articlenoun an object, an item □ loose articles things which may move during flight and cause problems artificialadjective not natural, made by humans o The small needle indicates cabin altitude or the artificial altitude created by the pres-surisation system.
artificial horizon ‘ noun an instrument that displays the degree of pitch or bank of an aircraft relative to the horizon ascendverb to rise, to go or move upwards o Hot air ascends. □ in ascending order in order of number or rank with the smallest or less important at the bottom and the largest or more important at the top. Opposite descend ascentnoun a rise, a slow
upward movement o the forced ascent of air over high ground o In a stable atmosphere where the ascent of air is forced, precipitation is mostly light and occasionally moderate. ascertainverb to find out, to make certain o During pre-flight checks, control surfaces should be moved by hand to ascertain that they have full andfree movement. ASDE abbreviation airport surface detection equipment ASI abbreviation airspeed indicator ASMI abbreviation aerodrome surface movement indicator aspectnoun 1. a part of a problem or subject o Vertical motion is an important aspect of meteorology. □ safety aspects matters related to safety 2. the view from a particular position o The aspect of the runway on final approach helps the pilot to judge height and progress.
aspect rationoun the ratio of the length of an aircraft’s wing to the average distance between the front and back edge of the wing (note: Aircraft that operate at low speeds, for example gliders, need a high aspect ratio and have long narrow wings. Supersonic aircraft need a low aspect ratio, which is created by swinging the wings back.)
assembleverb 1. to put a number of parts together o The parts are made in different countries but the plane is assembled in France. 2. to gather together o Passengers should assemble in the departure lounge where an airline representative will meet them.
assemblynoun 1. some thing that is made up of smaller parts 2. the act of putting parts together to make a whole o Final assembly of the A320 takes place in France. assessverb to check, estimate or find out o Cabin crew must assess if their exits are usable. □ to assess a situation to consider all aspects of a situation
assessmentnoun a judgement on a situation based on careful thought o The captain’s assessment of factors such as aircraft damage, passenger-load, fire, etc., will affect the decision on whether to evacuate the aeroplane or not.
assignverb to set apart beforehand or allocate for a specific purpose □ assigned seats seats selected beforehand for particular people o Crew sit in their assigned seats. o Individual carriers assign codes to aircraft. assistverb to help If you have any difficulty, cabin staff will assist you. o When evacuating the aircraft, hand signals by cabin staff assist in directing passengers to the exits. i> power
associateverb to come with or be linked to something else o Turbulence is often associated with strong winds. o The airport authority has to overcome a lot of problems associated with its plans to build a new terminal.
associationnoun 1. a group of people who organise themselves into an official body with common objectives and a code of conduct o British Air Line Pilots Association. 2. □ in association with together with o Rain-ice occurs only rarely over the British Isles and is usually found in association with warm fronts. assumeverb 1. to take as true before there is proof o I assume that she’s ill because she’s not at work today — but I may be wrong. 2. to suppose □ for our studies we will assume that the earth is a perfect sphere we know that the Earth is not a perfect sphere but it helps if we accept, for the time being, that it is □ assuming (that) accepting or supposing that o Assuming that the return flight from the point of no return to A is made on three engines, calculate the distance from D to the point of no return. 3. to take on, to undertake the duties of somebody o The copilot assumed control of the aircraft after the captain was taken ill during the flight. 4. to take a particular bodily position o The correct technique of using the escape slides is to assume a sitting position.
noun a condition in which one engine, displaced from the aircraft’s centre-line is not working asymmetric power noun power on one side of the aircraft’s centre line only asynchronous‘ adjective 1. not happening at the same time or rate o An asynchronous orbit is a 24hour orbit which enables a satellite to remain overhead one part of the Earth’s surface. 2. not in frequency or phase asynchronous computer noun a computer which does not process information according to the internal clock ATAabbreviation actual time of arrival
ATCRU abbreviation air traffic control radar unit
ATFM abbreviation air traffic flow management
Comment: The main gases found in the atmosphere are nitrogen and oxygen. The atmosphere contains less than 1% carbon dioxide and argon, and also traces of hydrogen, helium, krypton, neon, ozone and xenon.
noun change in direction of waves due to variations in temperature, pressure and humidity, particularly at lower altitudes atomnoun the smallest amount of a substance which can take part in a chemical reaction o An atom consists of a nucleus and electrons. atomicadjective referring to atoms □ atomic structure of matter the structure of materials and substances at their smallest level atomisation noun the reduction of liquids to a fine spray o The fuel achieves fine atomisation under pressure.
ATPL abbreviation Airline Transport Pilot’s Licence
ATS abbreviation air traffic services ATSU abbreviation air traffic service unit
attachverb to join or fix something to something o The ice detector is attached to the fuselage. attachmentnoun 1. the act of joining or fixing something to something o The attachment of winglets improved the handling characteristics of the aeroplane. 2. an accessory which can be attached o The video camera is sold with a number of attachments including a carrying strap and a battery pack.
attainverb to reach, to achieve something, often with difficulty o In order to attain a fuller understanding of gas turbines, it is essential to know something about basic gas laws. attempt‘ noun a try o Any attempt to increase range by applying more power is of little or no benefit. ■ verb to try o He attempted to land despite the poor visibility but then decided to divert to another airfield where he landed safely.
attendantadjective accompanying something else o Fuel spillage and attendant fire risk must be minimised. □ attendant problems associated problems ■ noun a person employed to help members of the public
attentionnoun the ability or power to concentrate on something o The crew’s attention is alerted by an automatic display. □ attention please listen carefully to what will be said □ pay attention listen to the speaker and concentrate on what is being said attenuateverb to lose power or strength o A wave becomes attenuated or loses strength as range increases.
attitudenoun 1. the position of the aircraft in the air in relation to the horizon o Angle of attack will vary with changes in engine speed and aircraft attitude. □ nose down attitude the attitude of the aircraft when the nose is at a lower level than the tail 2. a way of thinking and feeling about or of behaving towards something or somebody □ he has an excellent attitude towards his training programme he is positive and motivated in his training programme
attitude heading reference system noun full form of AHRS attitude indicator noun a flight instrument that gives the pilot information about the position of the aircraft in the air in relation to the horizon o In light aircraft, the attitude indicator is situated on the instrument panel, directly in front of the pilot. i> pitch, bank
Comment: The attitude indicator is sometimes referred to as the ‘artificial horizon’. In instrument flight training, the attitude indicator is the primary reference instrument. It is positioned on the instrument panel directly in front of the pilot.
Attractverb 1. to cause to draw near o If two magnets, with unlike poles are brought together, they will attract each other. □ to attract attention to behave in such a way that people will notice you 2. to cause people to want to have or do something attractionnoun 1. a force that draws things towards something o The strength of the magnetic force will depend, amongst other things, on the magnitude of attraction at the magnetic source. 2. a quality that causes people to want to have or do something o The attraction of flying was the factor which made him decide to train as a pilot.
ATZ abbreviation aerodrome traffic zone
augmentverb to make larger by adding something o The sea breeze may augment the up-slope motion of an anabatic wind. auraladjective referring to hearing o The aural and visual alerts will continue until the crew take action to cancel them. (note: Aural is sometimes pronounced /’aural/ to show the difference with oral.)