Royal woman of the Twentieth Dynasty
she was the wife of prince Montuhirkhopshef, a son of ramesses iii (1194-1163 b.c.e.). Takhat was the mother of ramesses ix.
Takhat (3) (fl. sixth century b.c.e.)
Royal woman of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty
She was a consort of psammetichus ii (r. 595-589 b.c.e.). Takhat may have been the mother of apries.
Takheredeneset (fl. sixth century b.c.e.)
Royal woman of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty
She was the mother of amasis (r. 570-526 b.c.e.). A commoner by birth, Takheredeneset watched her son’s military career. Amasis usurped the throne from Apries after the Egyptian army revolted over foreign battles, but his mother may have died before this occurred.
They were small stone blocks used in the ‘amarna Period, in the reign of akhenaten (1353-1335 b.c.e.) in his capital. The name of the stone is taken from the Arabic for “hand breaths” or may be a variation of the italian tagliata, or “cut stonework.” The talatat blocks were fashioned out of sandstone and normally had beautiful decorative reliefs. When Akhenaten died and
‘Amarna was abandoned, the talatat blocks were removed from the original site and used by successive rulers for their own construction projects. They have been identified at such sites as karnak and hermopolis magna.
Tale of Khufu and the Magicians A series of literary texts found in the westcar papyrus and sometimes called King Cheops and the Magicians. The tale in this cycle records the stories told by khufu (Cheops; 2551-2528 b.c.e.) at his court. Delightful images of pharaohs sailing in gilded barges with beautiful maidens cast only in fishnets and details of magical spells compose the stories, but the important element is a prediction about the births of the first three pharaohs of the next dynasty, the Fifth (2465-2323 b.c.e.).
Tale of Prince Setna
A literary text discovered in the Ptolemaic Period (304-30 b.c.e.) but concerning a supposed son of ramesses ii (r. 1290-1224 b.c.e.) of the Nineteenth Dynasty. Prince Setna sees a woman named Tabubna, the daughter of a Bastite priest. Losing his heart to her, setna enters into a life of servitude and eventual horror. Tabubna has cast a spell on him and forces him to undertake torments and bear shame, eventually killing his own children. At the end of the tale setna wakes up and discovers that he was only dreaming. He is safe and free of his devouring love for Tabubna.
Tale of the Doomed Prince it is an Egyptian literary work dating to the New Kingdom Period (1550-1070 b.c.e.) and found in the Harris papyrus 500 from the reign of ramesses iv (1163-1156 b.c.e.). This is a story of an Egyptian prince among the mitannis. He finds true love with a princess of that land but faces three fates. Love and loyalty are the main elements of the tale, but the resolution is missing, leaving the reader pondering the prince’s final destiny. The tale is incomplete in extant form.
Tale of the Shepherds it is a fragmented text now in a papyrus in the Egyptian Museum, in Berlin. Also called the Tale of the Herders, the work relates how shepherds discover a goddess in a shrub along the Nile. The goddess alarms the shepherds, who run to the local chieftain and inform him of their encounter. The chieftain returns with them to the scene, where he chants spells that force the goddess to leave the shelter of the shrub. she then “came forth, terrible in appearance.” What happens at this point is unknown as the ending of the tale has been lost.
Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor Discovered in a papyrus from the Middle Kingdom (2040-1640 b.c.e.), it is the story of an expedition returning by sea from the southern domains of Egypt or possibly from a trade expedition. A sailor recounts the adventures that took place when his boat was damaged and sank during a storm. He alone survived the ordeal, swimming to an island. A gigantic snake ruled the island, the only survivor of its species after an attack by comets or a falling star. The serpent counseled the sailor and inspired in him patience and valor. When a ship came within sight of the island, the serpent restored him to his fellowmen, with gifts of ointments, myrrh, animals, and other precious objects that the sailor delivered to the pharaoh.
The papyrus upon which the tale was copied is in the Hermitage collection in St. Petersburg, Russia. It is noted for its detailed account of the voyages undertaken in the areas of the Red and Mediterranean seas, especially the trips to punt. The tale was written by a scribe, Amen-a’a, the son of one Amenti.
