An island at the third cataract of the Nile in nubia (modern Sudan). Tuthmosis i (r. 1504-1492 b.c.e.) made Tombos the center of his Nubian military campaigns in the second year of his reign. He garrisoned the island, erecting a fortress called “None-Face-Him-Among-The-Nine-Bows-Together.” A stela was also erected to commemorate Tuthmosis I’s victories over the local population and to proclaim his Asiatic campaigns on the Euphrates River. This stela was engraved on a rock in the area.
Trial It was a judicial investigation that was conducted in the reign of ramesses ix (11311112 b.c.e.) and reflected the decline of the Egyptian government of that historical period. The actual trial came about as a result of the investigations demanded by paser (3), the mayor of Thebes, over vandalized tombs. He suffered abuse and harassment as a result of his insistence, especially from Prince pawero, who was the head of the necropolis sites and necropolis police of that era. investigations continued, and eventually the involvement of higher-ranked officials was uncovered, including Prince Pawero, who was indicted and tried for his duplicity and sacrilege. The abbott papyrus gives some details about the investigation and about the tombs searched for desecration and vandalism.
A false door in a tomb from the Old Kingdom Period (2575-2134 b.c.e.) that depicts the deceased returning from Tuat, the land beyond the grave.
The various mortuary documents inscribed or painted on the tomb walls in various eras of Egyptian history. Some, compiled as the topic of the dead, were included in the funerary regalia or were reproduced in tomb reliefs. The most popular texts used as burial chamber decorations included
Amduat originally called “the topic of the Hidden Room” or “that which is in the Tuat” (or Underworld). stick figures, starkly black and stylized, portray the 12 sections on the tomb walls. The Twelve Hours of the Night compose another version of the Amduat. The tomb of tuthmosis iii (r. 1479-1425 b.c.e.) is decorated with the Amduat, also listed as Am Duat or Am Tuat.
Topic of Gates the illustrations first used in the tomb of horemhab (r. 1319-1307 b.c.e.) and depicting the twelve parts of the tuat, or underworld, complete with fierce guardians, a lake of fire, and the secret caverns of the deity sokar.
Topic of Caverns a variation on the traditional topic of the dead texts, depicting vast caverns that formed the tuat, or underworld.
A papyrus tomb text depicting a deceased couple, Ani and his wife, worshiping Osiris, in a copy of the topic of the Dead.
Topic of the Earth a text that appeared first in the reign of ramesses iii (1194-1163 b.c.e.). Represented in four sections, the mortuary document displayed the rising of re as the sun of nun, the primordial chaos.
topic of the Heavens a tomb text appearing in the reign of ramesses iv (1163-1156 b.c.e.). The 12 hours of eternal night and the passage of the god re are depicted in this mortuary document.
Litany of Re a text that offers praise to the deity and lists the 75 forms assumed by re as the supreme solar deity and underworld traveler.
Tomb Workers’ Revolt
A small rebellion that took place during the reign of ramesses iii (1196-1163 b.c.e.).
The servants of the place of truth, deir el-medina,labored solely for the ruler and were dependent upon rations and goods provided. In Ramesses Ill’s 29th year, these laborers elected a man named Amennakht to represent them in negotiations for better conditions.
The workers had not received rations for more than a month and had suffered as a consequence. They began to assemble at the mortuary temple of tuthmosis iii to register their plight. on the following day they assembled at the ramesseum nearby and complained again. Officials listened but did not provide rations. Violence, punishments, and quarrels developed, continuing the drastic situation. A vizier named Ta’a tried to alleviate the situation but was not successful. The papyrus that records these events ends abruptly without giving a resolution.
Tract of Re
A sacred region of Egypt, stretching from heliopolis to avaris, a site in the eastern Delta near modern qantir on the Pelusiac branch of the Nile. This entire area was the homeland of the Ramessids and once served as a capital setting for the hyksos. Many monuments were erected on this sacred tract.
The economic and artistic exchange system that was used by Egypt and its neighbors from the Predynastic Period (before 3000 b.c.e.) through the Ptolemaic Period (304-30 b.c.e.). Such trade surely dates to the eras before the unification of Egypt, c. 3000 b.c.e., as evidenced by objects discovered in sites from that time. The narmer palette, for example, with its depiction of monsters and entwined long-necked serpents, is distinctly Mesopota-mian in design.
Knife handles from the same period demonstrate further Mesopotamian influences, probably brought about by an exchange of trade goods and artistic values. Mesopotamian cylinder seals were found in nagada ii sites. it is possible that trade was not the basis for the appearance of such goods in Egypt; there are some who theorize that such products were brought into Egypt by migrant Mesopotamians entering the Nile Valley.
