Dead reckoning To Deploy (Aviation)

Dead reckoningtmp1F7014_thumbreckoning noun navigation using calculations based on airspeed, course, heading, wind direction and speed, ground speed, and time o In the early stages of practical navigation, the student pilot navigates by using dead reckoning. Abbreviation DR (note: The term comes from ‘deduced’ reckoning or ‘ded’ reckoning.)

De-aeratetmp1F7F1_thumbverb to remove gas, especially carbon dioxide or air, from a liquid such as fuel o The pump helps to de-aerate the fuel before it enters the engine.

de-aerationtmp1F7F2_thumbnoun the process of removing gas from a liquid such as fuel o Partial de-aeration of fuel takes place in the pump.

de-aeratortmp1F7F3_thumbnoun a device to remove gas from a liquid de-aerator traytmp1F7F4_thumbnoun a device in the lubrication system to remove air bubbles from oil dealtmp1F7F5_thumbnoun □ a great deal a large amount of, a lot of o A great deal of damage was done to the aircraft as a result of the fire. ■ verb to handle or manage o A computer can deal with the constant inputs required to control an unstable aircraft.

debristmp1F7F6_thumbnoun scattered broken pieces o Before running up the engine, check that the aircraft is on firm ground and that the area is free of stones and other debris. o The aircraft exploded in mid-air, spreading debris over a wide area of the countryside.

decaltmp1F7F7_thumbnoun picture, letters or digits printed on adhesive paper, which is transferred onto a surface and may be peeled away o A red decal with AVGAS 100LL in white letters indicates the type of fuel to be used.

deceleratetmp1F7F8_thumb‘ verb to slow down o Reverse thrust and brakes help to decelerate the aircraft after landing. Opposite accelerate decelerationtmp1F7F9_thumbnoun slowing down o Anti-skid braking systems units are designed to prevent the brakes locking the wheels during landing, thus reducing the possibility of wheel skid caused by the sudden deceleration of the wheel. Opposite acceleration

decibeltmp1F7F10_thumbnoun a unit for measuring the loudness of a sound.

Abbreviation dB

decimaltmp1F7F11_thumbnoun a decimal fraction ■ adjective □ decimal fraction a fraction as expressed in the decimal system o 0.50 is a decimal fraction that is equal to 1/2. □ correct to three places of decimal or to three decimal places correct to three figures after the decimal point o 2.754 is correct to three decimal places, 2.7 is correct to one decimal place.

decimal notationtmp1F7F12_thumbtmp1F7F13_thumbnoun the method of writing a number in the decimal system o The fraction 3/4 can be written as 0.75 in decimal notation. o Prices and number are normally written using decimal notation. o He finds it difficult to understand how the computer works because it uses binary not decimal notation.

decimal placetmp1F7F14_thumbnoun the position of a number to the right of the decimal point

decimal pointtmp1F7F15_thumbnoun the dot (.) used to separate a whole number from a decimal fraction

Comment: The decimal point is used in the USA and Britain. In most European countries a comma (,) is used to show the decimal, so 4,75% in Germany is written 4.75% in Britain.

decimal systemtmp1F7F16_thumbtmp1F7F17_thumbnoun system of counting based on the number 10 and using the digits 0 – 9

decisiontmp1F7F18_thumbnoun the act of deciding or of making up one’s mind □ to make a decision to choose a course of action o The decision to evacuate the aircraft was made by the captain.

decision heighttmp1F7F19_thumbnoun the altitude at which, during an ILS landing approach, a pilot must decide whether to land or carry out a missed approach o The pilot waited until she was at decision height before initiating the missed approach procedure.