Tale of Two Brothers It is a text found in the Papyrus d’orbiney in the British Museum in London. Considered one of the finest examples of Egyptian narrative literature and dated to the Nineteenth Dynasty (1307-1196 b.c.e.), the story is an account of the adventures of two Egyptian deities. Anup, believed to represent anubis, and Bata (or Batu), a Predynastic god, are caught in a triangle when Anup’s wife tries to seduce Bata and fails. In revenge she claims that he assaulted her. Anup sets out to kill Bata, who flees.
The god shu, seeing that evil is taking place, separates the two with a stream filled with crocodiles, and there, Bata explains what really happened. Anup, ashamed, goes home to kill his wife and to throw her to the dogs. Bata goes on a journey and has many adventures, siring a future ruler of Egypt. His journey is religious in nature and much beloved by the Egyptians for its didactic overtones. The tale was reported to be in the library of seti ii (r. 1214-1204 b.c.e.).
This was the Egyptian word for “the Land of the inundation” and the name for Egypt used by the native population.
Tanis This is the modern Sa’el Hagar, located in the western Delta on an enormous mound at Lake menzala, an important port. The site was once sacred to the god set and was a nome capital. The Egyptians called it Dja-net, Djarnet, or Dj’ane. Tanis became important during the Twenty-first Dynasty (1070-945 b.c.e.) and the Twenty-second Dynasty (945-712 b.c.e.), but the hyksos were also in the region during the second intermediate Period (1640-1550 b.c.e.) and a shrine on the site contains the seals of ramesses ii (r. 1290-1224 b.c.e.).
The great temple of amun in
Tanis contains six royal tombs, three of them found intact. The main portion of the tomb and 15 obelisks date to Ramesses ii, and the gate of the shrine to the reign of shoshenq iii ( 835-783 b.c.e.).
Another temple on the site was erected in the Thirtieth Dynasty (380-343 b.c.e.). This shrine had a lake on the northeastern corner and was made out of granite with palmiform columns. A limestone gate erected by ptolemy i soter (r. 304-284 b.c.e.) was also discovered. Attached to this Amun complex was a temple dedicated to the god horus, with additional chapels for the deities mut, khons (1), and astarte (Ishtar), who was a canaanite goddess.
Royal tombs were uncovered as well in the area of Tanis in deep chambers. osorkon ii (r. 883-855 b.c.e.) was buried in a chamber of granite, with adjoining limestone rooms. takelot ii (r. 860-835 b.c.e.) was also discovered in this tomb, which had osirian decorations. The tomb of psusennes i (r. 1040-992 b.c.e.) contained his royal remains and those of psusennes ii (r. 959-945 b.c.e.), amenemope (r. 993-984 b.c.e.), and shoshenq ii (r. 883 b.c.e.). An unidentified mummy was also found there.
The remains of psusennes i were found buried in a pink granite sarcophagus with a mask of gold, all probably usurped from earlier burial sites. A silver coffin was discovered as well inside the sarcophagus and the remains of shoshenq iii (r. 835-783 b.c.e.) had been deposited there.
Tanis Sphinxes They are figures made for amenemhet iii (r. 1844-1797 b.c.e.) in conjunction with the local cult rituals conducted in the faiyum and other regions. This sphinx form is a recumbent lion with outstretched paws, a human face, and a large leonine mane. The ears of the Tanis sphinxes were large. This type of sphinx was brought to Tanis during the Ramessid Period (1307-1070 b.c.e.) and remains associated with that site. hatshepsut (r. 1473-1458 b.c.e.) was memorialized as a Tanis sphinx.
A monument erected by ptolemy ii philadelphus (r. 285-246 b.c.e.), the stela depicts him and his consort arsinoe (2). The ruler wears the red and white crowns of Egypt and carries a scepter. Arsinoe is shown wearing the red crown with isis plumes, the horns of hathor, and the horns of amun. She carries a scepter and an ankh.
