 16.9 (10.5) 1980 highway

links Uri and Ticino cantons under St. Gotthard Pass Rokko Japan 16.3 (10.1) 1972 railway

carries Sanyo high-speed line through Rokko Mountains near Kobe Furka Switzerland 15.4 (9.6) 1982 railway

carries scenic Glacier Express Line under Furka Pass Haruna Japan 15.4 (9.6) 1982 railway

on Joetsu “Bullet” Line across Honshu between Tokyo and Niigata Severomuyskiy Russia 15.3 (9.5) 2001 railway on the Baikal-Amur Line to the northeast of Lake Baikal

Longest Tunnels in the World

TUNNEL LOCATION LENGTH IN KM (MI)

COMPLETED

USE

Gorigamine Japan 15.2 (9.4)

1997

railway

on the Hokuriku high-speed line between Takasaki and Nagano

 

 

Monte Santomarco Italy 15.0 (9.3)

1987

railway

tunnel in Calabria between Paola and Cosenza

 

 

St. Gotthard Switzerland 15.0 (9.3)

1882

railway

carries Luzern-Milan line under St. Gotthard Pass between Uri and Ticino cantons

 

Nakayama Japan 14.9 (9.2)

1982

railway

on Joetsu “Bullet” Line across Honshu between Tokyo and Niigata

 

 

Mount MacDonald BC, Canada 14.7(9.2)

1988

railway

longest tunnel in Western Hemisphere; in Canada’s Glacier National Park

 

 

Largest Dams in the World

 

 

DATE OF

 

 

 

NAME

TYPE1

COMPLETION

RIVER

COUNTRY

 

by height

 

 

 

 

height (m)

Nurek

E

1980

Vakhsh

Tajikistan

300

Grand Dixence

G

1961

Dixence

Switzerland

285

Inguri

A

1980

Inguri

Georgia

272

Vaiont1

A

1961

Vaiont

Italy

262

Chicoasen

ER

1980

Grijalva

Mexico

261

Tehri

ER

20022

Bhagirathi

India

261

Mauvoisin

A

1957

Drance de Bagnes

Switzerland

250

by volume

 

\

\

 

volume (’000 cubic m)

Syncrude Tailings

E

N/A

3

Canada

540,000

New Cornelia Tailings

E

1973

Ten Mile Wash

US

209,500

Tarbela

ER

1976

Indus

Pakistan

106,000

Fort Peck

E

1937

Missouri

US

96,050

Lower Usuma

E

1990

Usuma

Nigeria

93,000

Tucurui

EGR

1984

Tocantins

Brazil

85,200

Ataturk

ER

1990

Euphrates

Turkey

84,500

\

 

 

 

 

reservoir capacity

by size of reservoir

 

 

 

 

(’000 cubic m)

Owen Falls

G

1954

Victoria Nile

Uganda

2,700,000,000

Kakhovsk

EG

1955

Dnieper

Ukraine

182,000,000

Kariba

A

1959

Zambezi

Zimbabwe-

Zambia 180,600,000

Bratsk

EG

1964

Angara

Russia

169,270,000

Aswan High

ER

1970

Nile

Egypt

168,900,000

Akosombo

ER

1965

Volta

Ghana

153,000,000

Daniel Johnson

M

1968

Manicouagan

Canada

141,852,000

Guri (Raul Leoni)

EGR

1986

Caronf

Venezuela

138,000,000

 

 

 

 

 

power capacity

by power capacity

 

 

 

 

(megawatts)

Itaipu

EGR

1983

Parana

Brazil-Paraguay

13,320

Guri (Raul Leoni)

EGR

1986

Caronf

Venezuela

10,055

Grand Coulee

G

1942

Columbia

US

6,809

Sayano-Shushenskoye

GA

1989

Yenisey

Russia

6,400

Krasnoyarsk

G

1968

Yenisey

Russia

6,000

Churchill Falls

E

1971

Churchill

Canada

5,428

La Grande 2

R

1979

LaGrande

Canada

5,328

Three Gorges

G

2003

Yangtze

China

4,970

Notable Civil Engineering Projects (in progress or completed as of July 2008)

NAME

LOCATION

YEAR OF COMPLETION

NOTES

airports

terminal area (sq m)

 

Beijing Capital (new Terminal 3)

northeast of Beijing 904,000

2008

Opened 29 Feb 2008; the world’s largest building

Changi (new Terminal 3)

mostly on landfill at 380,000

2008

Opened 9 Jan 2008; new

 

eastern tip of Singapore

 

terminal in Asia’s 6th busiest airport in passenger traffic

Heathrow (new Terminal 5

southwest of “70,000″

2008

Opened 14 Mar 2008;

complex)

London

\

includes world’s 1st personal rapid-transit system

bridges

length

 

 

(main span; m)

 

Manifa Causeway

in Persian Gulf 41 km offshore of Manifa, (total Saudi Arabia causeway length)

2011

Includes 20 km of laterals from main causeway to drilling islands; will enable massive oilfield redevelopment

Hangzhou Bay Transoceanic

nearJiaxing, 36 km China-near Cixi, China

2008

Opened 1 May 2008; S-shaped; world’s longest transoceanic bridge/causeway

Sutong

Nantong, China 1,088 (100 km from Yangtze mouth)