Early evidence of actual trade missions to Phoenicia (modern Lebanon), no doubt for wood and cedar oil, dates to the reign of ‘adjib of the First Dynasty (c. 2700 b.c.e.). Syrian-style pottery has also been found in tombs from this period. such trade was probably conducted by sea, as the Asiatic bedouins in the sinai made land-based caravans dangerous. Egypt was trading with the Libyans in the Early Dynastic Period (2920-2575 b.c.e.), probably for olive oil. The rulers also fought to maintain Egypt’s western borders and to subjugate the Libyans, called the Hatiu-a in that period.
nubia was an early trading partner. djer (r. c. 2900 b.c.e.), the second king of the First Dynasty, is reported to have taken part in a battle at wadi halfa, where two villages were subdued. kha’sekhemwy, who actually completed the unification of Egypt during his reign (c. 2650 b.c.e.), conducted punitive campaigns there as well, probably to safeguard the trade centers being operated in the region. Ebony and ivory from the Nubian area were items prized by the Egyptians, and they gave the Nubians copper tools, jewelry, and amulets in return. some local Nubian chiefs appear to have served as trade agents for the Egyptians, no doubt for a percentage of all goods brought to the centers by the outlying natives. These chiefs grew wealthy, as the Nubian gravesites indicate. The Egyptians established a trading settlement at buhen, at the second cataract, in the second Dynasty, probably to provide a center for the caravans arriving from the interior regions.
The adventures of harkhuf in the Sixth Dynasty (c. 2245 b.c.e.) are well documented. He brought back incense, ebony, oils, panther skins, elephant tusks, and a marvelous dancing dwarf, which was the delight of the boy ruler pepi ii (r. 2246-2152 b.c.e.).
In the Middle Kingdom Period, after montuhotep ii had reunited Egypt in 2040 b.c.e., the trading centers began to flourish again. Expeditions were sent to Punt in almost every reign, and a shipbuilding operation center on the Red sea was begun to facilitate them. contact had been made with punt as early as the Fifth Dynasty (2465-2323 b.c.e.), as reported by the palermo stone.In the Middle Kingdom Period the Egyptians had contact with many of the Mediterranean nations, perhaps even crete, called Kheftiu by the Nile people. Minoan pottery was discovered in Middle Kingdom tombs. in Nubia the major forts were refurbished and new ones erected at critical junctures along the Nile, to facilitate trade and the extraction of natural resources. Egypt conducted trade in the Mediterranean region, and a special relationship was developed with byblos in Phoenicia, where considerable Egyptian influence is obvious.
The New Kingdom Period (1550-1070 b.c.e.) was the period in which the armies of the Nile marched to the Euphrates and to the fifth cataract, just above modern Khartoum, in modern Sudan. The expeditions to Punt are well documented in this era also, especially those sent by hatshepsut (r. 1473-1458 b.c.e.). Egyptians were much taken with luxury goods in this period, and the tributes coming from exotic lands (either vassal or client states or allies) increased their appetite for foreign items.
The Libyans fought against Egypt on several occasions, especially in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Dynasties, joined by a roving group of brigands called the sea peoples, but the region was exploited and trade was continued. The Libyan trade, as well as the trade with other regions, appears to have been officially regulated in this period with tolls and tariffs. The kings sent out expeditions and fleets regularly, and many officials led the commercial ventures, some coming from the bureau established for foreign trade. caravans moved through the Libyan desert area oases, and pack trains were sent into the northern Mediterranean domains.
It is believed that Egypt conducted trade in this era with cyprus, crete, cilicia, ionia, the Aegean islands, and perhaps even with mainland Greece. syria remained a popular destination for trading fleets and caravans, where syrian products were joined with those coming from the regions of the Persian Gulf. The Egyptians received wood, wines, oils, resins, silver, copper, and cattle in exchange for gold (which they had in vaster amounts than any other country), linens, papyrus paper, leather goods, and grains. Money was not in use in Egypt at this time, but a fixed media of exchange was instituted so that trade goods could be valued consistently and fairly. Gold, silver, copper, and even grain were used as bartering values.
During much of the New Kingdom Period, the Egyptians controlled Nubia and maintained the region around the cataracts, conducting mining and quarrying operations. The trade centers flourished, with caravans coming from the south and the interiors. Nubia provided Egypt with ebony, ivory, resins, and exotic wild animals.