Tanqur It is a site in nubia (modern Sudan), located about 75 miles above the second cataract of the Nile. An inscription erected there in the reign of tuthmosis i (1504-1492 b.c.e.) depicts that pharaoh’s hand-to-hand battle with a local chief during a military campaign. This expedition, which ultimately continued on to Tombos, took place in Tuthmosis i’s second regnal year. The viceroy of Nubia serving Tuthmosis i erected the monument to commemorate the event. Tanqur has dangerous outcroppings, making travel on that part of the Nile perilous.
Tantamun (1) (fl. 11th century b.c.e.)
Royal woman of the Twentieth Dynasty
She was the consort of ramesses xi (r. 1100-1070 b.c.e.) and the mother of Princess tantamun (2) and Princess henuttawy.
Tantamun (2) (fl. 11th century b.c.e.)
Royal woman of the Twenty-first Dynasty
The consort of smendes (r. 1070-1044 b.c.e.), Tantamun was the daughter of ramesses xi and Queen tantamun (1).
Tanutamun (Bakare, Tantamani) (d. c. 655 b.c.e.)
Fourth ruler of the Nubian Twenty-fifth Dynasty He reigned from 664 b.c.e. until 657 b.c.e. He then retired from Egypt and possibly ruled for a time in nubia (modern Sudan). Tanutamun was a nephew of taharqa, who had suffered defeat at the hands of the Assyrians. When assurbanipal attacked Egypt and looted thebes, Tanutamun retired to Nubia. He had won back Thebes, aswan, and Memphis prior to Assurbanipal’s invasion. In that campaign he put necho i to death in 664 b.c.e. and forced psammetichus i to flee to Assyria.
A stela inscribed in gebel barkal depicts
Tanuta-mun’s coronation at Napata in 664 b.c.e. Called “the Dream Stela,” this monument also details Tanutamun’s dream of two snakes. He believed this vision symbolized that he would rule both upper and Lower Egypt. Tanuta-mun was buried at Nuri, the royal necropolis in Nubia.
Ta’o I (Senakhtenre, Djehuti’o) (d. c. 1540 b.c.e.)
Ruler of the Seventeenth Dynasty, at Thebes
The dates of his reign are not known. Ta’o i apparently usurped the throne of Thebes from inyotef vii and was possibly related to inyotef v. Ta’o ruled contemporaneously with the hyksos but maintained control of Egypt as far south as aswan.
His queen was a commoner, tetisheri, who outlived him and directed the course of Theban affairs for decades. He also married a Queen mentjuhotep. Ta’o I and Tetisheri resided at deir el-ballas, north of Thebes. His children included ta’oii and Princess ah’hotep (1). Ta’o i, called the Elder, was the third ruler of a second group of the Seventeenth Dynasty. He was buried in Thebes.
Ta’o II (Sekenenre, Djehuti’o) (d. 1555 b.c.e.)
Second to the last ruler of the Seventeenth Dynasty at Thebes Called also “the Brave,” Ta’o II ruled from an unknown date until c. 1555 b.c.e. as a contemporary of the hyksos at avaris. The son of ta’oi and Queen tetisheri, Ta’o II married Queen Ah’hotep (I), who bore him two sons, kamose and ‘ahmose, and many daughters. He also had lesser consorts, ‘ahmose-in-hapi and henutempet.
Around 1554 b.c.e., Ta’o II received a message from the hyksos king apophis (r. 1585-1553 b.c.e.), complaining that the sacred hippopotami in the temple pool at Thebes kept him awake at night. The message, contained in the sallier papyrus II and called the quarrel of apophis and sekenenrE (ta’oii), was obviously a calculated error. Apophis’s residence at avaris was more than 400 miles to the north, which meant that the announcement was politically nuanced, perhaps a provocation.
Ta’o II responded instantly by starting military campaigns against the Hyksos holdings. He met a violent death, probably at the hands of enemy attackers during this campaign. His mummified remains, buried originally in dra-abu el-naga, and then placed in the royal mummy cache at deir el-bahri, clearly demonstrate the ferocity of the attackers.
