Second ruler of the Thirtieth Dynasty
He reigned from 365 to 360 b.c.e. He was the coregent of nectanebo i and was the son of Queen udjashu. Teos started his rule by invading palestine with the aid of King agesilaus of Sparta, but they quarreled and failed in their efforts. Teos taxed the Egyptian temples to finance his military campaigns, making powerful enemies and causing a general uproar.
His cousin, nectanebo ii, realizing the damage being done to the royal line, started a battle for the throne, aided by King Agesilaus and the spartan allies of Egypt. Teos was forced to abdicate the throne and to retire in disgrace for his sacrilege and abuse of sacred funds.
This was a site in the Delta near the wadi natrun and the Rosetta branch of the Nile, the modern Kom Abu Billo. The city was the cult center for the goddess renenet but was also dedicated to hathor “the Mistress of Turquoise.”
A temple dating to the ptolemaic period (304-30 b.c.e.) was erected to honor Hathor. This temple also served as a burial place for sacred cows and was started by ptolemy i soter (r. 304-284 b.c.e.) and completed by ptolemy ii philadelphus (r. 285-246 b.c.e.). The shrine was noted for its exquisite reliefs. The nearby necropolis area serving Terenuthis contained tombs dating to the Sixth Dynasty (2323-2150 b.c.e.) through the Roman Period. During the New Kingdom Period (1550-1070 b.c.e.), the coffins were fashioned to depict the deceased reclining and had carefully formed lids.
Teti (1) (fl. 25th century b.c.e.)
Mortuary complex official of the Fourth Dynasty
He served as the superintendent of the Great pyramid of khufu (Cheops; r. 2551-2528 b.c.e.) at giza during the reign of one of that pharaoh’s successors. He is listed in his tomb as a “royal kinsman.” Teti also served as a priest in the temples of hathor and neith (1). His mortuary regalia is in the British Museum in London.
Teti (2) (fl. 16th century b.c.e.)
Aristocratic official of the Seventeenth Dynasty charged with treason He was a count of koptos, charged with treason by inyotef vii (r. c. 1570 b.c.e.) of thebes. Teti was collaborating with the hyksos, contemporaries of the Seventeenth Dynasty, who ruled the Delta regions. The koptos decree, attributed to Inyotef VII, announces the charges against Teti and the loss of his titles, lands, and assets. An individual named Neinemhet received the count’s rank and estate.
Teti (Seheptawy) (d. 2291 b.c.e.)
Founder of the Sixth Dynasty
He ruled from 2323 b.c.e. until his death. The circumstances of his coming to power are not documented, but Teti married iput, the daughter of unis, the last pharaoh of the Fifth Dynasty. court officials remained at their posts when unis died and served Teti.
Possibly a physician, Teti wrote texts that were available to manetho in the Ptolemaic Period (304-30 b.c.e.). He was the first to promote the hathor cult at dendereh, and he is listed in the turin canon. Teti commanded a census in Egypt every one or two years, and he fostered trade with byblos in modern Lebanon and with punt and nubia (modern Sudan). Devoted to osiris in his original form khentiamentiu, Teti issued a decree exempting Abydos, the deity’s cult center, from taxes.
Teti was married to kawit (1) and weret-imtes (1)
His son and heir was pepi i, and he gave his daughter, sesheshet, to vizier mereruka. Reportedly, the members of his own royal bodyguard assassinated Teti. They were possibly allies of userkare, who succeeded him on the throne.
Teti’s pyramid, called “the Prison” in modern times, was erected in saqqara and was inscribed with the pyramid texts.A sistrum was discovered in the pyramid as well as a statue of Teti, fashioned out of black and pink mottled granite. Pyramids for his queens were also part of the mortuary complex. Nobles of his reign built tombs nearby. These officials included kagemni and Mereruka. Teti’s pyramid was designed with burial shafts and his remains indicate a hasty embalming.
Tetiky (fl. 16th century b.c.e.)
Urban official of the Eighteenth Dynasty
Serving in the reign of ‘ahmose (1550-1525 b.c.e.), Tetiky was the mayor of thebes. He was also involved in the vast building programs instituted by ‘Ahmose to establish thebes as the capital of Egypt and the chief residence of his dynasty.