Tributes and foreign trade declined after the reign of ramesses iii (1194-1163 b.c.e.). Expeditions to the mining regions of the sinai ended after ramesses v (r. 1156-1151 b.c.e.), but there was no drastic end to trade when herihor and smendes usurped the throne and power in 1070 b.c.e. Egypt was an established trading partner with the world around it, and that tradition was maintained in good times and bad.
During the Third Intermediate Period (1070-712 b.c.e.), trade appears to have continued in the hands of newly appointed bureaucrats and independent adventurers. Trade was necessary to Egypt’s economy and was a factor of stability as the land splintered into rival city-states. When the Twenty-fifth Dynasty (770-657 b.c.e.) arose out of Nubia, trade with the southern domain flourished, but other Mediterranean trade systems were not abandoned by that or succeeding royal lines.
In the Late Period (712-332 b.c.e.), the rise of Greece signaled a new dominant trade factor. The city of naukratis in the Delta served as the hub of Greek trade for centuries. The Greeks provided silver ore and slaves taken from the northern Aegean area and received Egyptian grain and manufactured artistic wares in return. The Persians interrupted such trade from 525 to 404 b.c.e. and 343 to 332 b.c.e., but the victories of Alexander iii the great (r. 332-323 b.c.e.) assured that the established trade system flourished until the suicide of cleopatra vii (r. 51-30 b.c.e.), when the Romans declared Egypt a province of special status and regulated such commerce out of alexandria.
Travels of an Egyptian (The Tale of Mohor)
It is a literary text dating to the last periods of the Nineteenth Dynasty (1307-1196 b.c.e.). This text is believed to be an actual journal of a tour, serving as a geographical exercise for students. An official depicts his travels through syria and palestine, including assaults and hardships. it has been compared to the Tale of wenamun of a later era.
Tree of Heaven
A plant that grew in the mythical paradises of the Egyptians. Associated with the cult of hathor, the tree was a resting place for the seven hathors, who supplied the deceased Egyptians with celestial food beyond the grave.
A serpent demon mentioned in a magical formula in the pyramid texts, the creature was one of the many enemies of the human soul that had to be conquered in order to reach the bliss of paradise beyond the grave. Such serpents were also the enemies of the god re and assaulted him on his journeys through the tuat,or underworld, each night. See also apophis.
This was the realm of the dead in Egyptian cultic traditions formed by osiris’s body as a circular valley. Tuat was the destination of the deceased after being judged in the halls of the god osiris that were in the sixth section of the abode. The soul of the dead had to undertake a journey in order to reach the Tuat, following the example of the god re, who made the same perilous journey each night. The souls of Egyptians waited in the first section of the Tuat for Re to waken them and the souls of foreigners were in the fifth division. The damned and the demons watched Re pass as well, and they wailed when he abandoned them. There were many levels, similar to Dantes’ vision of the underworld.
osiris was also present in the Tuat and he brought rebirth to the dead. Re sailed through the Tuat and then to the paradise. The mortuary text used in the tombs describes Osiris as “He Who Is In The Tuat.” The Seven Arits, supernatural beings who could also number as many as 12, guarded the gates. There were also 12 circles that had to be descended by all making the journey. upon nearing paradise, the dead were bathed in and then absorbed by a radiant light.
Tudhaliyas IV (Tudkhaliash) (d. c. 1220 b.c.e.)
King of the Hittites and an ally of Egypt
He was in power during the reign of ramesses ii (1290-1224 b.c.e.). The son of Khatusilis, Tudhaliyas IV ruled from c. 1250 to 1220 b.c.e. Tudhaliyas IV maintained peace with Egypt during his reign, despite occasional clashes over control of vassal city-states. The assyrians threatened the hittites in the east, and small western states were making raids and incursions upon the region.
It was a site on the Nile located some 150 miles south of aswan in nubia (modern Sudan). pepi i (r. 2289-2255 b.c.e.) celebrated a victory over the Nubians at Tumas, probably a battle won by General weni in the ruler’s name. An inscription on the local rocks commemorated the event.
A site in the desert west of hermopo-lis (modern el-Ashmunien), serving as the northwest boundary of the capital of akhenaten (r. 1353-1335 b.c.e.) at ‘amarna, Tuna el-Gebel was a necropolis, sacred to the god thoth. The site was popular in the later historical periods of Egypt. A stela depicting Akhenaten, Queen nefertiti, and three daughters was discovered at Tuna el-Gebel. persian papyri from the Second Persian Period (343-332 b.c.e.) were also found, as well as many tombs, containing mummified ibises and dog-headed baboons. The tomb of petosiris, serving philip iii arrhidaeus (r. 333-316 b.c.e.) is a treasure on the site. This tomb was built as a temple, with a columned vestibule, pillars, cultic chambers, and elaborate reliefs. An ancient waterworks with a deep shaft and catacombs are also located in Tuna el-Gebel.