Ta’o II suffered five major wounds, including two axe cuts that caused a skull fracture, a blow to the bridge of his nose, a blow to the left cheek, and another to the right side of his head. His ribs and vertebrae were also damaged. His attackers used axes, spears, and possibly arrows. Ta’o II must have been assaulted while asleep, as the arms and hands bore no wounds. His mummified remains indicate that Ta’o II was slender and muscular, with long black curly hair and a healthy set of teeth. He was buried in a large anthropoid coffin with the rishi design.
This is a site at dendereh, demonstrating the Middle Paleolithic Period culture now called Taramsa. Various artifacts were recovered there, as well as the remains of a small child, dating to c. 55,000 b.c.e.
Tarif, el- it was a site on the western shore of the Nile, the northernmost necropolis of thebes. Large and filled with monuments, Tarif was connected to the mortuary complex of montuhotep ii (r. 2061-2010 b.c.e.). The site was constructed in a rock court and contained “saff” tombs, taken from the Arabic for “row.” Tombs from the Eleventh Dynasty, as well as the Old Kingdom Period (2575-2134 b.c.e.) mastabas, were found there. The three most impressive tombs belong to inyotef i (r. 2134-2118 b.c.e.) at Saff el-Dawaba, inyotef ii (r. 2118-2069 b.c.e.) at Saff el Kisasiya, and inyotef iii (r. 2069-2061 b.c.e.) at Saff el-Bagar. These tombs had doors and pillared facades.
It was a site in the faiyum region of the Nile, located on the western bank in an area called the lower valley. The necropolis there dates to the old Kingdom Period (2575-2134 b.c.e.). Predynastic tombs were also built in Tarkhan, where mortuary regalia and the names of various rulers, including narmer, were unearthed.
Tarset (fl. 28th century b.c.e.)
Royal woman of the First Dynasty
She was the consort of ‘adjib (c. 2700 b.c.e.). The ranking queen, Tarset was also the mother of semerkhet, the heir. she was probably the ranking heiress of the Memphis clans, married to ‘Adjib to consolidate his political claims to the throne.
Tasedkhonsu (fl. 10th century b.c.e.)
Royal woman of the Libyan Twenty-second Dynasty
She was the consort of osorkon i (r. 924-909 b.c.e.). The ranking queen, Tasedkhonsu was the mother of takelot i, smendes iii, and Prince iuwelot.
Tatenen (Tenen, Ta-tonen)
He was an earth deity of Egypt, also called Tenen, or Ta-tonen. Tatenen was believed to have emerged from the watery abyss as “the Lord of Creation” and was worshiped in Memphis. His name meant “the Risen Land,” and he was also called “the Revered one.” Tatenen always carried two staffs that he brought into the world to repel the serpent from the great primeval mound. He also carried a mace, called “the Great White of the Earth Makers,” the cultic origin unknown, and the weapon was dedicated to his son, the falcon. This mace had magical powers and in some historical periods was worshiped as a separate deity. The famous djed pillar was brought into the world by Tatenen, as well as another amulet called “the Similitude of the Front of the God.” Tatenen became associated with the cult of ptah and his djed pillar became a popular symbol of osiris.
Tawaret (Taueret, Thueris)
Also called Thueris by the Greeks, she was the patroness of childbirth in ancient Egypt. Tawaret was normally depicted as a hippopotamus, sometimes dressed in the robes of a queen and wearing a lion’s mane and a crown. Her head had the shape of a crocodile’s snout and she had the feet of a lion.
Tawaret was also shown as a hippopotamus with the head of a lion. in this form she carried daggers that she used to smite the spiritual and physical enemies of Egypt. Tawaret carried the sa amulet. Her cult center was at Thebes and she remained popular during celebrations at opet (modern luxor), where a Beautiful Feast of Tawaret was conducted each year.