Abbreviation DH

Comment: An ILS approach generally has a decision height of 200 ft (60 m) above ground level.

decktmp1F7F20_thumbnoun the floor of a ship or aircraft decodetmp1F941_thumbverb to change coded information into readable form o Incorrectly spaced information pulses can result in failure by the ground station to decode the aircraft information.

decodertmp1F942_thumb‘ noun a device used to decode signals from the air traffic control radar beacon system o The aircraft receiver is set to the required frequency and linked to a selective call system decoder which has a 4-letter code.

decrease nountmp1F943_thumba lessening or reduction o A decrease in power results in the aircraft descending. ■ verb to become less, to fall o Air density and pressure decrease with an increase in altitude. ► opposite (all senses) increase

deducetmp1F944_thumbverb to work some thing out in the mind using information provided o Sometimes, it is possible to estimate the depth of the layer of mist or fog from the ground observations and hence to deduce the ground range from any height.

defecttmp1F945_thumbnoun a fault or error o Low oil pressure or excessive temperature indicate the development of a possible defect.

defectivetmp1F946_thumbadjective faulty or not operating correctly o Loss of supply pressure is caused by either a defective booster pump or lack of fuel.

definetmp1F947_thumb‘ verb 1. to give an exact explanation, as in a dictionary □ it is not easy to define the word it is difficult to say exactly what the word means 2. to set the limits of something o Cloud tops are very difficult to define.

definitiontmp1F948_thumbnoun an exact explanation of what a word or expression means o The definition of a year is the time taken for a planet to describe one orbit around the sun. □ by definition understood by the use of the word itself o A sphere is, by definition, round.

deflatetmp1F949_thumbverb to allow air to escape from something, so that it becomes smaller or collapses. Opposite inflate □ to deflate a tyre to allow the air to escape from a tyre deflationtmp1F9410_thumbnoun the act of allowing air to escape from something, so that it becomes smaller or collapses o Deflation of a tyre is done by depressing the valve.

deflecttmp1F9411_thumbverb 1. to cause an object to move away from a neutral or central position o During an out-of-bal-ance turn, the ball in the slip indicator will be deflected to the left or right. 2. to move a moving object, gas or liquid away from its intended path o In an open-cockpit aircraft, the windshield deflects the airflow over the pilot’s head.

deflectiontmp1F9412_thumbnoun 1.movement away from a central or neutral position o Full deflection of the ailerons is sometimes needed on takeoff to counteract a crosswind. 2. the movement of a moving object, gas or liquid away from its intended path o In the southern hemisphere the deflection of wind at the equator is to the left.

deformationtmp1F9413_thumbnoun a change of the correct shape caused by stress o Deformation of wing panels may be an indication of serious structural damage. deg abbreviation degree degradationtmp1F9414_thumbnoun a decrease in quality o Degradation of the radio signal sometimes makes it impossible to understand the message.

degradetmp1F9415_thumbverb to decrease the quality of something o Interfering signals degrade VOR performance.

degreetmp1F9416_thumbnoun 1. a level,amount or quantity □ the degree of compression the amount of compression □ a high degree of safety a high level of safety □ to a greater degree more than □ to a lesser degree less than 2. a unit of temperature o twenty degrees Celsius (20°C) o twenty degrees Centigrade (20°C) o seventy degrees Fahrenheit (70°F) 3. a unit of measurement of an angle equal to 1/360th of a circle – each degree is divided into 60 minutes and each minutes into 60 seconds o Make a turn to the right at a bank angle of 30°. □ an angle of 90° a right angle 4. a unit of direction as measured on a compass o east = 090° o west = 270° degrees truetmp1FA51_thumbnoun degrees of direction measured from true north, not magnetic north. Also called true degrees. Symbol °T dehydrationtmp1FA52_thumbnoun an unwanted and sometimes dangerous loss of water from the body o Dehydration can be avoided by drinking plenty of water.

de-icetmp1FA53_thumb‘ verb to remove ice o

The ground crew de-iced the aircraft prior to take-off.

de-icertmp1FA54_thumbnoun a device or substance used to remove ice o De-icer spray should be checked to make sure it is not harmful to light aircraft windscreens.