Tureh, el- (Tura, Trozia, Troja)
A limestone quarry that was part of the mokattem Hills in the southern region of modern cairo, Tureh was used for limestone as early as the old Kingdom period (2575-2134 b.c.e.). A Sixth Dynasty (2323-2150 b.c.e.) inscription mentions a sarcophagus fashioned out of Tureh limestone by order of a pharaoh. The Tureh Inscription, dated to the reign of amenemhet iii (1844-1797 b.c.e.), designates the reopening of the quarry for temple projects. Tureh limestone was prized for its fine quality.
This is the finest chronological list of Egyptian rulers, preserved on a papyrus in the Egyptian Museum of Turin. The papyrus is composed of 12 pages, formed as a roll, and the list begins with aha (Menes) and ends with ramesses ii (r. 1290-1224 b.c.e.). Written in the hieratic style, the document was first assessed by champollion le jeune. The king of sardinia owned the Turin papyrus and donated it to the museum. sent in a crate, the papyrus arrived in crumpled fragments but was reconstructed into the existing document. The 12 pages each contain 26 to 30 names of Egypt’s rulers.
Turin Mining Papyrus
This is a document dated to the reign of ramesses iv (1163-1156 b.c.e.) and considered the world’s earliest geological map. Now in Turin, Italy, the Turin Mining Papyrus depicts the wadi hamma-mat and the Fawakir gold mines in use in that era. Ramesses iv sent expeditions there during his reign.
Tushratta (fl. 14th century b.c.e.)
Last independent ruler of the Mitanni Empire
He was in power in the reign of amenhotep iii (1391-1353 b.c.e.). Tushratta, an ally of Egypt, sent Amenhotep iii a statue of the goddess ishtar in order to heal the pharaoh from an illness. Tushratta also asked for a sign of Amenhotep’s good will, preferring gold, which he wrote was “as plentiful as dust” in Egypt.
Tut’ankhamun (Nebkheprure) (d. 1323 b.c.e.)
Twelfth ruler of the Eighteenth Dynasty and the most famous pharaoh of Egypt
He reigned from 1333 b.c.e. until his untimely death. The most popular pharaoh in modern times because of the discovery of his tomb, he was probably the son of akhenaten. As the successor of smenkhare, he was only eight or nine at his succession. He was married to ankhesena-mon, the third daughter of nefertiti and Akhenaten, and for a time the young couple remained at ‘amarna. Then they moved to Memphis and refurbished the apartments of amenhotep iii at thebes for their use. He had abandoned his aten name by his fourth regnal year.
The restoration stela, which dates to this period, gives an account of Tut’ankhamun’s efforts to stabilize the government and to restore the temples and cultic rites of the old gods of Egypt after the ‘Amarna period. He even subsidized new priests and the palace staff from his own pocket. It is believed that aya (2) was one of his counselors at the time, and he probably suggested the reform measures. Tut’ankhamun had been given the name Tut’ankhaten, but assumed his new name as part of the restoration of the old ways. He also moved some of the bodies of the royal family from ‘Amarna to Thebes, as evidenced by a cache of royal jewelry apparently stolen during the reburial and then hidden in the royal wadi area.
In his 18th year, Tut’ankhamun died, apparently from a head wound. The nature of the wound, which was in the region of the left ear, makes it likely to be the result of a battle injury or an accident, and not the work of an assassin, although there is a debate about this. When he was buried in the valley of the kings, two mummified fetuses were found in coffins sealed with his name. It is believed that they were his children, born prematurely.
After his death, Queen Ankhesenamon made the extraordinary offer of herself and the throne of Egypt to the Hittite king suppiluliumas i. The hittite prince sent to marry Ankhesenamon as a result of her invitation was slain at Egypt’s border. She married Aya and then disappeared.
The wealth of Tut’ankhamun’s mortuary regalia has mesmerized the modern world. it is believed that his canopic coffinettes were originally intended for smenkhare. other tomb treasures were taken from the ‘Amarna necropolis as well. The tomb of Tut’ankhamun would have been vandalized if the treasurer of horemhab, maya, had not intervened to protect it. Maya was able to preserve this resting place, thus offering the modern world spectacular treasures. Tut’ankhamun is also credited with a mortuary temple in the area of medinet habu. He had designed colossal statues of himself for this shrine, but they were usurped by his successors.
Tuthmosis (fl. 14th century b.c.e.)