It was an Egyptian fortified city near modern El-Qantara, bordering the sinai Peninsula. The site was located on the way of horus, a military highway used by the Egyptians. Tcharu was renamed Sile by the Greeks during the Ptolemaic Period. The city was an outpost on the military road that led through the bitter lakes and Arish to Gaza in Palestine. A canal dating to the reign of Necho ii was fortified when it was built, and Tcharu had protected wells and compounds to defend it from bedouin or Asiatic attacks.
Tchay (Tchoy) (fl. 13th century b.c.e.)
Court official of the Nineteenth Dynasty
He served merenptah (r. 1224-1214 b.c.e.) as a royal scribe of dispatches. His tomb on the western shore of Thebes was discovered at khokha and celebrated for its size and decorations. Tchay’s tomb contains reliefs of the topic of the Gates, a mortuary text, and portraits of amenhotep i (r. 1525-1504 b.c.e.) and Queen ‘ahmose-nefer-tari. These royals had been deified during the Eighteenth Dynasty. Other reliefs depict a tree goddess, scenes of the celebration of the festival of sokar, baboons adoring the rising sun, and a solar boat. Portraits of Tchay and his family were included.
Teachings of Tuaf
This was a text used in Egyptian schools in the New Kingdom Period (1550-1070 b.c.e.). The text was copied by students and used to inspire scribes. It appears to be a version of the satire on trades. Texts from older eras remained ever popular and were used in educational and religious settings in all historical periods.
It was a site in the faiyum region of Egypt, the modern omm el-Borigat. Tebtynis was a cult center of the god sobek and contained a temple honoring that deity. The temple dates to the Middle Kingdom period (2040-1640 b.c.e.) and was designed with a square tanklike lake in the main courtyard. crocodiles, the theo-phanies of sobek, were probably maintained in this lake. Reliefs dating to the Ptolemaic Period (304-30 b.c.e.) were discovered in a vestibule of the temple. The shrine was enclosed by a mud-brick wall. A treasure trove of papyri was discovered at Tebtynis.
Tefibi (fl. c. 21st century b.c.e.)
Aristocrat of the Ninth Dynasty who was accused of sacrilege
He served in the reign of khety iii (date of reign unknown) and was a nobleman of assiut. Tefibi joined Khety III in plundering tombs in the abydos region while on a campaign against the Thebans. This act of sacrilege brought the ruler and Tefibi shame and prompted the Thebans to begin the reunification of Egypt, ending the Khety rule. Tefibi’s tomb in Assiut was shared by his sons, khety i and ii, and is located in a cliff overlooking the area. He was a disciple of the wolf or jackal deity wepwawet.
Tefnakhte (Shepsesre) (d. 717 b.c.e.)
Founder of the short-lived Twenty-fourth Dynasty at Sais He ruled from 724 b.c.e. until his death. Tefnakhte held the areas called “the Four chiefs of Ma,” Libyan enclaves. These were sebennytos, busiris, mendes, and Pi-Sopd. He was allied with osorkon ii and iuput ii of tanis and leontopolis when the Nubians (modern Sudanese) began their invasion of Egypt. When piankhi entered Egypt with his Nubian troops, Tefnakhte went to herak-leopolis to defeat him. Piankhi easily routed the Egyptian coalition forces, however, and osorkon ii and other allies surrendered.
Tefnakhte fled to Memphis and was captured there and exiled to a remote area of the Delta. He swore allegiance to Piankhi, but in 720 or 719 b.c.e. he declared himself sole ruler of Egypt. A stela from his era shows him worshiping the goddess neith (1). Tefnakhte was succeeded on the throne by his son bakenrenef (Boccho-ris) in 717 b.c.e.
she was an ancient Egyptian goddess, honored as the twin sister and consort of shu. Originally she was the consort of a god named Tefen, but his cult disappeared. As Tefen’s wife, she was called Tefent. Tefnut personified moisture, rain, and dew and also had a place in solar cults. She was associated with ptah at heliopolis. Tefnut served as a means by which ptah brought life into the world.
In historical periods, Tefnut was associated with the goddess ma’at and represented the space between heaven and earth. With Ma’at, Tefnut was sometimes viewed as a spiritual force rather than a divine being. she was depicted as a lioness or as a woman with a lion’s head. Tefnut supported the sky with shu and received the newly risen sun each morning.
