Chronology of Ancient Egypt

Paleolithic

Lower Paleolithic, circa 700/500,000-200,000 BP

Middle Paleolithic, circa 200,000-45,000 BP

Upper Paleolithic, circa 35,000-21,000 BP

Late Paleolithic, circa 21,000-12,000 BP

Epi-paleolithic, circa 12,000-8,000 BP

Neolithic, northern Egypt: begins circa 5200 BC

Predynastic period:

Ma’adi culture, northern Egypt, circa 4000-3300/3200 BC

Badarian culture, Middle Egypt, circa 4500-3800 BC

Nagada culture, southern Egypt:

Nagada I, circa 4000-3600 BC

Nagada II, circa 3600-3200 BC

Nagada III/Dynasty 0, circa 3200-3050 BC

Early Dynastic period:

1st Dynasty, circa 3050-2890 BC:

Ah*

Djer

Djet

Den

Anedjib

Smerkhet

Qa’a

2nd Dynasty, circa 2890-2686 BC:

Hotepsekhemwy

Reneb

Nynetjer

Weneg

Peribsen

Khasekhemwy

Old Kingdom:

3rd Dynasty, circa 2686-2613 BC:

Nebka Zoser

Sekhemkhet

Khaba

Huni

4th Dynasty, circa 2613-2494 BC:

Seneferu

Khufu

Djedefre

Khafre

Nebka

Menkaure

Shepseskaf

5th Dynasty, circa 2494-2345 BC:

Weserkaf


Sahure

Neferirkare

Shepseskare

Neferefre

Nyuserre

Menkauhor

Djedkare-Isesi

Unas

6th Dynasty, circa 2345-2181 BC:

Teti

Weserkare

Pepi I

Merenre

Pepi II

Nitocris

First Intermediate Period:

7th-8th Dynasties, circa 2181-2125 BC: circa 16 kings

9th-10th Dynasties (Heracleopolis), circa 2160-2025 BC: circa 18 kings

11th Dynasty, pre-unification Thebes, circa 2125-2055 BC:

Mentuhotep I

Intef II

Intef I

Intef III

Middle Kingdom: 11th Dynasty, unification, circa 2055-1985 BC:

Mentuhotep II

Mentuhotep IV

Mentuhotep III

12th Dynasty, circa 1985-1795 BC:

Senusret I

Amenemhat IV

Amenemhat II

Queen Sobekneferu

Senusret II

Second Intermediate Period: 13th Dynasty, circa 1795-1650 BC:

circa 65 kings, including:

Sihathor I

‘Amu-sa-hornedjherjotef

Sihathor II

Chendjer

Sobekhotep IV

Sobekhotep III

Neferhotep III

Neferhotep I

14th Dynasty, circa 1750-1650 BC:

Possibly up to 76 kings who ruled from Sais in the Delta and overlapped with the 13tl and 15 th Dynasties.

15th Dynasty (Hyksos), circa 1650-1550 BC:

Salitis

Apophis

Khayan

Khamudi

16th Dynasty (Hyksos), circa 1650-1550 BC: circa 17 minor kings/Hyksos vassals who overlapped with the 15th Dynasty. 17th Dynasty (Thebes), circa 1650-1550 BC:

circa 14 kings, the last four of which were:

Ta’o II

Intef VI

Kamose

Ta’o I

New Kingdom: 18th Dynasty, circa 1550-1295 BC:

Ahmose

Tuthmose IV

Amenhotep I

Amenhotep III

Tuthmose I

Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten (Amarna period)

Tuthmose II

Smenkhkare

Tuthmose III

Tutankhamen

Hatshepsut

Ay

Amenhotep II

Horemheb

Ramesside period: 19th Dynasty, circa 1295-1186 BC:

Ramesses I

Amenmesses

Seti I

Seti II

Ramesses II

Siptah

Merenptah

Queen Tawosret

20th Dynasty, circa 1186-1069 BC:

Sethnakht

Ramesses III

Ramesses IV

Ramesses V

Ramesses VI

Ramesses VII

Ramesses VIII

Ramesses IX

Ramesses X

Ramesses XI

Third Intermediate Period:

21st Dynasty (Tanis), circa 1069-945 BC:

Smendes

Amenemnisu

Psusennes I

Amenemope

Osorkon the Elder

Siamen

Psusennes II

22nd Dynasty (Libyan), circa 945-735 BC:

Sheshonk I

Osorkon I

Sheshonk II

Takelot I

Osorkon II

Takelot II

Sheshonk III

Pami

Sheshonk V

Theban kings, circa 818-730 BC:

Pedubast I Input I

Sheshonk IV(?)

Osorkon III

Takelot III

Rudamen Iny

23rd Dynasty (Libyan), circa 735-710 BC:

Pedubast II

Osorkon IV

Psammous

Local dynasties, circa 730 BC:

Thotemhat and Nimlot (Hermopolis)

Peftjauawybast (Heracleopolis)

Input II (Leontopolis)

24th Dynasty, circa 727-715 BC:

Tefnakht

Bakenrenef

25th Dynasty (Kushite), circa 760-653 BC:

Kashta

Piye

Shabako

Shebitku

Taharka

Tanutameni

Late period:

26th Dynasty (Saite), circa 664-525 BC:

Neko I


Psamtik I

Neko II

Psamtik II

Apries

Amasis

Psamtik III

27th Dynasty (Persian), circa 525-404 BC:

Cambyses

Darius I

Xerxes I

Artaxerxes I

Darius II

Artaxerxes II

28th Dynasty, circa 404-399 BC:

Amyrtaeus

29th Dynasty, circa 399-380 BC:

Nepherites I

Hakor

Nepherites II

30th Dynasty, circa 380-343 BC:

Nectanebo I Teos

Nectanebo II

31st Dynasty (Persian), circa 343-332 BC:

Artaxerxes III

Arses

Darius III

Ptolemaic period, circa 332-32 BC:

Macedonians:

Alexander the Great

Philip Arrhidaeus

Alexander IV

Ptolemaic Dynasty:

Ptolemy I Soter I

Ptolemy II Philadelphus

Ptolemy III Evergetes

Ptolemy IV Philopator

Ptolemy V Epiphanes

Ptolemy VI Philometor

Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator

Ptolemy VIII Evergetes II

Ptolemy IX Soter II

Ptolemy X Alexander I

Ptolemy IX Soter II (again)

Ptolemy XI Alexander II

Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos

Cleopatra VII Philopator

Ptolemy XIII

Ptolemy XIV Caesarion

Roman period

Begins after the defeat of Cleopatra VII and Mark Antony at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, when Egypt became a Roman province.

Coptic period

From the defeat of the Roman emperor Maxentius by Constantine I in AD 312, when Christian persercution ended in the Roman empire, to the Arab invasion of Egypt in AD 639.

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