Prince of the Eighteenth Dynasty
He was the ranking son and heir of amenhotep iii (r. 1391-1353 b.c.e.) and Queen tiye (1). Tuthmosis was made the high priest of ptah at Memphis and the supervisor of all priests throughout Egypt. He initiated the rites for the burial of the apis bull in Memphis and then died suddenly before he could inherit the throne. Amenhotep IV (akhenaten) became the heir. Tuthmosis fashioned a unique sarcophagus for his cat. He was depicted in a relief of the historical period and remained popular, as the Apis rituals continued for centuries.
Tuthmosis I (Akheperkare) (d. 1492 b.c.e.)
Third ruler of the Eighteenth Dynasty and the founder of the Egyptian Empire
He reigned from 1504 b.c.e. until his death. Not the heir to the throne of Amenhotep i, Tuthmosis i was probably a prince of a collateral line or an heir of the Theban nome aristocracy. His mother, senisonbe, is identified only as “King’s Mother,” but she reportedly had political power of her own.
Tuthmosis I married ‘ahmose (1), a possible sister of Amenhotep i, and was named heir when the king died childless. ‘Ahmose bore Tuthmosis two daughters, neferukheb and hatshepsut, and two sons, wadjmose and amenmose. These two sons were militarily active but predeceased their father. tuthmosis ii, born to mut-nofret (1), a lesser-ranked royal woman and perhaps a nome heiress, became the heir.
Assuming the throne, Tuthmosis i began many building projects, including the extension of the great temple of amun at karnak. Aided by ineni, the famed architect of the era, Tuthmosis i added pylons, courts, and statues to the shrine, setting the standard for the eventual magnificence of the temple. He also led a military campaign into nubia (modern Sudan) in his second regnal year, fighting the local warrior clans and penetrating beyond the second cataract. some records indicate that Tuthmosis battled the chief of the Nubians there. A hand-to-hand combat cost the Nubian his life and his territory. Tuthmo-sis returned to Thebes with the body of the chief hanging from the prow of his ship. After defeating the local inhabitants, Tuthmosis started a new series of fortresses on the Nile and named a new viceroy of Nubia to handle the affairs below the cataracts. He also cleared the ancient canals at the various cataracts.
His greatest military exploits, however, were conducted in the lands beyond the eastern borders of Egypt. Like others of his line, he smarted over the recent domination of the hyksos, or Asiatics, in the Delta region of Egypt. He felt that the Egyptians needed to avenge themselves for the shame and led an army against several Asiatic territories in order to subdue tribes and to create buffer states and vassals. Tuthmosis i managed to reach the Euphrates River near carchemish in modern Syria, erecting a stela there to commemorate his victory. His exploits allowed him to boast that he had enlarged the boundaries of Egypt to match the circuit of the sun. He made the Euphrates Egypt’s new border. Tuthmosis I also fought the mitanni chariot corps.
At Karnak, to commemorate his victories and to bolster his popularity, he had a hypostyle hall built entirely of cedarwood columns and added a copper and gold door, obelisks, and flagstaffs tipped with elec-trum. The tomb of Tuthmosis I was also begun early in his reign. ineni supervised the preparation in secret, placing it high in the cliffs overlooking the western shore of Thebes. The ruler’s mortuary temple, quite magnificent in design, was located near medinet habu. Tuthmosis i was so popular that his mortuary cult continued into the Nineteenth Dynasty (1307-1196 b.c.e.). He brought Egypt renewed vigor and a sense of continuity and stability. Above all, his military campaigns healed the wounds of the Thebans and set the pattern of empire.
The mummified remains identified as those of Tuth-mosis I were found with a cache of bodies in deir el-bahri, reburied there when later dynasties discovered the original royal tombs had been vandalized. The corpse of the ruler was bald, showing signs of arthritis and poor teeth. Tuthmosis i had a narrow face and an arched nose. There have been questions as to the true identity of the corpse over the years, with some scholars holding the opinion that it is not Tuthmosis i because of the apparent age discrepancies.
Tuthmosis II (Akhepernere) (d. 1479 b.c.e.)
Fourth ruler of the Eighteenth Dynasty
He reigned from 1492 b.c.e. until his death. The son of tuthmosis i and mutnofret (1), a lesser-ranked wife and possibly a sister of Queen ‘ahmose, the wife of tuthmosis i, Tuthmosis II was not ambitious or entirely healthy There has been considerable doubt about the military capacities of this heir to the throne. Frail and sickly, he was overshadowed by hatshepsut, his queen, throughout his reign. However, it is recorded that he conducted at least one campaign against the Asiatics. one fragmented document states that he even entered syria with his army and conducted another campaign in nubia. This campaign, however, is recorded in another place as having been accomplished by others in his name. He is supposed to have come to the area to view the trophies of victory. There he also began to take Nubian princes to be raised as Egyptians.