Tetisheri (fl. 16th century b.c.e.)
Royal woman of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Dynasties, called “the Mother of the New Kingdom”
She was the consort of Senakhtenre ta’oi (r. c. 1500 b.c.e.) at thebes and the mother of Sekenenre ta’oii and ah’hotep (1). Her grandsons were kamose and ‘ahmose, founder of the Eighteenth Dynasty and the New Kingdom (1550-1070 b.c.e.).
A commoner, Tetisheri was the daughter of a judge named Tjenna and Lady Neferu. When Ta’o I died, Tetish-eri installed her son and daughter on the throne and aided the military efforts to oust the hyksos. She maintained her leadership at the palace at deir el-ballas, north of Thebes, and lived to see Egypt free of the Asiatics, reaching the age of 70. Decrees were issued by ‘Ahmose (r. 1550-1525 b.c.e.) concerning her service to the nation.
A Theban tomb complex was erected for her, as well as a cenotaph at abydos, and estates and companies of priests ensured continuing mortuary rituals on her behalf. A statue of her is in the British Museum, but it is now regarded as having been made long after her death. Tetisheri is shown wearing the vulture headdress reserved for the royal mothers of the heirs to the throne in this monument. Her mummified remains were discovered in a coffin dating to the reign of ramesses i (r. 1307-1306 b.c.e.), indicating her reburial, probably in the Twenty-first Dynasty (1070-945 b.c.e.).
It was a fetish or cultic tree insignia, associated with the god ptah. The tetu is similar to osiris’s djed pillar, the sign of stability.
Tey (fl. 30th century b.c.e.)
Royal woman of the First Dynasty
A consort of aha (r. 2920-? b.c.e.), she was depicted in a temple relief in the shrine of the god min in panopolis, near akhmin. Tey was buried in abydos.
Thales (d. c. 545 b.c.e.)
Ionian Greek philosopher of Miletus who visited Egypt c. 580 b.c.e.
Thales studied naukratis and other Egyptian cities and expounded on his theories about water being the essence of all matter. He also predicted an eclipse of the sun on May 28, 585 b.c.e., and he was listed as one of the legendary Seven Wise Men, or Sages, of Greece. While in Egypt, he measured a pyramid by contrasting the length of its shadow with that of his walking stick’s shadow and then calculating the ratio. Thales also studied the nile floods and pursued astronomical and geometric gains made on the Nile. None of his writings have survived. He was welcomed to Egypt by apries (r. 589-570 b.c.e.).
Thaneni (fl. 15th century b.c.e.)
Court official in charge of military inscriptions in the Eighteenth Dynasty Thaneni served tuthmosis iii (r. 1479-1425 b.c.e.) as a royal scribe and had the role of supervisor of the karnak inscriptions of Tuthmosis Ill’s annals. These detailed his military campaigns and other events on the walls of the temple. Thaneni’s tomb at Thebes announced his career and honors.
It was the capital of Egypt during the New Kingdom Period (1550-1070 b.c.e.) and the seat of the Theban warrior clans, located on the eastern shore of the Nile some 400 miles south of modern cairo at modern luxor. Originally the city was called Uast or Waset and was built on a flat plain. Thebes was not important as a cult center in the early historical eras. its present name came from the Greeks, who also called the city Diospolis Magna, the “Great City of the Gods.” Homer celebrated it as the city of a hundred gates and other foreign visitors sang its praises.
During the Old Kingdom Period (2575-2134 b.c.e.), the city was a minor trading post, but the local clans kept the area secure when the First intermediate period (2134-2040 b.c.e.) brought chaos to the rest of the nation. The Theban lands of that dynasty declared their independence and gave rise to a succession of princes who waged war to unite the nomes and provinces again, with montuhotep ii (r. 2061-2010 b.c.e.) of the Eleventh Dynasty capturing the capital of the khety clan and putting an end to the civil unrest.
It is believed that Thebes served as a joint capital in that era, but the rulers appear to have taken up residence in a number of locations throughout the year. The Twelfth Dynasty, started by another Theban, amenemhet i (r. 1991-1962 b.c.e.), established a new capital on the border between upper and Lower Egypt. Governors were in residence in Thebes, ruling over the southern territories for the throne.