A brown-skinned people depicted in ancient art as a Libyan tribe from the libyan desert, the Tehenu were involved in the various Libyan attempts to invade Egypt’s Delta region throughout the centuries.
A mortuary symbol made of reeds and fashioned to represent a human being with or without a head, the tekenu was placed on a sled and pulled by oxen to funerals. There the oxen were slain and the tekenu burned. The ritual dates to the earliest eras of Egypt and may have commemorated the ceremonies in which courtiers, prisoners of war, and other individuals were sacrificed to accompany royal persons to the grave. The tekenu assumed any guilt assigned to the deceased and purified the newly departed for eternity. See also mortuary rituals.
It was a site in the eastern Delta, part of the hyksos encampment at avaris during the Second
Intermediate Period (1640-1550 b.c.e.) and settled as early as the Thirteenth Dynasty by the Asiatics. Hyksos-style residences, tombs, and statues have been found at Tell el-Dab’a, along with hundreds of artifacts from the period of Hyksos domination.
It was a fortified site in the eastern Delta, east of tell el-dab’a. The area was populated and given defensive structures during the Middle Kingdom Period (2040-1640 b.c.e.), possibly serving as a component of the fortifications called the wall of the prince.
It was site northwest of modern El-Sim-belawein in the Delta. The Egyptians called the area Per-banebdjedet, “the Domains of the Ram Lord.” It was historically listed as mendes.
It was a site in the eastern Delta, north of el-LiSHT. The hyksos occupied the territory during the Second Intermediate Period (1640-1550 b.c.e.). Pottery from Palestine, Syria, and Crete were discovered there. The Hyksos traded extensively and did not maintain eastern borders during their period of occupation of the Delta.
Tell Ibrahim Awad it was a site in the eastern Nile Delta containing five temples that date to the Predynastic Period (c. 3000 b.c.e.). These temples held some 1,000 ritual objects, but little is known of the titular deities worshiped there. A ceramic baboon found on the site links the area to the god thoth, but no documentation confirms this. The five temples were uncovered under a Middle Kingdom Period (2040-1640 b.c.e.) shrine. A tomb dating to the First Dynasty (2920-2770 b.c.e.) and containing funerary objects was also constructed on the site. An adjacent settlement, also Predynastic, has been unearthed as well in the area.
He was a solar deity of Egypt, the offspring of nun, primeval chaos. He was also called Re-tem and was associated with the cult of re, depicting the setting sun. His name probably translated as “to be complete.”
Tem (2) (fl. 21st century b.c.e.)
Royal woman of the Eleventh Dynasty
She was the ranking consort of montuhotep ii (r. 2061-2010 b.c.e.). The mother of montuhotep m,Tem died young or retired and was replaced by neferu (1). Tem’s tomb at deir el-bahri, on the western shore of thebes, is large and beautiful. Alabaster slabs form her resting place, positioned on a sandstone base.
It was a region in nubia (modern Sudan) cited in the inscriptions of harkhuf at abydos. Harkhuf served pepi II (r. 2246-2152 b.c.e.) as an expedition leader. He was made famous when he brought a dancing dwarf to Pepi II, who was quite young at the time.
They were miniature stone shrines serving as cultic insignias of the gods. one such model was discovered at tell-el yahudiyeh, dating to the reign of seti I (1306-1290 b.c.e.) of the Nineteenth Dynasty Temple models were fashioned with pylons, statues, halls, and even obelisks, and were placed in shrines as tributes to the deities. The models were inscribed with the name of the donor and were called the “holy of holies.” Others were blocks built out of stone, with holes that were fashioned to allow the devotees to insert obelisks, walls, pylons, statues, and other traditional temple adornments.
They were the cultic ceremonies conducted at ancient Egyptian shrines and temples over the centuries. Normally the rites began with the offering of incense at the noon hour, although in some eras the rites began early in the morning, especially if attended by the king personally. The incense offered in the morning was myrrh when that substance was available. At night the incense was of a type called kyphi. The censer used in the ceremony was a bronze pan, which contained pellets burning in a heated dish or bowl.
