conjunction‘ noun in conjunction with working or operating together with o Built-up areas, used in conjunction with other features such as rivers, railways and coastlines which are near them, are more easily identified.
connecting flightnoun a second aircraft which a passenger should arrive on time to catch, and which will take him or her to the final destination o Instead of flying direct to London, take the flight to Amsterdam and then take a connecting flight to London Heathrow.
connecting rodnoun an engine part that connects the piston to the crankshaft connectionnoun 1. the point at which things are joined o There is an electrical connection to the battery. 2. a link or feature that makes things interdependent o There is a connection between temperature change and altitude. 3. the process of catching a second aircraft to arrive at a final destination o Follow the ‘Flight Connection’ signs.
consequencenoun the result of an action o The accident was a consequence of the pilot’s actions. □ as a consequence as a result consequentadjective resulting o As temperature rises, there will be a consequent increase in the volume of the gas.
conserveverb to avoid using unnecessarily o Release the brakes when necessary and conserve main system pressure. □ to conserve energy to use only as much energy as you really need □ to conserve fuel to use as little fuel as possible considerverb to think carefully about something o If the aircraft is low on fuel, the commander should consider diverting to the nearest suitable airport. ‘…many purchasers of flight simulators would argue that, when considering the major manufacturers, there is little to choose between them’ [Civil Aviation Training]
considerableadjective a lot of, quite large o The required range of trim change is considerable. (note: Considerable does not mean that something should be thought about, as the meaning for the verb consider might suggest.) □ a considerable amount of fuel a lot of fuel, a large amount of fuel □ a considerable
noun 1. something important to remember and to think carefully about □ to take into consideration to remember to include when thinking about something, solving a problem or making a calculation 2. thoughtfulness, respect □ to show consideration for other people and property to show respect for what belongs to other people
consistverb □ to consist of to be made up of o Layer cloud names consist of a prefix, according to height of base, and a suffix according to shape. □ to consist in to mean, to be consistentadjective always reacting or behaving in the same way o Human hair responds in a consistent manner to changes in the relative humidity. □ consistent performance performance which maintains a particular standard
constrain‘ verb 1. to prevent somebody from being completely free or from doing something they want to do o The airline was constrained in its purchase of new aircraft by lack of financial resources. 2. to force somebody to do something o Lack of financial resources constrained the airline to cancel the purchase of new aircraft.
constrictverb to make something narrower, especially to make the flow of gas or liquid more difficult by narrowing the passage through which it flows o In the carburettor venturi, the flow of air is constricted.
construct‘ verb 1. to put together o The table on page 4 can be used to construct the low level forecast for the route. 2. to build □ to construct an aircraft to manufacture or build an aircraft o Wings are constructed of light alloy pressed ribs and an outer skin.
constructionnoun 1. the act of putting things together, or the way in which something is put together o The basic construction of the lead-acid cell consists of a positive electrode and negative electrode. 2. a building o The construction of the home-built aircraft took two years.
consumptionnoun 1. the amount used up in a given time o Fuel consumption is higher in bigger, more powerful engines. 2. the process of using up fuel or other resources 3. the amount eaten 4. the act of eating
contactnoun 1. touch □ in contact with touching o The air in contact with the Earth’s surface cools. 2. □ to be in contact with to communicate with e.g. by telephone or radio □ to be in visual contact to see □ to make contact to communicate □ to lose contact to stop communicating o ATC lost contact with the aircraft. 3. a person who can be contacted in order to get something done □ I have a contact in Madrid who can help I know somebody in Madrid who can help 4. an electrical connection o Dirty contacts were the cause of the problem. ■ verb to get in touch with somebody e.g. by radio or telephone o The captain couldn’t contact ATC.
contact numbernoun a telephone number where information can be obtained containverb to hold, to have inside o Most clouds contain some super-cooled water droplets. o The booklet contains details of the airline’s flight schedule.
contaminationnoun a process by which a liquid, gas or object is made unusable because impurities or foreign matter are allowed into or onto it □ contamination of air air pollution □ fuel contamination a situation in which fuel becomes unusable because an unwanted substance such as water gets into it □ nuclear contamination damage done to an object, person or substance because of contact with nuclear radiation
contentnoun the amount of a substance that is contained within something, often expressed as a percentage o The stratosphere is a layer in which the water vapour content is low. □ the moisture content of the atmosphere the amount of water vapour in the air
Comment: The seven continents are: Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Australia, Europe and Antarctica.
continentaladjective referring to a continent continental climatenoun the type of climate found in areas where there is no effect from the sea contingency_ noun something which might happen in the future and therefore must be planned for
contractverb to become smaller in volume o Liquids will expand or contract as a result of temperature changes. Opposite expand contractionnoun the decrease in volume of a substance brought about by cooling o Due to contraction, the length of a mercury column shortens. Opposite expansion contrailnoun same as vapour trail
contrastnoun 1. the amount of light and dark in something seen o Contrast and colour enable a pilot to identify ground features. 2. the difference between two things o There is an enormous contrast between the performance of the two aircraft. □ in contrast to when compared with o Air at altitude is cold in contrast to air at the surface.
Contributeverb to give or provide as part of the whole o Exhaust gases contribute to engine power. □ although the weather was bad, pilot error contributed to the accident pilot error was partly responsible for the accident contributionnoun 1. the part that something plays in making or causing something o The differences in the effect of solar radiation on land and sea make the biggest contribution to weather and climate. 2. the act of contributing or something, especially money, that is given or provided contributornoun a person or thing that contributes to something o There are other factors which cause the division of the lower atmosphere into two layers but the ozone effect is a major contributor.