During the Second Intermediate Period (1640-1550 b.c.e.), when the hyksos dominated the Delta territories, the Thebans again stood firm, denying the Asiatics access to most of the southern domains. in the early days there was a truce between the two forces, and the Thebans took their herds into the Delta to graze there without incident. The Hyksos were also able to sail past Thebes to trade with the Nubians below the cataracts. The truce ended with an insulting message sent by apophis, the Hyksos ruler, to Ta’o II, the ruler of Thebes (c. 1560 b.c.e.). The Theban armies began to march on the Hyksos strongholds as a result. When Ta’o II died in battle or in an ambush, his son kamose (r. 1555-1550 b.c.e.) entered the war and rolled back the Hyksos forces. He died before taking avaris, the Hyksos capital, and was succeeded by his brother, ‘Ahmose, who evicted the Asiatics with campaigns on land and sea. He even sent his armies against the temporary stronghold of the Hyksos at Sharuhen in Palestine, once again chasing the Asiatics all the way to syria.
Luxor temple, offering a magnificent display of the New Kingdom Period (1550-1070 b.c.e.) architectural achievement and Amu-nite fervor.
As a result of this victory, the god amun received considerable support from the ruling clan, especially at karnak, and the city became the deity’s cult center. The shrines, temples, and buildings erected in Thebes gave it a reputation for splendor and beauty that lasted for centuries. All other cities were judged “after the pattern of Thebes.”
The Tuthmossids of the Eighteenth Dynasty (15501307 b.c.e.) lavished care and wealth upon Thebes, making it the nation’s capital, although Memphis remained an administrative center of government and a temporary residence of the royal clan. During the period of akhenaten (r. 1353-1335 b.c.e.) Thebes was abandoned for el-’amarna, to the north. His death, however, signaled a return to Thebes and a resumption of the building projects and adornment of the temples, shrines, and royal residences. The western shore of Thebes became a vast and beautiful necropolis, as stunning mortuary complexes were built at deir el-bahri (where Montuhotep II had erected his mortuary temple in the Eleventh Dynasty) and in the valley of the kings and the valley of the queens.
When the Ramessids came to power in 1307 b.c.e., they built a new capital, Per-Ramesses, on the site of Avaris, their clan home. Thebes, however, remained popular not only as a residence during certain months of the year but as the site of the royal burial grounds. The deity amun remained powerful as well, and the rulers continued to adorn the temples and shrines of the god throughout Egyptian history. The rulers of the Third intermediate Period (1070-712 b.c.e.) and the Late (712-332 b.c.e.) and Ptolemaic (304-30 b.c.e.) Periods did not reside solely in Thebes, but the city received benefices from these dynasties. The Romans continued to lavish shrines and adornments on the site.
Thent Hep (fl. 16th century b.c.e.)
Royal woman of the Eighteenth Dynasty
Thent Hep was a lesser-ranked consort of ‘ahmose (r. 1550-1525 b.c.e.). She was the mother of Princess Hent-Temehu.
Theocritus (d. 250 b.c.e.)
Greek creator of pastoral poetry who visited Alexandria
He was a poet from Syracuse who arrived in Alexandria during the reign of ptolemy ii philadelphus (285-246 b.c.e.). Theocritus was on the island of Cos when he wrote to Ptolemy II, asking him to be his patron. In Alexandria, he became a master of poetry, writing the Idylls, which was copied by later Latins, and other revered works. The Idylls depicts Alexandrian women at a festival.
They were the various images of animals or reptiles used by Egyptians to represent certain aspects of the nation’s deities. Particular strengths or abilities were shown in such images to define attributes of the gods. Some theophanies date to Predynastic Periods (before 3000 b.c.e.), and others evolved over the centuries. It was believed that animals, even serpents or reptiles, represented nature in a manner unknown to humans. Their species existed in modes of creation beyond the human awareness. Theophanies thus represented “the otherness” of earth’s creatures and their roles in the ongoing spans of life, called in some eras “the living images of the gods.”
Theshen (fl. 25th century b.c.e.)
Counselor of the Fifth Dynasty
He served sahure (r. 2458-2446 b.c.e.) as treasurer, counselor, and companion. Theshen was the son of zezemoneki and Lady Nubhotep. His tomb, a gift from his father, was prepared for him when he was very young. He added adornments to the various chambers as he prospered.