A temple kiosk, a unique shrine form used at Philae in the Ptolemaic Period (304-30 b.c.e.).
The priests dressed and cleaned the god’s statue and shrine each day. Most statues of the gods were clothed in colors deemed appropriate to their particular cult or region. Food was then offered to the god. The trays of vegetables, meat, fruits, breads, cakes, etc., were taken the next day to the various mortuary complexes in the region or to the tombs of the deceased Egyptians who had contracted with priests to conduct daily rituals on their behalf.
When the god’s meal ended, the temple was swept, scrubbed, and then closed. The floors of the temple were normally sanded and washed every day by lesser-ranked priests. At night the god was again saluted and offered gifts and tributes, but the sanctuary, the chamber in which the image of the god rested, was not opened a second time. it was enough for the priests to recite the prayers and hymns in front of his shrine.
When the god was taken out of the temple for a procession or a visit to another temple, the queen or ranking woman of the area escorted or greeted the statue. sistrums, drums, horns, and other musical instruments accompanied the god and were played during cultic ceremonies.
They were the gathering place for Egyptian cultic rites, religious structures considered the “horizon” of a divine being, the point at which the god came into existence during the creation. Temples had links to the past, and the rituals conducted within their courts were formulas handed down through many generations. The temple was also a mirror of the universe and a representation of the primeval mound where creation began.
originally, temples were crude huts that were surrounded by short walls or enclosures. The emblems of the gods, the totems, were placed on a pole in front of the gateway, and early temples also had two poles, bearing flags and insignias. When the Egyptians learned to batter (or gently slope) walls and to raise up enormous structures of stone, the temples became great monuments of cultic ceremonies. Temples and tombs were the only buildings in ancient Egypt to be made of durable materials because of their importance in society. some temples were created as boxlike shrines, with central courts for statues; at times they were elaborately columned, particularly the massive temples of the various state gods. still others evolved out of shrines originally made for the barks of the gods.
The basic plan of the Egyptian temple, decreed by the gods themselves, did not vary much in any given area. Most temples had a brick enclosure wall, then a pylon, the slightly battered or slanted gateway fitted with grooves for the mandatory flagstaffs. The pylons of the larger temples had doors originally made of wood, but in the later eras these were fashioned out of bronze or gold. Before the pylon was the forecourt or reception area. When the temple was opened for the occasional public ceremony, the people would enter through this court. in the early eras such courts were simple squares; in time they became great colonnades.
ELEMENTS OF THE EGYPTIAN TEMPLES
The basic elements or designs that were used in the construction and maintenance of all cultic temples on the Nile in all historic periods were all regimented from the earliest eras. Each element served a particular purpose in the cul-tic events constructed on the site, and each demonstrated the consistent power of the traditions of Egyptian history. These elements were
landing stage—a small dock on the banks of the Nile that allowed the barks of the gods to moor at the temple site. The landing stage could also include an avenue of sphinxes that connected the dock to the temple or, at times, linked one temple to another.
flagstaff—called senut and normally displayed in pairs before a temple to inform the people of the particular deity in residence in the temple. Flagstaffs, tall and made of cedar, were considered a vital aspect of any temple facade.
pylons—made to front the gates or to serve as entrances to different sections of the temple. slightly battered, or set at an angle, the pylons formed the symbol of the
horizon of each temple. statues and obelisks, as well as flagstaffs, adorned such pylons. enclosing walls—mud-brick barriers used to protect the sacred precincts of temples. These enclosed the actual complex of the cultic structures, including groves,lakes, and gardens. forecourts—areas adjoining the pylons at the main entrances or at the openings of each new section of the temple. These forecourts often contained columns and statues.
hypostyle halls—large areas that served as naves or corridors linking parts of the temple. Heavily columned, the hypostyle halls could be roofed or open to air. some of these halls sheltered barks of the gods. The columns represented the forests that were plentiful on the Nile in the early eras of settlement.