Tuthmosis II added to the karnak shrine but left no other monuments to his reign except a funerary chapel. He had a daughter, neferu-re, the offspring of Hatshepsut, and a son, tuthmosis iii, from a harem woman named iset (1). This son was declared his heir before Tuthmosis ii died at the age of 29 or 30.
His mummified remains give evidence of a systemic illness, possibly from tooth decay, an affliction quite common in that period. He was heavyset, without the characteristic Tuthmossid muscular build, but his facial features resembled those of his warrior father. No tomb has been discovered, but his mummy was found in the cache of royal remains at deir el bahri.
Tuthmosis III (Menkheperre) (d. 1425 b.c.e.)
Fifth ruler of the Eighteenth Dynasty, called “the Napoleon of Egypt”
He reigned from 1479 b.c.e. until his death. He was the son of tuthmosis ii and iset (1), a harem woman, and was named heir before Tuthmosis II’s death. On later monuments he inscribed an almost miraculous account of that event. The god amun was supposed to have forced the bearers of his sacred ark to kneel during a festival celebration. The ark was saluting a novice of the temple, Prince Tuthmosis, serving a type of novitiate in a separate cult reserved for the princes of Egypt. Amun and the bearers of the sacred ark prostrated themselves in front of the prince, and Tuthmosis iii rose up as the heir to the throne.
He was, however, too young to rule at the time of his father’s death and hatshepsut, Tuthmosis’s queen, was named regent. She allowed Tuthmosis’s coronation and perhaps married him to her daughter, neferu-re. Two years later, however, with the help of her courtiers and the priests of Amun, led by hapuseneb and senenmut, she took the throne in her own name, adopting masculine attire, and became queen-pharaoh. Tuthmosis iii was allowed to wear the robes and crowns of a king, but he was relegated to the background. That situation continued until c. 1469 b.c.e., when Neferu-Re and Senenmut died, leaving Hatshepsut vulnerable. she died or was otherwise removed from power and Tuthmosis came to full powers.
He had conducted some military campaigns during Hatshepsut’s reign, and he had spent a great deal of time preparing the land and naval forces of Egypt for his own expeditions. Tuthmosis iii began his true reign by attacking the king of kadesh, a northern Mediterranean region, and his allies. Territories throughout western Asia were in revolt, and Tuthmosis iii had to combat them in order to reestablish Egyptian suzerainty. He led his own regiments, sending ships to the Palestinian coast to meet him, and faced the army at the fortress of Ar-megiddo, Armageddon. The Asiatics expected that he would attack them directly, but Tuthmosis turned direction at Aruna and took his troops single file over Mount carmel, surprising the enemy from behind. The Egyptian cavalry, much feared in this era, sent the panic-stricken Asiatics fleeing into Ar-Megiddo.
Tuthmosis iii laid siege to the fort as a result, building a wall around the outer defenses. He left a token force there while he raided the lands of the neighboring rulers and chieftains. The campaign lasted only a few weeks, and on his return to Thebes, Tuthmosis iii stopped with his troops to harvest the crops of the Asiatics. Egypt was flooded with treasure, tribute, and dignitaries from every land and city-state in the region as a result of its newly gained imperial status.
Tuthmosis iii regulated the internal affairs in the nation as well, setting the standards for viziers and court officials and using their talents to launch building projects, although after a decade, many of his agents set about destroying the monuments of Hatshepsut and her cohorts in an effort to erase her memory. The demolition of the woman ruler’s monuments and the construction boom were related to Egypt’s new economic prosperity
Tuthmosis III was one of Egypt’s greatest generals. He conquered lands from the fifth cataract of the Nile to the Euphrates River, where he raised a stela, and kept his empire securely under Egyptian control. He was possibly married to Neferu-Re, who died young, and then to sitiah, a short-lived queen. meryt-re-hatshepsut became the Great Wife, and they had a son, amenhotep ii, and several daughters. Tuthmosis III also had other wives, including Queen nebetu’u (2), as well as some from other kingdoms sent as tribute or as symbols of vassalage.
He died in the 55th year of his reign and was buried in a tomb in the valley of the kings. This tomb was decorated with the cultic stick-like renditions of the am duat, the New Kingdom version of the topic of the dead. His mummified remains, damaged from vandalism and later reburied in deir el-bahri, give evidence of his having been five feet tall and of medium build. His statues depict a handsome face, lynx eyes, and a hawk-like nose.