It was a popular amulet associated with the cult of the goddess isis, called the girdle of isis. The thet was worn by the living and the dead and was a symbol of Isis’s protection.
Thethi (fl. 22nd century b.c.e.)
Court official of the Eleventh Dynasty in Thebes
He served in the reigns of inyotef i (2134-2118 b.c.e.) and inyotef ii (2118-2069 b.c.e.). Thethi was the royal treasurer and a favored courtier during both reigns. The inyotefs ruled only Thebes and upper Egypt at that time. Thethi’s stela, the first recorded document of that dynasty, depicts the funeral of inyotef i and the ascension of Inyotef II to the throne. Thethi prepared Inyotef I’s tomb at thebes. He was buried near Inyotef I.
A site in Upper Egypt just north of abydos, called Girga in modern times, Thinis was the home of the early unifiers of Egypt, c. 3,000 b.c.e. The Thinite royal dynasties of the earlier periods dominated for centuries. A brick mastaba tomb near the site contained vases and jars with the seals of khufu (Cheops; r. 2551-2528 b.c.e.). This mastaba is at beit khallaf
At the end of the First intermediate period (21342040 b.c.e.) a battle was fought at Thinis between the Tenth and Eleventh Dynasties. The khetys of the Tenth Dynasty (c. 2000 b.c.e.) and the Thebans of the Eleventh Dynasty (2134-2040 b.c.e.) engaged in military activities there. prince Herunefer of Thebes died in the confrontation. Khety raids on Thinis and Abydos and the eventual destruction of the ancient gravesites, viewed as a sacrilege, led to montuhotep ii’s unification of Egypt c. 2040 b.c.e. and his destruction of the Khetys.
This is a term used to designate the earliest dynastic eras, dating to 2920 b.c.e., dated as well from 3150 to 2700 b.c.e. in some lists. The unifiers of Egypt marched on the Delta from thinis (modern Girga) near abydos. They were the so-called followers of horus, a militaristic people led by narmer. The Nagada ii, or Gerzean, artistic period demonstrates the advances of the Thinite nome of upper Egypt during the early period. hierakonpolis is part of this artistic era. palettes and maceheads depict the unification of the Two Kingdoms by Narmer and his predecessors. Architecturally Hierakonpolis displayed political centralization and advances in construction. The Palermo stone cites the era’s achievements, and funerary regalia from tombs supplement the documentation.
The ancient god of learning and wisdom, also called Djehuti, he was created from the seed of horus or sprang from the head of set, depending upon which cul-tic tradition was preferred. He was called “the Master of the Healing Arts,” “the Beautiful of Night,” “the Lord of Heavens,” and “the silent Being” and was also worshiped as “the Excellent scribe” and “Great of Magic.”
Thoth was usually depicted as a man with the head of an ibis, and his theophanies were the ibis and the baboon. He was also considered a moon deity and was sometimes shown carrying a scepter and an ankh. Thoth was also honored as a scribe deity at hermopolis magna and then assigned greater prominence, assuming the head of a dog-headed ape.
As the patron of the dead, Thoth wears an atef crown; as the new moon, a’ah, he is depicted in mummified form. Thoth is credited with inventing the number and the orbits of celestial bodies as the secretary of the gods osiris and re. In his astronomical role he was addressed as “the Governor of the Years,” “the White Disk,” and “the Bull Among the stars of Heaven.”
Thoth was also a protector of priest-physicians and was associated in some temples with the inundation of the Nile. His great cultic festival was celebrated on the New Year, and he was considered skilled in magic and became the patron of all scribes throughout the nation. Thoth appears in the horus legends and was depicted in every age as the god who “loved truth and hated abomination.”
He is credited with providing the epagomenal days in the Egyptian calendar and with the healing of the eye of horus. Many cultic centers honored Thoth, and he was particularly well served by the Tuthmossid rulers of the Eighteenth Dynasty (1550-1307 b.c.e.)
Thoth, topic of
This was a mysterious text, described as contained in 42 papyri and considered a treasury of occult lore, now lost to the world. The document was reportedly dictated by the god Thoth to priests and scribes and maintained as sacred secrets to be kept hidden from uninitiated eyes.