sanctuaries—small, reserved chambers that were positioned within the core of the temple. Most sanctuaries had three auxiliary chapels and were reserved to high-ranking priests. The image of the temple deity reposed there.
other vestibules, colonnades, courts, and chambers opened onto the front entrance, usually leading backward at a slight incline. The hypostyle halls that dominated the major shrines such as karnak were not inclined but part of the entrance structures. These opened onto the smaller rooms, which were never opened to the public and never used as stages for major cultic rituals. Each new section of the temple was elevated higher from the ground so that its rooms became smaller, dimmer, and more mysterious. such chambers were part of an avenue of rooms that led steadily upward to the higher, smaller, and darker sanctuaries, restricted to the initiated. The holy of holies, the single room representing the primeval Mound, was at the rear, remote, shadowy, and secure against the curiosity of the common worshipers. Few Egyptians saw such sacred chambers. The gods were hidden there from man throughout Egypt’s history.
Egyptian worshipers did not feel compelled in any era to enter the secret rooms or to gaze upon the images of the gods. They welcomed the mysterious manifestations of the divine being as they witnessed them in the cultic rites and in the architecture of the temple. The use of aquatic plant designs in the columns and lower wall reliefs alluded to the watery abyss out of which the universe was created. The river, the sun, and the verdant earth were all represented in the chambers and courts, making the temple precinct a complete microcosm.
some alterations in temple architecture were made over the centuries, but the designs conformed to the original general plan. The shrines of the Early Dynastic Period (2920-2575 b.c.e.) had three contiguous chambers leading to the sanctuary and hidden shrine of the god. During the Old Kingdom Period (2575-2134 b.c.e.) the number of such chambers was increased to five. By the New Kingdom period, the era of Karnak and other vast complexes, the temples could hold any number of chambers. The central shrines in the New Kingdom Period (1550-1070 b.c.e.) were box-like, carved out of granite blocks that weighed 50 or more tons. These temples also contained magazines, storerooms, work chambers for the priests and scribes, administrative bureaus, and a brick-lined pit for the barks of the god. The larger temples also contained sacred lakes.
When a new temple was dedicated, ritual and cultic celebrations were staged on the site, attended by the king or his representative. All of the deities of the past were depicted by priests wearing masks, or by tokens of the divine beings in attendance. Every god of Egypt thus took part in the consecration of the new shrine, as the gods had manifested themselves at the beginning of the world. There were also particular deities who were involved in the creation of new temples and were thus invoked on that solemn occasion. Rituals were held every day in the existing temples of Egypt, and the priests followed a traditional pattern of worship and service, with the accent on cleansing and purification.
Typical columned corridors leading to the Djeseru-djeseru, the sanctuaries of temples dating to the New Kingdom Period (1550-1070 b.c.e.).
It was a port facility now part of modern Cairo. Tendunyas served the ancient city of heliopolis, a suburb of cairo.
Tentamopet (fl. eighth century b.c.e.)
Royal woman of the Twenty-second Dynasty
She was the consort of shoshenq iii (r. 835-783 b.c.e.). Tentamopet was the mother of shoshenq v, Bakenifi, pashdebast, and pimay.
Tentopet (fl. 12th century b.c.e.)
Royal woman of the Twentieth Dynasty
The consort of ramesses iv (r. 1163-1156 b.c.e.), Tentopet was the mother of ramesses v
Tentsai (fl. eighth century b.c.e.)
Royal woman of the Twenty-third Dynasty
She was the consort of osorkon iii (r. 777-749 b.c.e.). she was not the mother of the heir.
Teo (fl. 15th century b.c.e.)
Royal woman of the Eighteenth Dynasty
A consort of amenhotep ii (r. 1427-1401 b.c.e.), she was not the ranking queen but was the mother of tuthmosis iv (r. 1401-1391 b.c.e.). He was not the original heir but survived to take the throne after a mystical episode at the Great sphinx at giza. Teo was honored in Tuthmosis IV’s reign.