Tuthmosis III’s Hymn of Victory
It is a monument of black granite discovered in karnak and now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. The hieroglyphs on the stela give praise to the god Amun for the pharaoh’s victories and commemorate his having reached the Euphrates River.
Tuthmosis III’s Instructions to His Vizier
This is a recorded tomb text, addressed to rekhmire, an official of Tuthmosis’s reign and discovered on the tomb of this vizier at thebes. The instructions are considered remarkable for their detailed description of the functions of government and the standards necessary for the proper administration of national affairs at all levels.
Tuthmosis III’s Military Campaigns
This is a document recorded at karnak by a scribe named Thaneni and compiled of the records made during Tuthmosis iii’s activities beyond the borders of Egypt. The first campaign was at Ar-megiddo, the fortress at Mount Carmel, undertaken in the 22nd to 23rd regnal year. The military venture was prompted by a revolt started by the king of kadesh. He and his allies waited on the road in front of the mountains, and Tuthmosis iii, despite the arguments of his advisers, took his army up and over Mount carmel, single file for 40 miles.
coming out of the pass, Tuthmosis iii camped north of Ar-Megiddo in the dark, using the banks of the Kina stream. He waited there until his entire force was prepared for battle. The enemy below saw the Egyptian force and knew that their line of retreat was interdicted. one by one they dropped their weapons and ran toward Ar-Megiddo for safety. The southern wing of Tuthmosis iii’s army was on the hill at the brook, and the northern wing was northwest of the fortress. They raced forward as the enemy threatened to enter Ar-Megiddo, some having to climb up clotheslines to reach safety.
Tuthmosis iii’s troops stopped to gather up the abandoned treasures of the foe, and Kadesh escaped. The pharaoh laid siege to Ar-Megiddo. He erected a wall called “Menkheperre-is-the-surrounder-of-the Asiatics” and then left a small force to maintain a siege. The Egyptians took Tyre in phoenicia (modern Lebanon) and other cities, before Tuthmosis iii returned to Thebes to celebrate the Feast of opet.
In his 24th regnal year, Tuthmosis made an elaborate march through palestine and syria. There he was assured of the loyalty of the local rulers. Tributes were sent by the Assyrians and other conquered domains. The following year Tuthmosis made a second inspection tour, harvesting crops and gathering botanical specimens. other similar campaigns followed.
In his 29th regnal year, Tuthmosis iii led his forces to Tripolis in southern phoenicia. some cities in syria and Lebanon were revolting against Egyptian rule. The Egyptians feasted on fruits and grain harvests from the local areas, and phoenician vessels were taken. The troops of Tuthmosis iii returned to Egypt by water. They carried gold, lead, copper, jewels, slaves, wines, incense, and oils to the Nile.
The following year’s campaign was undertaken when Tuthmosis iii sailed with his army to simyra, near Kadesh. The king of Kadesh was still at liberty and still in rebellion, arousing the phoenicians and others. Tuthmosis iii gathered up the princes of several city-states and nations to educate them in Thebes. once again the Egyptians harvested crops and brought back treasures.
In his 31st regnal year, Tuthmosis iii returned to phoenicia, where he put down a revolt and received tribute and the homage of the syrians. He also garrisoned and stocked forts and outposts. The harbor of phoenicia served as bases for inland raids and punitive assaults.
The 33rd regnal year was the time of Tuthmosis iii’s greatest Asiatic campaign, his conquest of the area of the Euphrates River. Tuthmosis iii crushed Kadesh and subdued other coastal cities before moving into the Euphrates area. He brought boats and rafts with his troops in order to move his units across the river. There he fought at carchemish and entered the lands of the Naharin, allies of the Syrians. The mitannis defended the city of carchemish. At the Euphrates, Tuthmosis erected a stela beside that of tuthmosis i, his grandfather. Babylonian ambassadors approached him at this time, offering tributes. The hittites also offered gifts.
On the way back to the Phoenician coast, Tuthmosis iii hunted elephants and was almost killed by a charging bull. General amenemhab saved the pharaoh by hacking at the elephant’s trunk and taking Tuthmosis iii to a hiding place in the rocks on the riverbank.
In his 34th regnal year, Tuthmosis conducted an inspection tour and received tribute from cyprus. In the next year he returned to the phoenician coast to defeat rebels at a site listed as Araina. prisoners, horses, chariots, armor, gold, silver, jewelry, wild goats, and wood were brought back to the Nile. He conducted punitive campaigns also in his 36th and 37th regnal years, and returned to phoenicia in the 38th regnal year. cities near the Litany River were in revolt, and punitive raids and battles subdued them. cyprus and syria sent tributes, and Tuthmosis iii replenished his local garrisons.