Two of the sections of the topic of
Thoth contained hymns to the god. Four were dedicated to astronomical lore, containing a list of fixed stars, an account of solar and lunar eclipses, and sections concerning the rising of the sun and moon. The skilled astronomers of Egypt had to memorize these texts. Ten rolls of the topic dealt with religious matters, supplemented by 10 more rolls dealing with priestly concerns, including obligations and regulations of the various cults. The major thrust of the topic of Thoth was philosophical, with scientific and medical texts.
No longer in existence, or at least not yet discovered, the topic of Thoth was supposed to be kept “inside an iron box, inside a bronze box, covered by a sycamore box, over an ebony or ivory box over a silver box. . . .” The topic of Thoth was supposedly hidden in an area of the Nile near koptos. Because of its occult nature, the work has been prominent in esoteric explanations of Egyptian cultic practices, even though the actual texts have never been available for modern studies.
Thuity (fl. 15th century b.c.e.)
Noble official of the Eighteenth Dynasty
Serving hatshepsut (r. 1473-1458 b.c.e.) and possibly tuthmosis i (r. 1504-1492 b.c.e.) and tuthmosis ii (r. 1492-1479 b.c.e.), Thuity was “the Overseer of the Double Gold and silver House,” the royal residence. He was the successor to ineni in many positions. A hereditary prince and count, Thuity started his court career as a scribe and steward. He led an expedition to punt and then supervised many of Hatshepsut’s building projects. Thuity held titles in the government and in the temple. He was also associated with the great barge called “Beginning of the River-User-het-Amun.” Thuity was buried at thebes.
Thunany (fl. 15th century b.c.e.)
Royal military scribe of ancient Egypt
He accompanied tuthmosis iii (r. 1479-1425 b.c.e.) on his vast military campaigns. such scribes were part of Tuthmosis Ill’s military exploits, recording marches, battles, and even botanical specimens encountered during the trek of the armies. Thunany and others could authenticate such campaigns as eyewitnesses. Their testimony was used as the basis for the inscriptions and historical records. Thunany was buried in Thebes, and his tomb contains strong images of his adventures.
Thure (fl. 15th century b.c.e.)
Military commander and viceroy of the Eighteenth Dynasty
He served tuthmosis i (r. 1504-1492 b.c.e.) in various capacities. Thure was in control of buhen, the Egyptian fortress at wadi halfa in nubia (modern Sudan). He rebuilt that Middle Kingdom (2040-1640 b.c.e.) structure and instituted advanced Egyptian defenses. Thure also became the viceroy of Nubia, called “the King’s Son of Kush.”
As viceroy, Thure directed the digging of wells, the refurbishing of forts and trade centers, and police operation. He was provided with an elite team of soldiers called “the Brave Ones,” who crossed 110 miles of desert to protect a series of wells. As a result, Thure knew the area and the customs of the local populations. Thure advised Tuthmosis I during his campaign to kurgus at the fourth cataract. He had started his career in the reign of amenhotep i (1525-1504 b.c.e.) and provided decades of loyal service to the pharaohs of this historical period.
Thuthotep (fl. 19th century b.c.e.)
Princely governor of the Twelfth Dynasty
He served in the reigns of amenemhet ii (1929-1892 b.c.e.), senwosret ii (1897-1878 b.c.e.), and senwosret iii (1878-1841 b.c.e.) as the governor of hermopolis (Khemenu) nome, called the Hare province. Thuthotep’s father was Prince Kei, or Key, whose father, Nehri, lived to such an advanced age that he stepped aside and allowed Thuthotep to take succession.
The tomb of Thuthotep at el-bersha, famous for its decorations, contains a unique painting depicting the delivery of a colossal statue. The relief shows more than 170 warriors from Thuthotep’s nome pulling the statue in four double rows. The colossus was quarried at hatnub and sent to hermopolis where it was erected in its designated place. The statue is believed to have weighed 60 tons, standing more than 22 feet high. Thuthotep was the official overseeing the safe delivery of the colossus. Priests, soldiers, and other nome officials were involved as well.
Ti (fl. 25th century b.c.e.)