2008

Opened 25 May 2008; cable-stayed bridge; set world records for length of main span and height of main bridge tower

buildings

height (m)

 

Burj (“Tower”) Dubai

Dubai, UAE 643

2009

To be world’s tallest building;

 

 

 

world’s tallest structure from 13 Sep 2007

Russia Tower

Moscow 612

2012

Construction began 18Sep 2007; to be world’s 2nd tallest building upon completion

Chicago Spire

Chicago 2,000 ft (609.6 m)

2011

Construction began 25 Jun 2007; will be North Ameri-ica’s tallest structure and the world’s tallest all-residential building

dams and hydrologic projects

crest length (m)

 

St. Petersburg Flood Protection Barrier

Gulf of Finland 25,400 embankment, Russia (Gorskaya-Bronka via Kotlin Island)

2008

To protect city from tidal storm surges; incorporates discharge sluices and navigation channels; begun 1980, halted 1987, resumed 2003

Three Gorges (3rd of 3 phases)

westofYichang, 2,309 China

2007

Final stage completed 21 Dec 2007; created world’s largest reservoir (660 km long) and world’s largest hydroelectric complex by power capacity

Sardar Sarovar (Narmada) Project

Narmada River, 1,210

Madhya Pradesh,

India

2009

Largest dam of controversial 30-dam project; drinking and irrigation water for Gujarat

highways

length (km)

 

Interoceanic Highway

Inapari-Ilo/Matarani/ 2,603

2009

To be paved road for Brazilian

 

San Juan de Marcona, Peru

 

imports/exports from/to Asia via 3 Peruvian ports

East-West Economic Corridor

Danang, Vietnam- 1,450 Moulmein, Myanmar (via Laos and Thailand)

2008

All-weather gravel road linking the Pacific and Indian oceans; economic development of remote areas expected

Highway 1

Kabul-Kandahar- 1,048 Herat, Afghanistan

2008

Final, 556-km Kandahar-Herat section 81% completed by August 2007; remaining section stalled owing to security concerns

Notable Civil Engineering Projects (in progress or completed as of July 2008)

NAME

land reclamation, canal

Palm Jumeirah

LOCATION

area (sq km)

in Persian Gulf, c. 25 off Dubai, UAE

YEAR OF COMPLETION

2012

NOTES

Phase I residence handover began 2006; land of 3 other Persian Gulf developments was partially to mostly reclaimed in late 2007

Panama Canal Expansion

between Panama City and Colon

2014

Will include new wider and longer 3-chamber locks

railways (heavy)

Benguela Railway (rehabilitation; closed 1975-2002)

length (km)

Benguela-Luau, Angola 1,301 (at Democratic Republic of the Congo border)

2010

Chinese-financed rehabilitation will enable resumption of copper exports from the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia

Xinqiu-Bayan UI Railway North-South Railway (in part)

Xinqiu, Liaoning-Bayan 487

UI, Inner Mongolia, China Araguafna, Tocantins- 361 Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil

2010 2009

To be used for coal transport;

future link to Mongolia planned Rail exports of agriculture, forestry, and mineral products from vast area of interior north Brazil expected

railways (high speed)

Spanish high speed

length (km)

Madrid to France 719 (via Barcelona)

2009

Operational to Barcelona suburbs from mid-2007

Turkey high speed Beijing-Tianjin high speed

Ankara-Istanbul 533

Beijing-Tianjin, 115 China

2010 2008

To connect capital with largest city

Opened 1 Aug 2008; improves country’s transportation system for 2008 Olympic Games

subways/metros/light rails

Delhi Metro (Phase II)

length (km)

Delhi 118.6

2010

Many extensions/new lines under construction between 2007 and 2010

Shanghai Metro

Shanghai 96.0

2007

Distance is for length of 3 new lines and 2 extensions; all operational on 29 Dec 2007

Dubai Metro (Red/Green lines)

Dubai, UAE 69.7

2009/2010

To be world’s longest driverless transport system

tunnels

Apennine Range tunnels (9)

length (m)

Bologna-Florence 73,400 (high-speed railway)

2008

Longest tunnel (Vaglia, 18.6 km); tunnels to cover 93% of line

Lotschberg #2

Frutigen-Raron, 34,577 Switzerland

2007

Opened 15 Jun 2007 for freight traffic and 9 Dec 2007 for passengers; world’s 3rd longest rail tunnel

Eiksund

0rstan-Hareid, Norway 7,797

2007

Breakthrough 1 Feb 2007; world’s deepest underwater tunnel (287 m under water surface)

miscellaneous

East Africa Submarine Cable System

length (km)

western Indian 13,700 Ocean between South Africa and The Sudan

2009

To be 1st underwater fiberoptic cable in Indian Ocean, providing Internet and communications services to 250 million people in Africa

Svalbard Global Seed Vault

near Longyearbyen, — Spitsbergen, in the Norwegian Arctic

2008

Capable of storing 3 million seeds in perpetuity and guarding them against disease, war, and other catastrophes; opened 26 Feb 2008

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