de-icingtmp1FA55_thumbnoun the removal of ice ■ adjective referring to the removal of ice o de-icing fluid i> anti-icing, icing

delaytmp1FA56_thumbnoun a period after the expected time that you have to wait before something happens, the length of time by which something is late o By day, the presence of cloud can cause a delay in clearance of fog. ■ verb 1. to make late, to cause to be late o Take-off was delayed because of fog. 2. to put something off until later o He delayed telling her the news until they had landed.

delayed-actiontmp1FA57_thumbadjective in which there is an unusual passing of time between stimulus and response o The door is fitted with a delayed-action lock which operates one minute after the power has been switched off.

delivertmp1FA58_thumbverb to provide, to give o The motor will continue to run but will deliver only one-third the rated power. o The pump can deliver fuel at the rate of 2,000 gph.

deliverytmp1FA59_thumbnoun the act of providing or giving o On some pumps, a depressurising valve is used to block delivery to the system.

delivery pressuretmp1FA510_thumbtmp1FA511_thumbnoun the pressure normally expected when fuel is being pumped delugetmp1FA512_thumbnoun » fire deluge system

demandtmp1FA513_thumbnoun 1. a need or use caused by necessity □ high current demand on a generator a situation requiring the generator to produce a lot of electricity 2. a request which is made firmly □ on demand when asked for or ordered o A computer will produce, on demand, a flight plan giving the optimum route, levels and fuel. ■ verb 1. to require as a necessity o Higher operating weights of modern aircraft demand an increase in the number of wheels fitted to the landing gear. 2. to ask firmly o He demanded an explanation.

demonstratetmp1FA514_thumbverb to show by clear example or explanation o Torricelli first demonstrated that the atmosphere has weight. o It will be demonstrated in chapter 12 that turbulence is associated with strong winds.

demonstrationtmp1FA515_thumbnoun a clear, often visual, description or explanation o Your instructor will give a demonstration of the stall-recovery technique.

densetmp1FA516_thumbadjective 1. referring to a substance which is closely compacted □ dense fog thick fog 2. referring to the amount of mass of a substance for a given unit of volume o Air which contains water vapour is less dense than air which does not.

densitytmp1FA517_thumbnoun a quantity of mass for a given unit of volume o air density

density altitudetmp1FA518_thumbtmp1FA519_thumbnoun the pressure altitude corrected for non-ISA temperature comment: Density altitude is a very important factor in calculating aircraft performance because of its effect on engine performance, time to reach takeoff speed (and therefore length of take-off run) and rate of climb.

density errortmp1FB91_thumbnoun a correction to airspeed to give true airspeed

DEP abbreviation

departure message departtmp1FB92_thumbverb to leave o The flight departs at 0200 GMT. Opposite arrive

departmenttmp1FB93_thumbnoun a separate part of a complex whole, especially of an organisation departuretmp1FB94_thumb‘ noun 1. the act of leaving □ departure time the time when an aircraft becomes airborne 2. the distance between two meridians at any given latitude departure loungetmp1FB95_thumb

tmp1FB96_thumbnoun a room at an airport where passengers wait to board their aircraft

departure pointtmp1FB97_thumb

noun a place on the map representing the place from which a flight begins departurestmp1FB98_thumbnoun the part of an airport that deals with passengers who are leaving dependtmp1FB99_thumbverb 1. to be controlled or affected entirely by something o Whether or not an object can be seen by aircrew at a given distance will depend on factors such as size, shape and colour of the object. o If an aircraft ditches in the sea, early rescue depends on rapid location of survivors. 2. to rely on o Pilots depend on air traffic controllers to help them conduct a safe flight.

dependabletmp1FB910_thumbadjective reliable, trustworthy o Mercury barometers have largely been replaced by precision aneroid barometers which are smaller, simpler to use, and more dependable.

dependenttmp1FB911_thumbadjective relying on or unable to do without something o The height indicated by an altimeter is dependent on the pressure which is set on the sub-scale.

Deploytmp1FB912_thumbverb to come into action, to become ready to be used o Slide rafts are door-mounted and automatically deploy and inflate when the door is opened in the armed position.

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