Royal barber and overseer of the Fifth Dynasty
Ti served kakai (r. 2446-2426 b.c.e.)
as a royal barber and overseer of royal lands. He married Princess ne-ferhetepes (2), Kakai’s daughter, and their sons inherited the rank of prince. Ti served also as the steward of the funerary complexes of dynastic rulers. His elaborate mastaba was discovered in saqqara, and the entrance to his tomb has a pillared vestibule and an open pillared court. stairs descend to a subterranean passage that leads to an antechamber and burial room. Princess Neferhetepes was buried with Ti. The tomb has vivid reliefs, including a scene depicting a hippo hunt. A serdab, agricultural paintings, and a false door add to the tomb’s splendor. A painted limestone statue of Ti, six foot five inches in size, was also recovered.
Tia (1) (fl. 13th century b.c.e.)
Royal woman of the Nineteenth Dynasty
She was the daughter of seti i (r. 1306-1290 b.c.e.) and Queen tuya, and the sister of ramesses ii (r. 1290-1224 b.c.e.). Tia married an official, also named Tia, the son of a scribe, Amenwhosu, and they had a daughter, Mut-ma’atnefer. The tomb of Tia in Memphis was fashioned out of limestone and contained magnificent reliefs. The site was designed with a porch and a court, two tomb chapels, a shrine, and an exterior pyramid.
Tia (2) (fl. 13th century b.c.e.)
Royal woman of the Nineteenth Dynasty
She was the consort of the usurper amenmesses (r. c. 1214 b.c.e.) and the mother of siptah (r. 1204-1198 b.c.e.). Tia may have been a widowed consort of merenptah (r. 1224-1214 b.c.e.).
“Time of the Gods” This was a romantic Egyptian term used to designate the Predynastic Periods before 3,000 b.c.e. The term also referred to the reigns of certain deities, particularly solar gods and goddesses. These deities were believed to have abandoned their earthly powers to reside in the heavens. The “Time of the Gods” added specific dignity and authority to older traditions or rites, providing them with divine origins. As the various cults evolved over the centuries, the original purposes and customs prevailed because they came into existence in the “Time of the Gods.”
Timotheus (fl. third century b.c.e.)
Athenian priest historian who was summoned to Alexandria
He was from a priestly family in Athens and was requested by ptolemy i soter (r. 304-284 b.c.e.) to come to Alexandria to assist in uniting the Egyptian and Greek pantheons of the gods. Timotheus arrived in the new capital and began work with manethon,who was also an adviser. His family had ties to the rites of the Greek gods Demeter and persephone, and he was also familiar with the shrines and oracles at Eleu-sis and Delphi. using Timotheus’s advice, ptolemy i established the cult of serapis, the Egyptian Osiris-Apis, and made the deity the patron of the ptolemaic Dynasty.
It was a lake in the eastern Delta of Egypt, adjacent to the site chosen for the modern suez canal.
Titi (fl. 12th century b.c.e.)
Royal woman of the Twentieth Dynasty
She was a consort of ramesses iii (r. 1194-1163 b.c.e.). Titi was buried in the valley of the queens on the western shore of Thebes. Her tomb, cruciform in shape, is small but elaborately decorated.
Tiye (1) (fl. 14th century b.c.e.)
Powerful royal woman of the Eighteenth Dynasty
The consort of amenhotep iii (r. 1391-1353 b.c.e.), Tiye held considerable power during her husband’s reign. she was the daughter of yuya, a commoner priest of akhmin, and Thuya, a servant of Queen mutemwiya. Tiye probably married Amenhotep iii when she was 12 years old. intelligent, hardworking, and aware of the needs of the empire, Tiye held administrative posts to assist her somewhat indolent spouse. Her name appeared on official acts and even on the announcement of Amenhotep iii’s marriage to a foreign princess.
Giving birth to Tuthmosis, the original heir who did not survive long enough to become coregent, and to akhenaten, Tiye also had several daughters, baketamun, sitamun (2), hennuttaneb, Nebtiah, and Iset.
Amenhotep iii erected a pleasure complex in malkata on the western shore of Thebes, including a palace for Tiye. He then retired to the complex, allowing Tiye to conduct the imperial affairs and to direct royal officials. Tiye was even mentioned by foreign kings in their correspondence. she was widowed at the age of 48 and joined Akhenaten in ‘amarna.
