The American Economy

A disease caused by a retrovirus that mutates so rapidly that the B-lymphocytes and the body’s natural antibodies cannot fight it off. The introduction of AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) in the United States occurred primarily in the homosexual and bisexual community. First diagnosed as a disease in 1981, it results in the vulnerability of the […]

A&M Records v. Napster Inc. (2001)

In 2000, A&M Records and several other plaintiffs filed a civil case against Napster citing infringement of copyright laws. Napster, utilizing the latest MP3 digital music compression technology, allowed members to share music at no cost to the member. The founder, Shawn Fanning, established the Internet website for the purpose of providing “samples” of music […]


Widespread prosperity. A society in which a large proportion of members possess purchasing power in excess of that required for any necessary level of well-being is categorized as affluent. In an affluent society, most individuals satisfy their basic sustenance, accommodation, and entertainment needs. Beyond that level, sufficient wealth exists for many people to consume goods […]

Agricultural and Mechanical (A&M) Colleges

Postsecondary institutions established to promote the development of the practical arts and sciences. Agricultural and mechanical (A&M) colleges were formed after the passage of the Morrill Land Grant Act in 1862. Congress granted the states 30,000 acres of federal land for each senator and representative that the state had in the national legislature for the […]

Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938

Legislation signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on February 16, 1938, that focused on the need for long-term consideration of agricultural production and soil conservation as well as the prevention of potential drought periods. The Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) of 1938 was developed in 1937 as basic price-support legislation to replace the recently discredited AAA […]

Agricultural Government-Sponsored Enterprises (GSEs)

Organizations federally chartered, but privately owned and operated, that receive direct and indirect benefits from the government to improve credit availability and enhance market competition. Congress charters a government-sponsored enterprise, or GSE, when perceived failures in private credit markets exist. Congress established GSEs to improve credit availability and enhance financial market competition in specific sectors […]

Agricultural Credit Improvement Act of 1992

  Bill to assist beginning farmer to acquire his or her own farm. This act required the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Farm Service Agency (FSA) to target a percentage of its direct and guaranteed farm operating and farm ownership loans to beginning farmers and ranchers. In 1992, the average age of farmers had increased […]

Agricultural Credit Act of 1987

  Legislation that authorized $4 billion in a financial assistance for financially vulnerable institutions of the Farm Credit System (FCS) and protected many farmers whose loans fell delinquent. Due to the 1980s farm crisis, which was brought on by tight credit and plummeting farm land prices, the FCS experienced deep financial problems. The Agricultural Credit […]

Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC)

  Welfare program in the United States intended to provide financial assistance to low-income families. Initially created in 1935 under Title IV of the Social Security Act as Aid to Dependent Children, the program’s principal objective focused on preventing poor families from placing their children in orphanages in exchange for direct cash payments. The program […]

Aid to Dependent Children (ADC)

Mid- to late-twentieth-century government program that provided financial assistance to poor families with children. Aid to Dependent Children (ADC), later known as Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), was a provision of the Social Security Act of 1935. Although the impulse to assist poor and orphaned children dates to after the Civil War, no […]