Tuthmosis III, the “Napoleon of Egypt,” now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.
During the following year Tuthmosis III conducted campaigns against the bedouins on Egypt’s northeastern frontier. He resupplied phoenician forts and defeated a group called the shasu. in his 40th and 41st regnal years, he received tributes from cyprus, Kush (the Egyptian name for nubia, modern Sudan), and from the Syrians and Hittites.
His last campaign was conducted in his 42nd regnal year, when he was 70 years old. Tuthmosis iii entered the field yet another time against the city of Kadesh. He marched to the orontes River, where that city and Tunip were well defended. Tunip leaders set out a mare to disturb the Egyptian cavalry, but General Amenemhab stalked the animal and slit its belly, making it unappealing to the Egyptian stallions and adding to the blood lust of the horses in the battle.
During these campaigns, Tuthmosis III captured 119 cities from northern Palestine and Judaea and conquered 248 cities in northern syria as far to the east as chaboras. These campaigns have earned him the title of the “Napoleon of Egypt.”
Tuthmosis III’s Nubian
Annals Recorded at karnak, they recall Tuthmosis’s expedition through the first cataract, where he cleared the ancient canal. Tuthmosis took 17 towns and districts on this campaign. in another record 115 towns and districts are named, and on yet another list, recorded on a pylon in amun’s temple, the names of 400 towns, districts, and regions are cited.
Tuthmosis IV (Menkheprure) (d. 1391 b.c.e.)
Eighth ruler of the Eighteenth Dynasty, associated with the Great Sphinx at Giza
He reigned from 1401 b.c.e. until his death. The son of amenhotep ii and Queen teo, Tuthmosis IV saw military duty at the naval station of pe-nefer near Memphis as a prince. He also led an armed tour of syria and palestine and received the title of “conqueror of syria” for his efforts. Tuthmosis iv fought in Nubia as a young man and proved himself courageous.
When he took the throne of Egypt he was faced with rebellions in syria and in the lands below the cataracts. He was politically involved in the growing rivalry between the emerging state of Hatti, the hittites, and the mitanni Empire and sided with the Mitannis, a choice that would plague the Nineteenth Dynasty. Tuthmosis IV married a Mitanni princess to seal the alliance. When Assyria threatened the Mitannis, Tuthmosis IV sent them gold to help pay for their defense.
Peace brought Egypt prosperity, however, and Tuth-mosis IV restored and embellished many buildings, including an obelisk of tuthmosis iii at karnak. That pillar had been lying on its side for three decades; Tuth-mosis IV raised it and added an inscription at its base. He erected as well a small mortuary temple and a station for the bark of the god amun. As a prince, he had also restored the Great sphinx at giza, and a legend evolved out of that event. Not the designated heir, Tuthmosis IV rested beside the Great Sphinx while on a hunting trip. He heard the sphinx complain about its pitiful condition. Tuthmosis IV was told that if he restored the Great sphinx he would become pharaoh. He refurbished the site and left a stela between the paws of the Great sphinx to commemorate the dream and the work accomplished.
His wife was Queen mutemwiya, considered by some to have been a mitanni princess. His heir was amenhotep iii. Tuthmosis IV died at an early age, wasted from some illness, possibly dental infections. His tomb on Thebes’s western shore was a great complex of underground passages, stairways, and chambers, and he had a yellow quartzite sarcophagus. His burial chamber was not decorated, but painted scenes were used in other rooms. The mummy of a royal prince, standing erect against the wall, was also discovered in the tomb. The burial hall was designed with pillars and a sunken crypt with a granite sarcophagus.
His mummified remains show that he had well-manicured fingernails, pierced ears, and a full head of hair. Tuthmosis IVs feet were broken off by tomb robbers who were looking for golden amulets and jewels in his mummy wrappings. His remains were found in the cache in the tomb of amenhotep ii.
Tutu (fl. 14th century b.c.e.)
Diplomatic official of the Eighteenth Dynasty
He served akhenaten (Amenhotep IV; r. 1353-1335 b.c.e.) as a chamberlain, minister of protocol, and diplomat. Tutu served at ‘amarna and was mentioned in the correspondence of the era. His tomb in ‘Amarna was unfinished, but it was designed elaborately and contained reliefs of Akhenaten. Rock-cut, the tomb appears as a mastaba. The mortuary displays depict Tutu’s honors, court scenes, and religious rites.