Many portraits were made of Tiye, who was depicted as having a high forehead, prominent cheekbones, wide-set, heavy-lidded eyes, and a pouting lower lip. she was buried at Thebes, and a controversy has developed over her tomb and mummified remains.
Tiye (2) (fl. 12th century b.c.e.)
Royal woman of the Twentieth Dynasty who plotted a royal assassination
She was a low-ranked consort of ramesses iii (r. 1194-1163 b.c.e.) of the Twentieth Dynasty. She plotted his assassination with accomplices and was caught and condemned. Tiye was the mother of Prince pentaweret and tried to slay Ramesses iii and to overthrow ramesses iv, the heir. She enlisted the aid of many court officials and military commanders as she arranged the murders.
The plotters struck while Ramesses iii celebrated the first day of the 32nd year of his reign. Discovered and investigated, Tiye and her harem cohorts managed to corrupt the judges and officials studying her case. The matter was finally decided in court. Tiye disappeared immediately afterward and was probably executed. pentaweret reportedly was allowed to commit suicide.
Tiye (3) (Tyte) (fl. 11th century b.c.e.)
Royal woman of the Twentieth Dynasty
She was the consort of ramesses x (r. 1112-1100 b.c.e.) and the mother of ramesses xi and Princess baketwerel ii. Also listed as Tyte, she was a daughter of ramesses ix.
Tiye-Mereniset (fl. 12th century b.c.e.)
Royal woman of the Twentieth Dynasty
She was the consort of sethnakhte (r. 1196-1194 b.c.e.), the founder of that royal line. Her name meant “Tiye, Beloved of isis.” she married sethnakhte before he became the ruler of Egypt, and she was the mother of ramesses iii.
Tjel it was a site on the border of Egypt, modern Tell Abu seifa, and one of the frontier outposts. Tjel was heavily fortified and had a series of wells. See also tcharu; wall of the prince.
A people depicted in ancient Egyptian texts as a blond or red-headed and fair-skinned strain of Libyans, the Tjemehu lived in the western desert and took part in invasions and campaigns during the New Kingdom Period (1550-1070 b.c.e.) and in later historical periods.
He was an unusual deity of Egypt, worshiped in busiris and mendes, the personification of the popular amulet associated with the god osiris and representing that deity’s spinal cord or backbone. Tjet was depicted in the ani papyrus. Figures of the deity were made of gold, crystal, porcelain, or gilded wood. Tjet appeared in the miracle plays conducted by the osirian cult priests at abydos.
Tjueneroy (fl. 13th century b.c.e.)
Building official of the Nineteenth Dynasty
He served ramesses ii (r. 1290-1224 b.c.e.) as a director of royal monuments. Tjueneroy conducted his duties in Memphis and in per-ramesses, the new capital of the dynasty. He was the author of a valuable king list.
Tlepolemus (fl. second century b.c.e.)
General of the Ptolemaic Period who brought down a palace cabal Tlepolemus was a military official in the reign of ptolemy v Epiphanes (205-180 b.c.e.) who altered the course of history by opposing palace conspirators. He was the governor of pelusium on Egypt’s eastern frontier when he heard that Queen arsinoe (3), the mother of young Ptolemy V, had been murdered. A courtier named agath-ocles (2) was responsible. sosibius, an official who was part of the original plot, had served as guardian of ptolemy v and had retired. Agathocles became the royal guardian in his place, an event that enraged Tlepolemus and started him marching toward Alexandria with an army.
In the streets of Alexandria, the people witnessed the arrival of Tlepolemus and his forces and joined them at the palace. Agathocles, seeing the mob and Tlepolemus, resigned hastily and fled the scene. The boy ruler was taken to a stadium, and there, Tlepolemus announced the crimes. ptolemy v agreed to the mob’s demand for Agath-ocles’ blood and the elevation of Tlepolemus to the role of guardian. Agathocles was slain by the angry Alexandrians, and his sister and other family members were also torn to pieces. Tlepolemus took charge of ptolemy v’s future. He was dismissed from the guardianship a short time later.
This was a site on the eastern banks of the Nile south of Thebes, serving as a cultic center for the god montu. senwosret i (r. 1971-1926 b.c.e.) erected a temple to that deity at Tod. Artifacts bearing the seals of amenemhet ii (r. 1929-1892 b.c.e.) were also discovered on the site, including cylinders and cuneiform inscriptions. The temple was obviously built on the foundation of an earlier shrine, dating to the old Kingdom period (2575-2134 b.c.e.). Tod remained an active center even in the Roman Period, after 30 b.c.e.
ptolemy viii euergetes ii (r. 170-163, 145-116 b.c.e.) added a sacred lake to the temple in his era as well. The temple approach was designed with an avenue of sphinx figures and a way station for the sacred bark of Montu. tuthmosis iii (r. 1479-1425 b.c.e.) presented the station to the complex. The nearby necropolis of el-moalla served Tod.
They are a collection of silver vessels discovered in the temple of montu at tod, south of Thebes. These date to the reign of amenemhet ii (19291892 b.c.e.) and are of Asiatic design. Secured inside four bronze boxes, the Treasures of Tod include silver cups of Aegean and Levantine design, Babylonian cylinder seals, and lapis amulets. They were objects placed in the foundation of the Montu temple.
The evolving grave sites and structures erected by the Egyptians for their mortuary rituals and for the internment of their dead, the early tombs of the Egyptians, in both the north and south, were dug out of the soil on the fringes of the deserts. several such burial sites have been discovered, and one entire setting is now in the British Museum. The bodies were laid in the ground with pottery, personal items, and weapons, following the customs of other primitive peoples throughout the world. in time, however, the funerary offerings and the regalia accompanying the corpses demanded larger receptacles, as the mortuary rituals became more sophisticated. The Egyptians began building mastabas, tombs made out of dried bricks, with shafts and burial chambers dug into the ground. The main level of the mastaba contained a room for ceremonies and then an additional room, a serdab, used to position a statue of the deceased so that his spirit could witness the services being offered in his name. The step pyramid at saqqara started the phase of royal pyramids, but these vast complexes, some the size of small cities, were reserved only for royalty and their immediate associates. commoners and the lesser nobles of the land continued to build their tombs at the edge of the desert, although cliff tombs were popular in many nomes. others built mastabas in the desert, and these were accompanied by cenotaphs, false tombs constructed for religious purposes, to honor a particular god or region. such cenotaphs were discovered in the necropolis areas of abydos and at gebel el-silsileh.
Temples were used in conjunction with tombs eventually, and it became evident that such sites were vulnerable to robbers. amenhotep i (r. 1525-1504 b.c.e.) decided to use the cliffs in the valley of the kings on the western shore of thebes as his burial site. Others in the dynasty imitated him, and the valley of the queens was also opened for the royal women and princes. The tombs of these individuals were maintained by mortuary priests, contracted and supported by the will of the deceased or by royal decree. The priests performed daily rituals of offerings and prayers at these sites, and entire families continued in service at the tombs as hereditary priests.
Tomb balls clay documents discovered in ancient Egyptian tombs, all marked with the hieroglyph for “contract” or “seal,” these balls are believed to have represented the contracts drawn up on behalf of the deceased and his or her family with the mortuary priests. Such priests were commissioned to continue daily mortuary rituals at the tombs. Some of the tomb balls contained bits of papyrus and linen. These balls were probably deposited in the tombs of the deceased by the mortuary priests as symbols of the contracts drawn up for future services.
The elaborate paintings depicting Ramesses II (r. 1290-1224 b.c.e.) in his glorified eternal role in the Valley of Kings site.
Tomb of the Birds
This is a burial site located in the causeway of the pyramidal complex of unis (r. 2356-2323 b.c.e.) in saqqara. The mastaba belonged to nefer-horen-ptah, a Fifth Dynasty official. The Tomb of the Birds contains agricultural scenes and depictions of caged birds in vivid settings.
Tomb of the Warriors
It is a burial site at deir el-bahri, on the western shore in Thebes, that dates to the reign of montuhotep ii (2061-2010 b.c.e.). The remains of 60 soldiers who died in the service of Montuhotep II’s reunification campaigns were buried in this rock-cut crypt. The bodies were not mummified but were preserved by elements within their tomb. They were buried close to Montuhotep II’s royal mortuary complex, a high honor. These soldiers may have performed a service of valor or may have been part of an elite military unit used by Montuhotep ii with success.